PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
The smallest unit of administration during the Cholas Reign was ________
Answer:
Urr.

Question 2.
________ led the socialistic party in Chile.
Answer:
Salvador Allende.

II. Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Which of the following countries inspired other countries of the world to adopt Parliamentary system?
(i) Germany
(ii) France
(iii) England
(iv) China.
Answer:
(iii) England.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 2.
Which of the following country doesn’t have the Veto Power?
(ii) India
(ii) U.S.A
(iii) France
(iv) China.
Answer:
(i) India.

III. Write T (for True) and F (for False) Statements :

Question 1.
India is a permanent member of the Security Council of UNO.
Answer:
F-False

Question 2.
Democracy is surviving continuously in our neighboring country- Paskistan.
Answer:
T-True.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which form of ruling system is being adopted in majority of the nations of the world these days?
Answer:
These days, most of the nations adopt democratic setup of government.

Question 2.
Give the names of ideologies remained in Italy and Germany and were responsible for the set hack of democarcy after 1st World War.
Answer:
Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany.

Question 3.
When was Allende elected President of Chile?
Answer:
Salvador Allende was elected the President of Chile in 1970 A.D.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 4.
When did the reinstallation of democracy take place in Chile?
Answer:
In Chile, democracy was installed again in 1990 A.D.

Question 5.
Who led the strike for demand of democratic rights in Poland?
Answer:
Lech Walesa led the strike for the demand of democratic rights in Poland.

Question 6.
When did the election take place in Poland for Presidentship? Who was elected President?
Answer:
In 1990, the elections were held for the post of President and Lech Walesa was elected the President of Poland.

Question 7.
WTien was the universal adult franchise given to the citizens of India?
Answer:
In 1950, with the implementation of the Indian Constitution, Universal Adult Franchise was given to the Indian Citizens.

Question 8.
Which two big continents were fell prey to Colonialism?
Answer:
Asia and Africa were the victims of colonialism.

Question 9.
When did Ghana-a country of South Africa continent become independent?
Answer:
Ghana became an independent country in 1957 A.D.

Question 10.
Which military dictator took hold of the elected Government in 1999 in our neighbouring country Pakistan?
Answer:
General Parvez Musharraf.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 11.
Give the names of two international organisations.
Answer:
United Nations Orgnisation and International Monetary Fund.

Question 12.
What is the function of International Monetary Fund?
Answer:
It provides loan to various countries for development projects.

Question 13.
How many countries are members of the UN?
Answer:
UN has 193 member countries.

Question 14.
Give the names of different ruling system prevailing in the world.
Answer:
Monarchy, totalitarianism, authoritarianism, dictatorship, military dictatorship and democracy.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by adult Franchise?
Answer:
All the Indian citizens, irrespective of their caste, gender, varna, race etc after attaining a fixed age, are given a right to vote in elections. It is known as Universal Adult Franchise. In India, citizens after attaining the age of 18 years, without any discrimination, are given right to vote.

Question 2.
Write a note on the democracy at local level in Chola Kingdom.
Answer:
To run the administration smoothly, Chola rulers divided whole of their kingdom into different units and such administrative units had independent rights. To run the local administration they started a Samiti system which was known as ‘Wariam System’. Different Samitis were formed for different purpose. The smallest unit of administration was ‘Urr’ and to run its administration a samiti of 30 members were elected by the adults of Urr for one year. Each Urr was divided into wards whose members were elected by the people.

Question 3.
What is the meaning of ‘Veto Power’? Give the names of countries having Veto Power.
Answer:
The meaning of Veto Power is to ‘say no’. It means that who so ever is given the right to use Veto Power, no resolution can be passed without its approval. Five members of the Security Council of U.N.O. have the right to use veto power. If any of the five members of the Security Council uses veto, against any resolution, it cannot be passed. The Countries with veto power are-United States of America, England, Russia, France and China.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 4.
Write a brief note on the history of democracy in our neighbouring country Pakistan.
Answer:
Pakistan was formed in 1947 by dividing India and its history of democracy is not good. Army in Pakistan is quite powerful and it is quite influential in its politics. In 1958, Prime Minister Firoz Khan Noon was removed by the Army head General Ayub Khan who became head of the country. After this, in 1977, popular and elected Prime Minister Zulfikar Ah Bhuto was again removed by Army General Zia-Ul-Haq and declared himself as the President of Country. In the same way, in 1999, elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was overthrown through a military coup by then Army General Parvez Mussharaf. In 2002, MusshaTaf declared himself as the President of Pakistan. In this way from time to time democratic governments were overthrown by the Army Generals.

Question 5.
Write brief note on the history of democracy in Chile.
Answer:
Chile is a South American country in which Salvador Allende’s Socialist party won President’s elections in 1970. Allende became the President of Chile and he started doing many welfare works for the people, brought many reforms in education and did many works which were opposed by the multi-national companies. On 11 September, 1973, Army head General Augusto Pinochet overthrew the government in which Allende was killed. Power came in the hands of General Pinochet. After ruling the country for 17 years, Pinochet conducted a referendum in which people voted him out of power. In 1990, elections were conducted in the country and democracy was restored in the country.

Question 6.
Who played a great role for the freedom of Ghana-a country of African continent? What was the influence of freedom of Ghana on other countries of African continent?
Answer:
Ghana got independence from the British in 1957 A.D., A person Kwame Nkrumah played the most important role in its freedom struggle. During the freedom

struggle, he along with the people, got the country independent. He became the first Prime Minister and later on the President of country. Ghana’s freedom had a great impact on the other African countries which got motivated by its independence. They along with the passage of time also got freedom from other colonial countries.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on International Monetary Fund.
Answer:
International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are known? Brentton Wood institutions. International Monetary Fund started its economic operations in 1947 A.D. The decision making process of these institutions is controlled by the western countries. U.S.A. holds the major voting rights of I.M.F. and the World Bank.

This institution gives credit to different countries. It has 188 members and each country has voting rights. The power of giving vote for each country is fixed by the monetary contribution given by it to the institution. 52% voting rights of I.M.F. are controlled only by 10 countries and these are U.S.A., Japan, Germany, France, England, China, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Canada and Russia. As a result, 178 members have very less rights of taking decisions in the institution. In this way we can say that the decision making process in this institution is not democratic.

Question 2.
Write a note on United Nations Organization.
Answer:
United Nations Organization is an international organization which was formed after second world war on 24th October, 1945. It had 51 original members and India was one of them. United Nations was a result of those efforts which were made by keeping in mind the world peace and to stop further wars. Presently it has 193 members.

United Nations has a Parliament which is known as United Nations General Assembly. Here each country is given equal voting rights and members here discuss all the issues related to the problems of world. The meeting of general Assembly is presided over by the Chairman. United Nations has one Secretriate whose head is known as ‘Secretary General’. All the decisions are taken by consulting the concerned members. It has six organs and these are General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and the Secretriate.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 3.
Explain in brief the development of democracy in ancient period of Greece and Romans.
Answer:
If we look at the beginning of democracy in the whole world, it begin in the Greece and Roman republics. During ancient times, the cities of Greece had direct democracy, population of these states was quite less. The administrative decisions of the state were directly taken by the people. All the citizens of the state took part in the decision making process of making laws to solve economic, political and social problems, to pass annual budget of the state and to frame public policy.

But this democracy was a limited democracy because a large part of population of the state was of slaves. Slaves were not allowed to take part in the administrative functions of the state. Although the Roman Kings were elected by the people but they run the administration according to their will. Theoretically kings represented whole of the population but practically they run the administration according to their wish.

Question 4.
“Multinational Companies are posing a threat to democracy in the modern era.” Explain the statement.
Answer:
The present age is of globalisation and there has been an increased inter dependency between different countries. Many multinational companies have come forward which work and trade in different countries. But the question arises whether such companies are a threat to democracy?

Presently, most of the doveloping and under developed countries have adopted globalisation and open market policy. Under this policy, multinational companies are doing their business. The major motive of such companies is to earn more and more profit and consequently they continuely increase the price of their products. Such companies always try to exploit the people in one way or the other which is actually against the spirit of democracy.

Although our governments call themselves democratic but they are actually run by business sector. These multinational companies are completely controlled by business sector and they make government policies in ther favour. That’s why rich are becoming more rich and poor are becoming more poor. But this is actually exactly opposite to the spirit of democracy. In this way, such companies are a threat to democracy.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Democracy exists :
(a) In 70 countries
(b) In Europe only
(c) In the majority countries of the world
(d) In the whole world.
Answer:
(c) In the majority countries of the world.

Question 2.
Who was the President of Chile, when his government was overthrown on 11 Sept. 1973?
(a) Salvador Allende
(b) Michelle Bachelet
(c) General Augusto Pinochet
(d) Lech Walesa.
Answer:
(a) Salvador Allende.

Question 3.
Military coup took place in Chile on :
(a) 11 September 1975
(b) 21 September 1976
(c) 11 September 1973
(d) 11 September 1974.
Answer:
(c) 11 September 1973.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 4.
Poland had its first election in :
(a) April 1989
(b) October 1990
(c) April 1990
(d) October 1992.
Answer:
(b) October 1990.

Question 5.
Who was elected the President of Poland in 1990?
(a) General Augusto Pinochet
(b) Salvador Allende
(c) Michelle Bachelet
(d) Lech Walesa.
Answer:
(d) Lech Walesa.

Question 6.
In which year referendum was held in Poland on Pinochet’s military dictatorship?
(a) 1995
(b) 1988
(c) 1992
(d) 1982.
Answer:
(b) 1988.

Question 7.
In 1980 in Poland which was the ruling party?
(a) Solidarity Party
(b) Polish Socialist Party
(c) Communist Party
(d) Polish United Workers’ Party.
Answer:
(d) Polish United Workers’ Party.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 8.
Which one of the following was the feature of Walesa government of Poland?.
(a) No interference in economic affairs
(b) Foreign intervention in domestic affairs
(c) Govt, .control on all big industries
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) No interference in economic affaris.

Question 9.
Which of the following was the feature of Allende government of Chile?
(a) Widespread corruption
(b) Free Market
(c) Govt, control on big industries
(d) Foreign Intervention in domestic affairs.
Answer:
(c) Govt, control on big industries.

Question 10.
Which of the following was the common feature of Allende government of Chile and Michelle’s Chile?
(а) Power was exercised by the military rulers
(б) Direct democracy
(c) Rule of few persons
(d) Power was exercised by government elected by the people.
Answer:
(d) Power was exercised by government elected by the people.

Question 11.
Which of the following is a feature of Democracy?
(a) Franchise based on Property qualification
(b) Frachise based on educational qualification
(c) Landlords are the voters
(d) Universal Adult Franchise.
Answer:
(d) Universal Adult Franchise.

Fill in the Blanks:

Question 1.
Democracy begin in ________ the ________ and republics.
Answer:
Greece, Roman

Question 2.
The system of running the local administration under the Chola rulers was known as ________
Answer:
Wariam

Question 3.
________ said that the democracy is a govt, of the people, for the people and by the people.
Answer:
Abraham Lincoln

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 4.
A new country ________ was formed by dividing India in 1947.
Answer:
Pakistan

Question 5.
In Poland ________ was dismissed from the job in 1976 for demanding higher wages.
Answer:
Lech Walesa

Question 6.
In ________, Allende was elected as the President of Chile.
Answer:
1970

Question 7.
Universal Adult Frenchise was given in ________ with the implementation of its constitution.
Answer:
India.

True/False:

Question 1.
Iraq gained independence in 1932 from the American colonialism.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
The 52% voting rights of I.M.F. are with the 10 countries.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
America became the only superpower in 1991 with the disintegration of U.S.S.R.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
15 members of the security council hag the veto power.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 5.
There were 100 primary members of the united nations.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
United Nations Organisation has 193 members.
Answer:
True

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When the government of President Salvador Allende was over thrown and who was the leader of military coup?
Answer:
The government was overthrown by General Augusto Pinochet on 11 Sept. 1973.

Question 2.
Does army has the right to arrest any one?
Answer:
No, army does not have the right to arrest anyone.

Question 3.
When did General Pinochet in Chile conduct referendum?
Answer:
General Pinochet conducted referendum in 1990 in Chile.

Question 4.
When was political freedom restored in Chile?
Answer:
In 1990.

Question 5.
Which party ruled Poland in 1980?
Answer:
Polish United Workers party ruled Poland in 1980.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 6.
Was there any other political party in Poland except Polish United Workers party?
Answer:
No, as no other party was allowed in Poland.

Question 7.
Who was elected as the President of Chile in January 2006?
Answer:
Michelle Bachelet.

Question 8.
Which trade union did strike in Poland in 1988?
Answer:
Solidarity did strike in Poland in 1988.

Question 9.
Give one feature of a non-democratic government.
Answer:
Here government is not elected by the people.

Question 10.
In 19th century, democracy in which country was constantly changed and was re-established again?
Answer:
In France, there was a complete turmoil during whole of the 19th century.

Question 11.
Name the two countries where non-democratic governments still exist.
Answer:

  1. North Korea
  2. China.

Question 12.
Which form of government mostly prevails in most of the countries?
Answer:
Presently, most of the countries prefer democratic form of government.

Question 13.
Which country was disintegrated in 1991 and it formed 15 independent countries?
Answer:
In 1991, U.S.S.R. was disintegrated and there formed 15 independent nations.

Question 14.
In which Asian country, a democratically elected government was dismissed in 2005?
Answer:
In 2005, the new king of Nepal dismissed her democratic government.

Question 15.
When was United Nations Organisation established?
Answer:
On 24th October, 1945.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 16.
Write names of all the organs of the United Nations.
Answer:
General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and the Secreteriate.

Question 17.
Give one basic objective of the United Nations.
Answer:
United Nations was established on the theory of equality among nations.

Question 18.
Name the permanent members of the Security Council.
Answer:
USA, U.K., Russia, France and China.

Question 19.
How many members of the United Nations are there?
Answer:
United Nations has 193 members.

Question 20.
Who gives credit to the members of U.N. if any need arises?
Answer:
International Monetai’y Fund and the World Bank gives credit to the members of U.N. if any need arises.

Question 21.
Which organ of the United Nations have the real power?
Answer:
Security Council.

Question 22.
What is Referendum?
Answer:
Referendum is the process in which laws made by the parliament are kept in front of public to know their opinion. Law will be applicable only if it is approved by the public.

Question 23.
What do you mean by the coalition government?
Answer:
When many political parties come together to form the government, it is called the coalition government.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 24.
What do you mean by coup?
Answer:
When a government is illegally thrown out of power, it is called coup.

Question 25.
What is the meaning of strike?
Answer:
When workers stop working to get their demands met it is called strike.

Question 26.
What do you understand by Trade Union?
Answer:
Group or union of workers is called trade union. It works for the welfare of workers.

Question 27.
When did workers strike at Lenin shipyard in Poland ?
Answer:
They did strike on 14th August, 1980.

Question 28.
Why did workers of Lenin shipyard do strike?
Answer:
The workers of Lenin shipyard did strike for illegally removing a woman Crane worker.

Question 29.
Presently, which type of government is there in Nepal and Pakistan?
Answer:
Presently there are democratic governments in Nepal and Pakistan.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which political work you were not allowed to do during the regime of Polish Workers Union Party of 1980 which you can do in your country?
Answer:
In 1980, few political functions were not allowed in Poland:

  • In Poland, it was not allowed to start a political party as it was ruled by a single party.
  • People had no right to elect the leader of the communist party according to their wish.
  • People had no freedom to elect and criticise the government.
  • People had no freedom of speech and to express their views.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 2.
Do you think it is good to elect someone as the President for life? Or is it better to hold regular elections after every few years?
Answer:
It is not good to elect someone as the President for life. This is not democratic. Someone elected as the President for life become dictator and corrupt. The best example is of Ghana’s president N, Krumah. The elections of the President must be held after a regular interval of 4 or 5 years, so that people must elect their ruler freely at regular interval.

Question 3.
Do you think that the American invasion of Iraq encourages democracy? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Answer:

  • The American invasion of Iraq in no way encourages democracy.
  • No country has the right to interfere in the internal matters of other countries. Invasion cannot led to the establishment of democracy.
  • No external force can establish democracy in the other state for a longer period of time. People have to struggle themselves for the establishment of democracy.

Question 4.
Give four important features of democracy.
Answer:

  1. People elect their rulers themselves.
  2. Elections to elect the rulers are held after a fixed period of time.
  3. Democracy gives us a chance to correct our mistakes.
  4. People have the freedom of speech, to express their views and to form associations.

Question 5.
Write a short essay on the life of Aung San Suu Kyi.
Answer:
Myanmar (Burma) got freedom in 1948 and became a democratic country. But the democratic government was overthrown in 1962 and military rule was established. Elections were held in 1990. Aung San Suu Kyi was the national leader of Myanmar. Suu Kyi was the leader of National League for democracy. National League for democracy won the election under the leadership of Suu Kyi.

But military ruler instead of handing over the government to the elected leader, put all the leaders including Suu Kyi under house arrest. However Suu Kyi continued her campaign for democracy. According to her, “The quest for democracy in Myanmar is the struggle of the people to live whole, meaningful lives as free and equal members of the world community. She has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.”

Question 6.
“At the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, few countries were not completely democratic.” Give two reasons in its favour.
Answer:
On the following two basis we can say that at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of 20th century few countries *Were not completely democratic :

  1. Females had no voting rights in the countries like Switzerland, England, France.
  2. In the United States of America, Black people had no voting right.

Question 7.
How was democracy restored in Poland?
Answer:

  1. In 1988, to keep power with himself, Chile’s military rulers conducted a referendum.
  2. Democracy and the welfare works done by Allende were still fresh in the minds of the people. That’s why Pinochet lost the referendum.
  3. In Chile, President’s elections were held after 17 years and an elected person became the President of the country.

Question 8.
Explain the process of establishment of democracy in Poland?
Answer:

  1. In 1980, workers of Lenin Shipyard went on strike and the government was forced to sanction the strike.
  2. Workers formed their union called solidarity.
  3. Workers again conducted a strike again in 1988 which greatly pressurised the government.
  4. Finally government decided to hold elections in which communist government was defeated and solidarity formed the government.

Question 9.
What do you know about solidarity?
Answer:

  1. Solidarity was a worker’s organization formed by the workers of Poland.
  2. This organization was formed after a treaty signed between the workers and government.
  3. Within one year of its establishment, its members increased upto one crore.
  4. In 1989, elections were held in Poland in which solidarity won 99 out of 100 seats. Its leader Lech Walesa formed the government.

Question 10.
What was the impact of the end of colonialism on the newly independent nations after the cold war?
Answer:

  1. Newly independent countries had to face lot of problems in the establishment of their government and political institutions.
  2. Most of the newly independent countries adopted the democratic form of government but democracy did not get a success in these countries.
  3. In most of these countries, military rule was established and democracy came to an end.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 11.
What do you know about the decline of the U.S.S.R.?
Answer:

  1. After 1917, a communist government was formed in Russia. Due to many of its policies, U.S.S.R. was disintegrated in 1991 and divided into 15 independent nations.
  2. These newly independent countries adopted democratic system to remove communist system of government.
  3. Most of these republics recognised and adopted the multi party system.
  4. The impact of U.S.S.R. on the Eastern Europe completely came to an end.

Question 12.
Give some ways to establish a democratic set up at the international level.
Answer:

  • For the establishment of a democratic set up at the International level, there is a need to make international institutions more democratic.
  • People must be given political, social and economic rights so that they can live a happily life.
  • From time to time, independent and impartial elections must be conducted.
  • People must have the freedom of speech and expression.

Question 13.
Why did President Allende continually talk about the laborers? Why were rich people not happy with him?
Answer:
President Allende continuely talked about the interests of the labourers. He made many laws in the interests of labourers such as change in the educational system, distribution of land to peasants and providing free milk to children. For their welfare, he continuely to talk with the workers. Rich people were not happy with president Allende because they did not like his policies of public welfare.

Question 14.
Why did most of the countries gave right to vote quite late? Why did this not happen in India?
Answer:
Most of the countries gave females the right to vote quite late because they were not considered equal to males. In India, they took part in the freedom struggle along with males. During this time, many positive and democratic values came forward in India. In these values, females were considered equal to males. That’s why females got voting rights straight away with the formation of the constitution.

Question 15.
Why is direct democracy not possible in the present age?
Answer:
In modern times, direct democracy is not possible. Its reason is that the modern states are large in size and their population is in crores. It is not possible to adopt direct democracy in such countries. In a country like India, such a system is not possible because having a referendum is not an easy task and laws cannot be made by asking questions. It takes crores to conduct general elections in the country and it is a time-consuming process as well. That’s why it is not possible to implement the institution of direct democracy over here.

Question 16.
What do you mean by Adult Franchise?
Answer:
The meaning of universal Adult Franchise is the right to vote to the adult citizens of the country in an impartial and free manner. The age of achieving adulthood is fixed, by the state Initially this age was 21 years in England but later on they changed it to 18 years. This is also 18 years in the U.S.A. and Russia. In India also, initially, it was 21 years but by the 61 Constitutional Amendment, it was changed to 18 years.

Question 17.
Give two reasons in favour of Universal Adult Franchise.
Answer:

  1. Power is in the hands of the people. In democracy, power is in the hands of the people and administration is run with the wish and welfare of the public. So, everyone should have the right to vote.
  2. Everyone is under the effect of laws.’ Whichever laws are made in the state, they influence everyone equally. That’s why everyone should have the right to make laws.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
“Democracy has continuely progressed during the 20th century.” Explain the statement.
Answer:
Present age is the age of democracy. Democracy in most of the countries have been evolved through out the 20th century. There is no part of the world in which democracy has not been progressed.

Europe, Asia, Africa, South America every where democracy has been established.

  1. Britain. It has been said that democracy in Britain was established with the Glorious Revolution on 1088. But actually it was established in 20th century. Adult franchise was implemented in England in 1928 A.D.
  2. France. French revolution took place in 1789 A.D. but democracy was established gradually in phases. During 18th and 19th centuries, gradually the powers of kings and Feudal Lords were reduced. A maximum number of people were given right to vote. But actual democratic set up was established to 1944 A.D. with the implementation of adult franchise.
  3. The U.S.A. America declared itself independent in 1776 A.D. With the freedom of other states, United States of America was formed. The Constitution in U.S.A. come into force in 1787 and democracy was established. Adult franchise in U.S.A. was established in 1965.
  4. New Zealand. Adult franchise, in New Zealand, come into force in 1893.
  5. End of Colonialism. After the second world war, many of the Asian and African countries gained freedom from British imperialism. India gained independence on 15th August, 1947 and then democracy was established over here. In the same way democracy was also established in Pakistan, SriLanka and Ghana.
  6. The disintegration of U.S.S.R.. In 1991, the elsewhere USSR was disintegrated USSR was divided into 15 independent nations and democracy was established over there.
    Presently more, than 140. countries are democratic countries but many countries have military dictatorship or rule of one party.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 2.
What did Augusto Pinochet do after becoming the President of Chile?
Answer:
After becoming the president of Chile, Augusto Pinochet did many non-democratic functions :

  • Pinochet established his dictatorship in Chile.
  • He killed many of the supporters of Allende.
  • Pinochet arrested wife and daughter of General Bachelet, Airforce chief, and send them to Jail.
  • He killed Airforce head General Bachelet and other officials.
  • He killed almost 3000 innocent persons.

History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Since ancient times, there have been many types of administrative systems in the whole world such as Monarchy, Dictatorship, Authoritarianism, Totalitarianism but democracy is most prevalent in the modern world.
  • Democracy in the whole world started in the republics of Greece and Rome where direct democracy was available. Here citizens of the state directly participated in the decision-making process of administration.
  • During ancient times in India, many states adopted the republican system. During the times of Chola Kings, there had been some sort of democracy at the grass root level.
  • Medieval period is also known as feudal period when feudal lords were of great importance. Consequently, democracy did not have a chance to come forward.
  • During modern times, the autocratic systems of kings were challenged and their powers were either removed or restricted by the Parliament.
  • 20th century is known as the golden era for democracy when after the end of imperialism, many countries established democracy as the alternate system to imperialism.
  • After second world war, many countries got freedom from the imperialist powers and they established democracy. India was one of such countries.
  • In Chile, Salvador Allande established democracy and did many works of social welfare. But rich people didn’t like his works and with the help of army general Augusto Pinochet, overthrew Allende’s government and established military rule over there. After 17 years of his rule, Pinochet decided to have referendum from the public which they opposed and he was forced to relinquish the power.
  • Poland was a communist country where workers did a strike that spread on a large scale. Government accepted their demands and workers formed a trade union called ‘Solidarity’. In 1989, independent elections were held in Poland in which solidarity won complete majority. In this way, democracy was established in Poland.
  • Many Asian and African countries were the victims of Colonialism and European countries made them their calonies. After second world war, when their power was reduced, colonial countries started giving freedom to their colonies. India was one of such country. Ghana in Africa was the first country which gained independence from the British in, 1957 A.D.
  • At international level, there is an institution called United Nation Organisation where all the decisions are taken in a democratic way. Each country is having equal voting right. It has 193 members.
  • There is one of the six organs of the United Nations Organisation which tries to solve the disputes between the countries. Security Council has 15 members out of which 5 members (U.S.A., U.K., France, Russia and China) are the permanent members and 10 are temporary members elected for a term of two years.
  • There is another organization at an international level called the International Monetary Fund with 188 members. All these countries have voting rights in it but their power of voting is fixed according to their financial contribution to the organisation.
  • After looking at the functioning of the International Organisations although it seems that they work for the establishment of democracy but they don’t have democracy in their normal functioning.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.