PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C.

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C.

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C. Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
What do you understand by Mahajanapada?
Answer:
By about 600 B.C., a part of the Ganga plain had been cleared of forests and people had settled down in different tracts. These territories were called Janapadas and named after the ruling clan in each area. The more powerful Janapadas among these were known as Mahajanapadas.

Question 2.
Write about any four important Mahajanapadas.
Answer:
Magadha, Kosala, Vatsa and Avanti were four important Mahajanapadas.

  • Magadha: Magadha was the most powerful Mahajanapada. It included Gaya and Patna areas of Bihar. Its capital city was Rajagriha.
  • Kosala: Kosala was another powerful Mahajanapada and its capital city was Ayodhya or Sketa.
  • Vatsa: The capital city of Vatsa was Kausambi.
  • Avanti: The capital city of Avanti Mahajanapada was Ujjain.

Question 3.
Write about the rise of Magadha under the Haryanjca dynasty.
Answer:
In the beginning, Magadha has comprised only the areas of Patna and Gaya in Bihar, but later on it saw a great rise under the rule of the Haryanka kings, namely Bimbisara and Ajatasatru.
1. Bimbisara: Bimbisara became the king of Magadha in about 543 B.C. He made his kingdom more powerful in many ways. He occupied the Ganga. He conquered the Artga State in the southeast and occupied the major port of the Gmga, namely Champa. His capital city was Rajagriha near Nalanda.

2. Ajatasatru: Ajatasatru was a son of Bimbisara. He murdered his father in 492 B,C. and became the ruler of Magadha. He invaded his neighbouring states and expanded his kingdom. He defeated Kashi, Kosala and Vaisali and made Magadha the most powerful kingdom of North India. He made Patliputra(Patna) his new capital.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 4.
What do you know about caste system during this period?
Answer:
In India of 600 B.C. to 400 B.C., the caste system and four stages of life were two most important features of society.
1. Caste System: The caste system was rigid. Society was mainly divided into four castes. These castes were Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the lower castes. Brahmanas were given great respect in society, whereas low castes’ condition was very bad and they were ill-treated. The caste system was based on birth.

Besides the above four castes, there were several sub-castes based on professions. These sub-castes included carpenters, ironsmiths, goldsmiths, chariot-makers, potters and oil-pressers, etc.

Question 5.
Write a note about the punch-marked coins.
Answer:
In India of 600 B.C. to 400 B.C., copper and silver coins were used for transactions: These coins were mostly irregular pieces of metal in shape but of fixed weight. They were punched with various symbols. Such coins were known as the punch-marked coins.

Question 6.
What do you know about Jainism?
Answer:
Jainism came into existence in 600 B.C. There were twenty-four teachers of this religion, who were known as Tirthankaras. Adriana (Rishabhdeva) was the first and Vardhamana Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankara.
PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India From 600 BC 400 BC 1
Vardhamana Mahavira

Teachings: Teachings of Jainism are as follows :

  • Ahimsa: Ahimsa is the main teaching of Jainism. Man should not hurt anybody. There is soul in even the smallest particle. So every effort should be made not to kill it.
  • Truth: Man should speak the truth. Truth purifies the soul. We should not speak ill of anybody.
  • Non-Stealing: Stealing is a sin. To take a thing or wealth without permission is stealing. It hurts others.
  • Non-Possession: We should not accumulate property. It causes attachment in life and ties man in worldly affairs.
  • Chastity: Man should follow chastity.
  • Hard Penance: Moksha can be achieved by hard penance, that frees the man from the cycle of birth and death.
  • Three Jewels: Three Jewels (Tri-ratna) is a way of achieving Moksha. These three jewels are Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct.

Sects of Jainism: Shwetambara and Digambara are the two sects of Jainism.

  • Shwetambara: The followers of the 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha are called Shwetambaras. Shwetambaras wear white clothes.
  • Digambara: The followers of the 24th and last Tirthankara of Jainism are known as Digambaras. These saints wear no clothes.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 7.
Which are the main teachings of Buddhism?
Answer:
The main teachings of Buddhism are as follows :
1. Four Noble Truths. The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism are :
PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India From 600 BC 400 BC 2

  • The world is full of sorrow.
  • The cause of sorrow is desire.
  • We can conquer sorrow by conquering desire.
  • Desire can be conquered by following the Eight Fold Path.

2. The Eightfold Path, Mahatma Buddha has suggested the Eightfold Path for freeing oneself from sorrow and achieving Nirvana. The eight principles of the Eightfold Path are

  • Right Belief,
  • Right Thought,
  • Right Speech,
  • Right Action,
  • Right Means of Livelihood,
  • Right Effort,
  • Right Recollection,
  • Right Meditation.

3. The Middle Path: Mahatma Buddha also taught the Middle Path. It means that one should not torture oneself by severe austerities, nor should one indulge in luxuries of life.

4. Moral Teachings: Moral teachings of Buddhism included non-violence, speaking the truth, non-use of intoxicants, not to accept or keep money, not to eat at odd hours, not coveting others’ property, etc.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Bimbisara ruled from __________ to B.C.
Answer:
543, 492.

Question 2.
Ministers were known as __________
Answer:
Amatyas

Question 3.
Agriculture and cattle rearing were the ____________ occupations.
Answer:
peasants

Question 4.
There have been _____________ Tirthankaras in Jainism.
Answer:
24

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 5.
Gautama Buddha’s real name was __________
Answer:
Siddhartha

Question 6.
Lord Mahavir Ji spent Grihastha life till __________ years.
Answer:
30.

III. Match the columns :

Question 1.

A B
(1) Magadha (a) Republic
(2) Ajatasatru (b) Mahajanapada
(3) Vajji (c) Guild
(4) Shreni (d)King
(5) Parsvanatha (e) Ashtangika Marg
(6) Buddha (f) Tirthankara

Answer:
Correct columns :

A B
(1) Magadha (b) Mahajanapada
(2) Ajatasatru (d)King
(3) Vajji (a) Republic
(4) Shreni (c) Guild
(5) Parsvanatha (f) Tirthankara
(6) Buddha (e) Ashtangika Marg

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in a statement :

Question 1.
Sixteen Mahajanapadas are mentioned in Buddhist literature.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Bimbisara ruled from 543 to 492 AD.
Answer:
False

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 3.
The ministers were known as Chera.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Normal agriculture tax was IA of produce
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Sarthavaha was the leader of merchants.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Gautama Buddha was son of Siddhartha.
Answer:
False

Question 7.
Jains believe that they had 24 Tirthankars.
Answer:
True

Question 8.
Gautama Budhha was not the son of Siddhartha.
Answer:
True.

V. Activities (Something To Do):

Question 1.
Locate the rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Indus on the map of India.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 2.
Find books on the lives of the Buddha and Mahavira in your school library and read them. Note down the anecdotes in their lives which interest you.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C. Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Thirst or desire to get something is known as
(A) Tanha
(B) Prakrit
(C) Atman
(D) Vihara.
Answer:
(A) Tanha.

Question 2.
__________ are the Hindu religious books which literally means “approaching and sitting near.”
(A) Veda
(B) Upanishad
(C) Manu Smriti
(D) Epics.
Answer:
(B) Upanishad.

Question 3.
Followers of Vardhaman Mahavira are known as
(A) Jaina
(B) Buddha
(C) Mahavira
(D) Bhikkshu.
Answer:
(A) Jaina.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 4.
Followers of who beg food for themselves were known as Bhikkshu.
(A) Buddha
(B) Vishnu
(C) Mahavira
(D) Shiva.
Answer:
(A) Buddha.

Question 5.
__________ is a stage of life.
(A) Jati
(B) Varna
(C) Ashrama
(D) Purushartha.
Answer:
(C) Ashrama.

Question 6.
__________ was the founder of Buddhism.
(A) Mahavira
(B) Gautama Buddha
(C) Guru Nanak Dev
(D) Kabir.
Answer:
(B) Gautama Buddha.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 7.
Where did the Buddha die?
(A) Pataliputra
(B) Kaushambhi
(C) Magadha
(D) Kusinara.
Answer:
(D) Kusinara.

Question 8.
In __________ language the Buddha taught to the ordinary people?
(A) Hindi
(B) Gurmukhi
(C) Prakrit
(D) Devnagari.
Answer:
(C) Prakrit.

Question 9.
__________ language was used to compose the Vedas.
(A) Vedic Sanskrit
(B) Hindi
(C) Prakrit
(D) Devnagari.
Answer:
(A) Vedic Sanskrit.

Question 10.
Which of these, was a famous woman upanishadic thinker?
(A) Sita
(B) Gargi
(C) Draupadi
(D) Kunti.
Answer:
(B) Gargi.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name two famous republics.
Answer:
The Shakyas and the Lichchhvis were two famous republics.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 2.
Mention the names of two of the earliest kings of Magadha.
Answer:
Bimbisara and Ajatasatru were the two earliest kings of Magadha.

Question 3.
Name two dynasties which ruled over Magadha after the Haryanka dynasty.
Answer:
Shishunaga and Nanda dynasties.

Question 4.
Who was Mahapadma Nanda?
Answer:
Mahapadma Nanda was the most important ruler of the Nanda dynasty.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 5.
Which new cities came into existence during 600 B.C. to 400 B.C.?
Answer:
Several new cities came into existence during 600 B.C. to 400 B.C. The important amongst these were Varanasi, Rajagriha, Shravasti, Kaushambi, Vaishali, Champa, Ujjaiyini, Taxila, Ayodhya, Mathura, and Patliputra.

Question 6.
Who were known as Amatyas?
Answer:
Ministers were known as Amatyas.

Question 7.
What was the most important source of income of early kingdoms and republics?
Answer:
Taxes.

Question 8.
Who was the founder of Buddhism?
Answer:
Mahatma Buddha.

Question 9.
In which Mahajanapada did Vardhamana Mahavira and Mahatma Buddha preach?
Answer:
Vardhamana Mahavira and Mahatma Buddha preached in Magadha.

Question 10.
What was the position of king in India from 600 B.C. to 400 B.C.?
Answer:
The king held the supreme position. He was regarded as the protector of society and religion.

Question 11.
What message did Vardhamana Mahavira and Mahatma Buddha give to people?
Answer:
Vardhamana Mahavira and Mahatma Buddha taught the people to lead a good life and not to do wrong.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 12.
Who were Sarthvahas?
Answer:
Merchants from 600 B.C. to 400 B.C. were known as Sarthvahas.

Question 13.
What is meant by Jina?
Answer:
Jina means conqueror.

Question 14.
Where was Vardhamana Mahavira born?
Answer:
Vardhamana Mahavira was born at Kundagram near Vaishali in Bihar.

Question 15.
What was the real name of Mahatma Buddha? Where was he born?
Answer:
The real name of Mahatma Buddha was Siddhartha. He was born at Lumbini in Nepal.

Question 16.
Who was the last Nanda King?
Answer:
Dhan Nanda was the last Nanda King.

Question 17.
Name some of the officials of kings of Mahajan- apadas.
Answer:
Amatyas or Mantries, Purohita, Senapati, Sangrahatri, Cher a and Gramini were some of. the important officials of kings of Mahajanapadas.

Question 18.
What was Ashrama?
Answer:
Whole of the life span was divided into four stages which were known as Ashramas.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 19.
Name all four Ashramas.
Answer:
Brahmacharya Ashrama, Grihastha Ashrama, Vanaprastha Ashrama and Sanyasa Ashrama.

Question 20.
What were punch-marked coins?
Answer:
Coins in this age were punched with different symbols and these were known as punch-marked coins.

Question 21.
Which was the supreme body of monks in Buddhism?
Answer:
Mahatma Buddha founded the supreme body of monks which was known as the Buddhist Samgha.

Question 22.
What are Tripitaka?
Answer:
All the teachings of the Buddha are compiled in three major works which are known as Tripitaka.

Question 23.
What was Mahayana?
Answer:
Mahayana was one part of Buddhism which means the great vehicle and its followers believed in the idol worship of the Buddha as a god.

Question 24.
What was Hinayana?
Answer:
It was another part of Buddhism whose followers followed the original teachings of the Buddha and considered the Buddha as a great teacher.

Question 25.
What do you mean by Janapadas?
Answer:
Republics or monarchical states established in Northern India around 600 B.C.were known as Janapadas.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 26.
What were Mahajanapadas?
Answer:
Mahajanapadas were the more powerful Janapadas. They were sixteen in number around 600 B.C.. Vatsa, Magadha, Kosala etc. were some of them.

Question 27.
What is meant by Shreni?
Answer:
Persons with some profession organized themselves into guilds or unions. These guilds or unions were known as Shrenis.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why is the period between 600 B.C. to 400 B.C. known as the period of the second urbanization?
Answer:
Several big cities came into existence during the period between 600 B.C. and 400 B.C. These cities were called puras, nagaras or mahanagaras. Varanasi, Taxila, Ayodhya, Mathura, Rajagriha, Sravasti, Kaushambi, Vaishali, Champa, Ujjaiyini and Patliputra were some of the big cities. Because of the emergence of big cities, this period is known as the period of the second urbanisation. The first period of urbanisation was that of the Indus Valley Civilisation.

Question 2.
How did the position of a king grow in a kingdom? What sort of life did he lead?
Answer:
The Brahmanas made the position of the king very strong. They preached that the king was not an ordinary man. He was like a god among men. The Brahmanas also performed certain ceremonies to endow-the king with god-like virtues and powers. The king lived a splendid life. He lived in a big palace, married many wives and spent his days in comfort and luxury.

Question 3.
Write a note on the administration between 600 B.C. and 400 B.C.
Answer:
The king was very powerful. He ruled the state with the help of Purohita, Amatyas (ministers), Senapati, Sangrahatri, Chera and Gramini. He had many other officers to carry out the works of the state. To carry out the expenses of the state, the king collected taxes. Some amount was spent on the welfare of the people and some amount was given to the Brahmanas to look after the temples. With this income, the king could pay his soldiers and other state officers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.

Question 4.
Give a brief account of the life of Vardhamana Mahavira.
Answer:
Vardhamana Mahavira was born at Kundanpur near Vaishali in Bihar in 600 B.C. He was the son of a chief called Siddhartha and his mother was Trishala Rani. He was the 24th and last Tirthankara of Jainism. He left his home and wandered about for many years, trying to find the answers to the questions of life which troubled him. After twelve years six months and fifteen days, he attained the truth. He spent the rest of his life in spreading Jainism. He told his followers that their deeds should be based on Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Action. He died at the age of 72.

Question 5.
Throw some light on the life of Mahatma Buddha.
Answer:
Mahatma Buddha was bom at Lumbini in Nepalese Tarai. His father’s name was Shuddodhana and his mother was Mayadevi. His real name was Siddharthara and he belonged to a royal family. He was married to Princess Yasodhara and had a son, Rahul. He left home after he had seen a sick man, an old man and a dead man. He thought that this world is full of sorrow and misery. He wandered in search of salvation and finally found enlightenment under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar. He founded Buddhism and preached his religion for forty years. He died at the age of 80.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Describe the economic life of India between 600 B.C. and 400 B.C.
Answer:
Between 600 B.C. and 400 B.C. in India the main occupations of people were agriculture and cattle-rearing. Peasants were normally the owners.of the land. But there were also landless labourers who worked on others’ land for living. Several types of crops such as wheat, rice, maize, barley, sugarcane, sesame, mustard, pulses, vegetables and fruits were grown.

Other professions in’cluded industrial crafts and trade. Wood-work, pottery, leather tanning, ship-building, weaving, garland-making, iron-smithery, jewellery, ivory-work and several other professions were adopted by people. Some people earned their livelihood by fishing, hunting, dancing, acting, snake-charming, etc. Persons following the same profession organized themselves into unions or guilds, called Shrenis. Each guild had its own president or head.

Trade was carried on both within the country and with foreign lands. There were roads across the country, some of which connected with foreign lands or seaports. Goods were also carried through ships and boats in oceans and rivers. Merchants known as Sarthavaha carried goods from one place to the other and moved in caravans. Indian goods were in great demand in foreign countries. Copper and silver coins were used for transactions.

People had to pay taxes to the king. Normally 1/6th of agricultural produce was charged as tax from peasants. Taxes on industrial goods and trade were charged according to the value of the goods.

India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C. PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • Janapadas: Janapadas were the republican or monarchical states established in Northern India around 600 B.C.
  • Republic: Republic, is the form of government in which power is held by the people or a group of elected persons or an elected chief.
  • Monarchy: Monarchy is the form of government in which power is held by a hereditary king or queen.
  • Mahajanapadas: The more powerful Janapadas were known as Mahajanapadas. There were sixteen
    Mahajanapadas around 600 B.C: Among them Magadha, Kosala, Vatsa and Avanti were the most powerful.
  • Ashramas: Life was divided into four stages, called Ashramas. These Ashramas were Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa.
  • Barter System: Exchange of goods for goods is called barter system.
  • Shrenis: Persons following the same profession organised themselves into unions or guilds. These unions or guilds were known as Shrenis.
  • Tirthankaras: Teachers of the Jains were known as the Tirthankaras. There were twenty-four Tirthankaras.
  • Nirvana: Nirvana means a state in which individuality merges into the Supreme Spirit and one becomes free from the cycle of birth and death.
  • Samgha: The supreme body of the Buddhist monks was known as Samgha.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C. Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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