PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
The directive principles of Indian Constitution have been adopted from
Answer:
Ireland.

Question 2.
__________ was the chairman of the drafting committee of Indian Constitution.
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

II. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Who was the chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
(i) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi
(iii) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(iv) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
Answer:
(iii) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

Question 2.
Republic state has a head :
(i) hereditory successor
(ii) military dictator
(iii) directly or indirectly elected by people
(iv) nominated.
Answer:
(iii) directly or indirectly elected by people.

III. Write T (for True) and F (for False) Statements :

Question 1.
Socialist, Secular and integrity words were incorporated in our Constitution by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment.
Answer:
True

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 2.
India is a sovereign, secular and democratic republic.
Answer:
True.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When did India become free?
Answer:
On 15th August, 1947.

Question 2.
“A Constitution is the collection of principles according to which Government powers, rights of the governed and the relations between the two are adjusted.” Who is the author of this statement?
Answer:
Wooles.

Question 3.
How much time was taken to draft the constitution of India?
Answer:
2 years, 11 months and 18 days.

Question 4.
How many members were there in the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
389 members (299 after 15 Aug, 1947).

Question 5.
When was the announcement of division of India made?
Answer:
It was announced on 3rd June, 1947.

Question 6.
How many members remain in the Constituent Assembly after the division of India?
Answer:
There remain 299 members in the Constituent Assembly after the division of India.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 7.
Write any two unitary features of the Constitution of India.
Answer:

  1. There is only one Constitution for both Centre and States.
  2. All the citizens are given single citizenship.

Question 8.
Write any two federal features of the Constitution of India.
Answer:
(i) Our Constitution is the written Constitution.
(ii) Powers are divided between Central and State governments.

Question 9.
Write any two freedom provided by the Constitution of India to its citizens.
Answer:

  1. Freedom to adopt any occupation.
  2. Freedom to move in any part of the country.

Question 10.
With which words the ‘Preamble of the Indian Constitution begins?
Answer:
We the people of India.

Question 11.
Which new words were incorporated to the Constitution of India under the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976?
Answer:
With the 42nd Constitutional Amendment, words Socialist, Secular and Integrity were incorporated to the Constitution.

Question 12.
Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?
Answer:
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
On which main objects the ‘Preamble to the Indian Constitution throw light?
Answer:
The Preamble throws light on the following features of the Indian Constitution.

  • It says that India is a sovereign, socialist, democratic, secular republic.
  • It resolves to give social, economic and political justice to all of its citizens.
  • It provides equality of opportunity and status and freedom to all the citizens, express, belief and profess.
  • It also declares to maintain individual integrity, national unity and integrity.

Question 2.
Which is a republic country?
Answer:
India is a republic country. The meaning of republic is that head of the country is directly or indirectly elected by the people. Head of the country is elected for a fixed period of time and there is no place of hereditary system in it. Republic is one of the important feature of the Indian Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 3.
India is a secular state, give arguments in its favour.
Answer:

  • Preamble of the Constitution has declared India a secular state.
  • All the citizens are free to profess their religion and even to change their religion.
  • Under the Right to Equality, it is said that no one will be discriminated on the basis of religion.
  • All the religions in India are treated equally and there is no state religion.

Question 4.
What do you mean by federal structure or federal government? From the Constitution of which country this feature has been taken?
Answer:
The meaning of federal structure or federal government is the division of powers between two level of government and these two levels are central government and state governments. Powers are divided between the both but central government is given more powerful. The federal structure of the’ Indian Constitution is taken from the Canadian Constitution.

Question 5.
The Constitution of India was prepared on November 26,1949 but it came into force on Jan. 26, 1950. Why the date of January 26 was fixed? Comment.
Answer:
At the Lahore session of Congress, 1929, it was decided to celebrate India’s first independence day on 26 January, 1930 although India was not independent. From then onwards, 26 January was celebrated as independence day till 1947. But in 1947, India got its real independence as 15 August. So, to keep the historical importance of 26 January, it was decided to implement the Indian Constitution on this day. In this way 26 January became the Republic day of India.

Question 6.
What is the meaning of Sovereign State?
Answer:
The meaning of Sovereign state is that the country is completely free to take decisions on its external and internal matters. Whenever country is required to form its internal policy or keeping relations with other countries, it is free from any type of pressure. No one can force the country to take any decision.

Question 7.
What do you mean by Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution has given all its adult citizens, the right to vote and this is known as Universal Adult Franchise. All the Indian citizens with the age of 18 years more are given the right to vote without any discrimination. Initially it was 21 years but with the 61st Constitutional Amendment, the age of casting vote was reduced to 18 years.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 8.
Write any four unitary features of the Constitution of India.
Answer:

  • All the Indian Citizens are given single citizenship.
  • All the governments are given single Constitution.
  • A single unified Judicial system is set up for the whole country.
  • The Indian Parliament is empowered to alter the boundaries and names of the states.
  • Governors of the states act as the representatives of Central Government and they are appointed by the Central government.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the preamble of Indian Constitution in the original form.
Answer:
We The People of India having solemly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular

  • Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizen :
  • Justice, social, economic and political:
  • Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship,
  • Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
  • Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; –
  • In Our Constituent Assembly this twenty-Sixth day of November 1949 do Hereby Adopt, Enact And Give To Ourselves This Constitution.

Question 2.
India is a secular state. Explain the statement.
Answer:
By inserting the word ‘Secular’ in the Preamble of the Constitution by 42nd amendment. India is declared a secular state in clear words. Such a system is adopted in the Constitution that India is made secular state without any doubt. Right to freedom of religion has been granted to all persons residing in India under Articles 25-28 of Indian Constitution. According to this right, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practise and propagate religion. State has no religion of its own. The state shows full neutrality in the religious matter. All this shows that India is a secular State.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 3.
What do you mean by a Sovereign State? Explain in brief.
Answer:
By sovereign means that now, after the promulgation of .the Constitution. India is not subject to any foreign rule. India is now a sovereign state, internally as well as externally. No other country can compel India to follow or not to follow a particular policy. We can now make any law, remaining of course within the limits imposed by our own Constitution. We can also amend our Constitution in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
The Constituent Assembly was set up under the recommendations of:
(a) Cripps Proposals
(b) C.R. Plan
(c) Cabinet Mission Plan
(d) Act of 1935.
Answer:
(c) Cabinet Mission Plan.

Question 2.
Which National Leader demanded in 1924 that a Round Table Conference should be called to frame a Constituent Assembly of India?
(a) Pt. Jawaharlal
(b) Pt. Motilal Nehru
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Dr. Ambedkar.
Answer:
(b) Pt. Motilal Nehru.

Question 3.
The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in :
(a) Jan. 1945
(b) July 1946
(c) August 1946
(d) Dec. 1946.
Answer:
(b) July 1946.

Question 4.
According to the Cabinet Mission Plan, the Constituent Assembly was to consist of:
(a) 285 Members
(b) 380 Members
(c) 389 Members
(d) 490 Members
Answer:
(b) 389 Members.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 5.
The Constituent Assembly was not a sovereign body in the beginning but it became a sovereign body after :
(a) July 1946
(b) 15th August, 1947
(c) 26 Jan, 1950
(d) 19th Dec. 1946.
Answer:
(b) 15th August, 1947.

Question 6.
Who was the temporary Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(b) Dr. Ambedkar
(c) Dr. Sachindanand Sinha
(d) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
Answer:
(c) Dr. Sachindanand Sinha.

Question 7.
Who was permanent Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(b) Dr. Ambedkar
(c) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Sardar Patel.
Answer:
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

Question 8.
Who moved the ‘Objective Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly?
(а) Dr. Ambedkar
(б) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Alladi Krishna Swami Ayyar
(d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
Answer:
(b) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

Question 9.
Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?
(a) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(b) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(c) Pt. B.R. Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Sardar Patel.
Answer:
(a) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

Question 10.
After a great labour, the Constitution was ready on :
(a) 26th Dec., 1949
(6) 26th Jan., 1950
(c) 25th Dec., 1949
(d) 26 Nov., 1949.
Answer:
(d) 26th Nov.,’1949.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 11.
How much time did it take to make the Indian Constitution?
(а) 1 year, 11 months and 18 days
(б) 2 years, 10 months and 18 days
(c) 2 years, 11 months and 18 days
(d) 2 years, 6 months and 18 days.
Answer:
(c) 2 years, 11 months and 18 days.

Question 12.
The Indian Constitution was enforced on :
(a) 15th August, 1947
(b) 26th Jan., 1950
(c) 9th Dec., 1950
(d) 15th August, 1950.
Answer:
(b) 26th Jan., 1950.

Question 13.
The Constitution of India was adopted by:
(a) The British Parliament
(b) The Governor General
(c) The Constituent Assembly
(d) Parliament of India.
Answer:
(c) The Constituent Assembly.

Question 14.
The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on :
(a) 26th January, 1950
(b) 25th January, 1950
(c) 26th November, 1949
(d) 25th November, 1949.
Answer:
(c) 26th November, 1949.

Question 15.
Which amendment of the Constitution added the words ‘Socialist’ and ‘Secular’ in the Preamble?
(a) 44th amendment
(b) 42nd amendment
(c) 46th amendment
(d) 50th amendment.
Answer:
(b) 42nd amendment.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 16.
What is the meaning of: “We, the people’ of India’?
(a) That the people of India are direct rulers of the country
(b) That the ultimate sovereignty is vested with the people
(c) That the power is in the hands of few.
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) That the ultimate sovereignty is vested with the people.

Fill in the Blanks:

Question 1.
The Indian Constitution was formed by the __________
Answer:
Constituent Assembly

Question 2.
The Constituent Assembly had __________ members.
Answer:
389

Question 3.
__________ was the permanent President of the Constituent Assembly.
Answer:
Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Question 4.
In India __________ administrative system is adopted.
Answer:
Parliamentary

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 5.
Parliamentary form of government in India is taken from __________
Answer:
England.

True/False:

Question 1.
The Indian Constitution was formed by the parliament.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
First meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9th December, 1946.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Jawaharlal Nehru gave the objective resolution to the Constituent Assembly,
Answer:
True

Question 4.
After 15th August, 1947, the Constituent Assembly had 389 members.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 5.
It took four years to prepare the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
False

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Under whose recommendation the Constituent Assembly was set up?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly was set up on the recommendation of Cabinet Mission Plan, 1946.

Question 2.
When was the Constituent Assembly of India established?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly was established in July, 1946.

Question 3.
Name the person who was chosen as temporary Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
Dr. Sachindanand Sinha, the oldest member of the Constituent Assembly was elected the temporary Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.

Question 4.
When did the Constituent Assembly meet for the first time?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly met for the first time on December 9, 1946.

Question 5.
Who was the permanent Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
Dr. Rajindra Prasad was the permanent Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.

Question 6.
Name the body that framed the Indian Constitution and state when it was constituted?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution was framed by the Constituent Assembly and the Constituent Assembly was constituted in July, 1946.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 7.
Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.

Question 8.
Who moved the ‘Objectives Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru moved the ‘Objectives Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly.

Question 9.
When was the Constitution of India adopted by the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution on November 26, 1949.

Question 10.
When did the Constitution of India come into force?
Or
When was the Constitution of India promulgated?
Answer:
The Constitution of India came into effect on January 26, 1950.

Question 11.
How many members were there in the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly consisted of 389 members (299 after 15th Aug. 1947).

Question 12.
Name the body which adopted the Constitution of India?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India.

Question 13.
How much time did Constituent Assembly take to make the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to frame the Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 14.
Mention the name of four countries where written Constitution exist.
Answer:

  1. U.S.A.
  2. France.
  3. India.
  4. South Africa.

Question 15.
What is meant by Preamble?
Answer:
The Preamble is a summary of the objectives and the basic philosophy of the Constitution. It helps in the interpretation of the Constitution.

Question 16.
With which words the Preamble of Indian Constitution starts?
Answer:
The Preamble of Indian Constitution starts with “We the People of India ”

Question 17.
What new words have been added to Preamble of our Constitution under the 42nd amendment?
Answer:
Socialist and Secular.

Question 18.
How many amendments have been made in the Preamble?
Answer:
Only one amendment (42nd) has been made in the Preamble so far.

Question 19.
What is the source of the authority according to the Preamble?
Answer:
The Preamble expresses in a very clear language that the people are the ultimate source of all authority.

Question 20.
For how many days, the draft of Indian Constitution was discussed in the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
114 days.

Question 21.
Name any four countries whose major features of constitution were incorporated in the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
England, U.S.A., Canada, Ireland.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 22.
Why is the Indian Constitution considered the alive Constitution?
Answer:
Because from time to time and according to needs, it has been changed and developed.

Question 23.
How is India a republic?
Answer:
India is a republic because the President is indirectly elected (by an electoral college) by the people for a fixed period.

Question 24.
Give two reasons to show that the Indian Constitution is a democratic country.
Answer:
(i) Government is run by the representatives of people.
(;ii) All the citizens are given equal political rights.

Question 25.
What do you mean by the Constitutional Amendment?
Answer:
The changes made in the Constitution are known as the Constitutional Amendments. .

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the meaning of Constitution.
Answer:
The Constitution is a collection of those rules and regulations according to which the administration of the state is run. The administration of each state is run in accordance with certain rules and regulations. It is the fundamental law reflecting the will of the people. It determines the powers Snd responsibilities of the state. It also states people’s rights and duties.

Question 2.
Why do we need a Constitution?
Answer:
All the democratic countries of the world have Constitutions. We need Constitution due to given below reasons :

  1. Supreme Law of the Country. The Constitution of a state is the supreme law of the land. The government at the State and Central level work within the sphere of powers given to them by the Constitution.
  2. Provide Basic Rules. The Constitution provides basic rules and principles on the basis of which government should be.
  3. Knowledge about the Nature of Government. It is the Constitution which decides how the government will be organised.
  4. Rule of Law. The Constitution of a state makes provision for rule of law.
  5. Limitations on the Government. The Constitution puts limitations on the three organs of the government so that no organ should become absolute and arbitrary.

Question 3.
Write a short note on the meaning of the Preamble.
Answer:
The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble. The Preamble serves the purpose of a window through which we peep into the intentions of the makers of the constitution. In short, the Preamble is a summary of the objectives and basic philosophy of a Constitution. It helps in the interpretation of the Constitution. With the help of the Preamble we can understand the basic philosophy of the Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 4.
Mention the nature of state according to the Preamble of Indian Constitution.
Answer:
According to the Preamble of the Indian Constitution the nature of Indian State is as under :
(a) India is a Sovereign state;
(b) India is a Democratic state;
(c) India is a Secular state;
(d) India is a Socialist state and
(e) India is a Republic.

Question 5.
How is the Indian Constitution considered as the people’s Constitution?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution is considered as the people’s Constitution. Members of the Constituent Assembly were indirectly elected by the provincial legislatures which were elected by the people. Actually all the important leaders were the members of the Constituent Assembly. Representatives of all the classes (Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, females) were included in it. If elections could have done on the basis of adult franchise, same people could have elected. In this way it is people’s Constitution.

Question 6.
Why there is more importance of the Constitution in democratic countries?
Answer:
In democracy, directly or indirectly people rule the country. In the constitution. On the one side complete description of the government’s powers is given and on the other side there are certain restrictions on it. People’s rights are completely explained in the constitution. No one can work against the Constitution. Courts are there to protect the Constitution and fundamental rights. That’s why the Constitution is of great importance in the democratic countries.

Question 7.
Discuss the circumstances which led to the formation of the Constituent Assembly.
Answer:
Our Constitution was drafted by a Constituent Assembly composed of Indian people. Mahatma Gandhi mooted the idea of Constituent Assembly in 1922 and the Indian National Congress put the demand in a concrete form in 1935. But this demand of the Congress Party remained unfulfilled for a number of years. It was incorporated in the Cripps Proposals of 1942 that after the end of war a Constitution-making body would be set up to frame a new constitution. However, for various reasons the Cripps Proposals did not meet the approval of the Indian people. The Cabinet Mission plan 1946 proposed the constitution of an Assembly to frame the Constitution. The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in 1946 according to the Cabinet Mission Plan. Its first meeting was held on 9 December, 1946.

Question 8.
What is meant by the Rigid and Flexible Constitution?
Answer:
Indian Constitution is rigid as well as flexible in nature. The meaning of rigid constitution is that it cannot be easily changed or amended. To amend the constitution, government needs great majority in the parliament which, most of the times, they don’t have. The meaning of flexible Constitution is that if government has the required majority, it can amend the Constitution very easily. If political parties will come together, they can also amend it quite easily.

Question 9.
Indian Constitution is lengthiest in the world. Clarify.
Answer:
Indian Constitution is the lengthiest Constitution among all the Constitutions of the world. Originally it had 395 Articles and 8 schedules. After 1950, many new clauses were added in it and that’s why presently it has 450 Articles and 12 schedules. 103 Amendments have been done in it. That’s why it has become more lengthy.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 10.
What is meant by the written Constitution?
Answer:
Our Constitution is the written Constitution which was made with the great hard work of 2 years 11 months and 18 days of the Constituent Assembly. Federal structure of the government was kept over here and that’s why it was required to keep it in the written forms so that the disputes between the central government and state governments could be resolved with ease. On contrary to this, the British Constitution is an unwritten Constitution based on customs and conventions. Our Constitution is in written form and that’s why it is quite transparent.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The Constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly. In this context explain the following :
(a) Draft Committee
Answer:
Draft Committee: On August 29, 1947, the Constituent Assembly elected a Drafting Committee from among its members Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was its Chairman. Besides its Chairman, its other members were : N. Gopala Swamy Ayyangar, Alladikrishna Swamy Ayyer, Dr. K.M Munshi, N. Madhav Rao, Sayyad Mohammad Sadaulla and D.P. Khaitan, Sh. B.N. Rao was appointed adviser of the Drafting Committee. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar played a very important role in drafting the Constitution and he has rightly been called the father of the Draft Constitution.

(b) Adoption and promulgation of the Constitution of free India.
Answer:
A draft Constitution was prepared in February, 1948 and it was presented before the Constituent Assembly on February 21, 1948. Draft was published in all the leading newspapers of the country to elicit public opinion. A national debate was held on the Draft Constitution. On November 4, 1948 general discussion began on the Draft. It continued upto October 17, 1949.

During this time 7635 amendments were presented out of which 2473 amendments were discussed. At last on November 26, 1949 the Constituent Assembly adopted the new Constitution of India. The Constituent Assembly took 2 years 11 months, and 18 days to frame the Constitution. The new Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950.

Question 2.
‘India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic’. Explain.
Answer:
The preamble proclaims that the people of India have resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic.’
(а) India is a Sovereign State. It means that now, after the promulgation of the Constitution, India is not subject to any foreign rule. India is fully sovereign, internally as well as externally. No other country can compel India to follow or not to follow a particular policy.

(b) India is a Socialist State. Natural resources and wealth of the nation should be used for the welfare of the whole society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.

(c) India is a Secular State. There is no official religion of the state. Freedom of religion has been granted to all persons residing in India. All persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to practise and propagate religion.

(d) India is a Democratic State. Indian polity is based on democratic principles. The people elect their representatives on the basis of adult franchise. All citizens enjoy equal political rights. The government is run according to some basic rules.

(e) India is a Republican State. The word ‘Republic’ means that the head of the state shall be an elected one for a fixed tenure.The head of the state (President) is elected for a period of five years. There is no room for a hereditary monarch like the one in England.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 3.
Examine the significance of the Preamble to the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
The Preamble is not a part of the Constitution. It does not have any legal force. Still it has special significance.

The significance of the Preamble is as follows :

  1. Source of Authority. The Preamble expresses in a very clear language that people are the ultimate source of all authority. It is the people who have adopted and enacted the Constitution; It is the people who have given ‘the Constitution to themselves.’ The words, we the people of India, are very significant.
  2. Nature of Indian Polity. The Preamble emphasises the fact that India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic.
  3. Symbol of Objectives. The Preamble is the symbol of those objectives which the Constitution makers pledged to attain. The Preamble assures the people of India Justice—Social, Economic and Political.
  4. Key to the Constitution. The Preamble is the soul and spirit of the Constitution. The Preamble is the mirror of the Constitution. It is a jewel set in the Constitution.
  5. Guide to the Government. The Preamble to the Constitution provides guidelines to the government of the day.
  6. Guidelines to the Judiciary. Whenever a Court of Justice has to explain some articles of the Constitution then it takes the help of the ideas expressed through the Preamble of the Constitution.
  7. Yardstick to evaluate the performance of the Government. The Preamble enables the people to assess and evaluate the performance of the government in the light of the objectives laid down in the Preamble. It keeps the government on its toe.

Question 4.
Indian Constitution is taken from many sources. Explain.
Answer:
Before the making of Indian Constitution, Constituent Assembly studied different Constitutions of different countries. It also studied different laws made by the British Parliament for India. It took all the good aspects of different sources and their description is given below :

  1. Britain. Parliamentary system, process of making laws, special privileges of Parliament, Rule of law, Single citizenship, Cabinet system, System of two houses.
  2. U.S.A. Fundamental Rights, Structure and powers of Supreme Court, judicial review, post of Vice President, independence of judiciary, preamble.
  3. Canada. Federal structure, Residuary powers, Appointment of Governors by centre,.
  4. Ireland. Directive principles of state policy, The process of election of the President, Nomination of Rajya Sabha members by the President, the Process of Removal of the judges of Supreme Court and High Courts.
  5. Germany. Emergency powers of the President.
  6. U.S.S.R. Fundamental Duties.
  7. France. Republic, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
  8. South Africa. Constitutional Amendment.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 5.
Describe some of the key features of Federalism.
Answer:
In the federal system, there are two types of governments central government and state governments. The central governments solves the national problems and state governments solve local problems. Actually in this type of system powers are divided among central authority and the different units of that union. There is one government for the entire country and different provinces have different governments.

Both levels have their own powers. Some of the main features of federalism are given below :

  • Written Constitution: A written Constitution is essential in a federation in the sense that both the centre and the states should be definite and about their sphere of action.
  • Division of Powers: The powers of the government in a federation are distributed between the centre and the states.
  • Independent Judiciary: The presence of an independent and powerful judiciary is most essential in a federation.
  • Bi-cameralism: Some people are of the opinion that the legislature in a federation should be bi-cameral.
  • Rigid Constitution: The Constitution should be rigid so that it is not easily changed by impatient hands. The amending procedure is invariably more difficult than the enactment of ordinary laws. In almost all federal states amendments require favourable action by the parliament and a large majority of states.
  • Supremacy of the Constitution: In a federation Constitution is supreme both the centre and the states should run the administration in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. The supremacy of the constitution is maintained by the Supreme Court.
  • Double Citizenship: In some federal states citizens enjoy double citizens. An individual is citizen of the state as well as he is citizen of the whole country.
  • Federation exists in U.S.A., Switzerland, India etc. India has a federal system of government having all features of a federation.

Question 6.
On what basis division of powers is made between the union and the state governments in a fedesral system?
Or
How powers are divided in our country the Federal of India between centre and states? .
Answer:
In our country India, Constitution has clearly demorcated the powers between different levels. Every level is given certain subjects to make laws related to its jurisdiction and they are not allowed to interfere in other’s matters. Actually this distribution is a three folded. Three types of lists ark given in Constitution in which subjects are divided.

These three lists and their jurisdiction in given below :

  1. Union List. Union list is a list of 97 (presently 100) subjects on which Central government can make laws. Union list includes the subjects of national importance like defence, finance, foreign affairs, post and telegraph, banking, etc. Only Central government can take decisions regarding these matters.
  2. State List. State list is a list of 66 (presently 61) subjects on which state government can make laws, Central government has nothing to do with it. Matters of local importance like police, agriculture, irrigation, commerce trade, etc. are included in it. State governments alone can make laws on the subjects given in this list.
  3. Concurrent list. Concurrent list is a list of 47 (presently 52) subjects which are of common interest for both central and state government. Issues like forests, education, trade unions, etc. are included in it. Both Central and state governments can make laws on these issues. But if there will be any clash of laws then the laws made by Central government will prevail. In this way powers are divided in Central and state governments in Indian federal system.

Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Man is a social animal and while living in society, he is required to follow certain rules. It helps not only in one’s personality development but it also helps in the smooth functioning of society.
  • To run society smoothly, state forms certain rules which are formed according to the constitution of country.
  • The Constitution is a legal document or a book of rules and regulations according to which a country is governed.
  • The process of the making of the Indian Constitution was initiated even before the Indian independence. According to the clauses of the Cabinet Mission 1946, indirect elections for the Constituent Assembly were held. The Constituent Assembly had 389 members which remained 299 after the Indian Independence as a separate Constituent Assembly was formed for Pakistan.
  • Many individuals gave great contribution in the making of the Indian Constitution and some of them were Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Jawahar lal Nehru, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, J.B. kriplani, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, T.T. Kishnamachari etc.
  • On 26th November, 1949 rough sketch of the Indian Constitution was passed by the Constituent Assembly but it come into force on 26th January, 1950. With this, India became a Republic country.
  • The Constitution starts with the Preamble which can also be called as the essence of the Constitution. All the basic principles of the constitution are given in the Preamble.
  • Our Constitution is a written constitution in which all the rules of running the administration are given. That’ why it is the lengthiest among all the constitutions of the world.
  • Many sources were used in the making of our constitution. The constitution of Britain, U.S.A. Canada, Australia, Ireland, Germany, erstwhile U.S.S.R., South Africa, Japan etc. were consulted. The laws made by the British Parliament before 1947 also became its important parts.
  • Our constitution has given India the status of a Sovereign, Democratic, Republic, Socialist and Secular State.
  • Indian Constitution has given us a federal structure which means powers will be divided among Central and State governments. Along with this, few unitary features are also given according to which the Central government is more powerful.
  • Democratic set up has been established in India which gives all the citizens the right to elect its government. It is known as Universal Adult Franchise.
  • Our Constitution can be amended but for this, consent of the Parliament as well as of the states is required. First Constitutional Amendment was made in 1951 and till today, 103 amendments have been made.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.