Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Rural Society
Sociology Guide for Class 12 PSEB Rural Society Textbook Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. Rural society can be divided into two classes :
(а) Master and slaves
(b) The exploiting class and the exploited class
(c) Upper class and lower class
(d) Capitalists and workers.
(b) The exploiting class and the exploited class.
2. The introduction of new techniques leading to greater crop yields is called :
(a) White Revolution
(b) Blue Revolution
(c) Yellow Revolution
(d) Green Revolution
(d) Green Revolution
3. The mate selection within the group is called :
(c) Group Marriage
4. Jajmani system is based upon the relationship of:
(c) Jajman and Kammen
(d) None of the above
(c) Jajman and Kammen
5. The reason for indebtedness in rural society is:
(b) Poverty and deficit economy
(d) Subsistence economy
(b) Poverty and deficit economy
6. The new agricultural technology has made the farmers :
(b) Labour class
(d) None of the above
Fill in the Blanks:
1. The head of the village was known as ……………….
2. Rural society is …………….. in size.
3. ……………… system was based on the exploitation of the Kammen.
4. Social control in rural communities is …………….. in nature.
5. ……………….. and …………………. are used to look into the instances of social disobedience in rural society.
Caste panchayat, village panchayat
1. The village is the unit of social and political organization of India.
2. Rural indebtedness is an indicator of the weak financial infrastructure.
3. In agriculture, resources like fertilisers, pesticides, agricultural machinery etc. are used.
4. With the establishment of panchayats in the villages, political consciousness has increased.
5. The adoption of new technology has also given a boost to agricultural employment.
Match the Columns:
|Column A||Column B|
|Face to face relations||Indebtedness|
|Head of the household||High yielding variety of seeds|
|Marriage without group numbers||Intimate relations|
|Wheat, rice and crops||Endogamqus|
|Column A||Column B|
|Face to face relations||Intimate relations|
|Head of the household||Karta|
|Marriage without group numbers||Endogamqus|
|Wheat, rice and crops||High yielding variety of seeds|
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
Question 1. Who quoted, “Real India lives in its villages.”?
Which revolution helped the growth of capitalistic farming in India?
The HYVPS revolutionised the agricultural production is called:
Marriage outside one’s own group is called :
During ancient times the head of the village was known as?
Which kind of family system exists in rural society – Joint or Nuclear family?
Jajmani system is based on the relationship between whom?
Jajman and Kammen.
What is the full form of HYVS?
High Yielding Variety Seeds.
Is poverty one of the major reasons for indebtedness?
Yes, poverty is one of the major reasons for indebtedness.
Short Answer Type Questions:
What is joint family?
Joint family is a type of family in which a minimum of three generations live together under a sihgle roof. They eat in a common kitchen and do the same occupation i.e. agriculture. They use common property and obey the orders given by the head of family.
What is indebtedness?
When an individual takes some money as a loan from others on interest to do some work, it is known as debt. When he is unable to pay back his debt and the loan increases by adding the interest, it is called indebtedness.
Write down two causes of rural indebtedness.
- Indebtedness increases with poverty. Due to less rain, the crop gets damaged and farmer needs to take loan to get the new crop ready.
- Farmers are always engaged in litigation with their relatives for land and that’s why they have to take loan from the moneylenders.
What do you mean by Litigation?
Rural people are always engaged in any issue such as a family dispute, theft of crops, division of land etc. and that’s why, they have to fight cases in the legal court. It is known as litigation. This leads to the increase in the problem of indebtedness.
What is Green Revolution?
During the decade of 1960’s, a program was started to increase agricultural production which is known as green revolution. This programme included the use of HYV seeds, use of pesticides and new fertilizers, use of modern machines and modern means of irrigation etc.
Write down two changes in rural society.
- Now there are no more joint families in rural societies which are replaced by nuclear families.
- Now rural children are getting the education and are migrating towards urban areas.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Discuss rural society.
Rural society is that area where there is less use of technology, the importance of primary relations, small in size and most of the population is engaged in agriculture. In this way rural community is the community that lives at a particular place, small in size and has primary and close relations. People know each other very well and their occupation is either agriculture or agriculture-related occupation.
Write three features of rural society.
- The main occupation of rural society is agriculture or other related occupation because rural society is closely related to nature. Most of the population is engaged in agriculture or other related work.
- The life of the rural people is quite simple because their life is deeply attached to nature.
- There is the very little population in the rural areas as compared to urban areas. People live in groups and these groups are called villages.
Write the three causes responsible for the indebtedness.
- Poverty: Rural people are poor and they will have to take loans to purchase seeds, machines, cattle, etc. That’s why they come into debt.
- Parental debt: Many people are forced to pay back the loan taken by their parents or grandparents. That’s why they remain in debt.
- The backwardness of agriculture: Indian .agr culture is based on monsoon and still, old methods of agriculture are used in many areas. That’s why agricultural production is quite low and farmers are unable to earn more.
Write a short note on Green Revolution in Punjab.
What is Green Revolution?
Write a short note on Green Revolution.
In the field of agricultural development in India, Punjab made huge progress. The development of agriculture in Punjab is mainly related to Green Revolution. In this, high yielding variety seeds were used to increase the production of wheat, rice and other crops. This is the reason that the production of rice and wheat was increased in Punjab after 1966. This unbelievable progress in Punjab was made possible due to many factors such as the use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, tube-wells, diesel pumps, tractors, combines, threshers, etc.
Write two positive as well as negative impacts of the Green Revolution.
Write any two impacts of the Green Revolution.
- The major impact of the green revolution was that there was great progress in the production of rice and wheat,
- The green revolution led to an increase in the demand for laborers and that’s why many persons got employment in the agricultural field.
- Only rich farmers took advantage of the green revolution who used their money to purchase modern technology. Poor farmers were unable to take advantage.
- The green revolution increased the gap between the income of people. Rich people earned more money and the poor remained poor.
Very Long Answer Type Questions:
What do you mean by rutal society? Discuss its characteristics in detail.
Define rural society. Describe features of rural society.
Define Rural Society.
India is a rural country in which most of the people live in villages. Rural area is that area where technique is scarcely used, importance is given to primary relations, which is small in size and where most of the people depend upon agriculture. Rural culture is very much different from urban culture. Yet the rural and urban cultures are not the same but they both are very much interrelated. It is very much different from urban society due to many factors yet it is a part of the whole society. Many of its factors like economic, geographical, social etc. differentiate it from urban society.
1. According to A.R. Desai, “The village is the unit of rural society. It is the theatre in the quantum of rural life where the ruraf society unfolds itself and functions.
2. According to R.N. Mukherji, “A village is that community which is characterized by relative homogenity, informality, prominence of primary groups, lesser density of population and agriculture as the main occupation.”
3. According to Peake, “The village community consists of a group of the related or unrealted persons larger than a single family occupying a large house or a number of dwellings placed closed together, sometimes irregularly, sometimes in a street and cultivating originally in common a number of fields, dividing the available meadow land between them and pasturing their cattle upon surrounding waste land over which the community claims rights as far as the boundaries of adjacent community.”
In this way after looking at these definitions, we can say that the rural community is that community which lives at a definite place, is small in size, which has very close relations and in which primary relations exist. People know each other with great proximity and their main occupation is either agriculture or agriculture related work.
Characteristics of Rural Society:
1. Agriculture main Occupation. The main occupation of the tribal society is either agriculture or any of the related work because they are very much closely related with nature. Because they are closely related with nature, that’s why their views towards life are very much different. Yet many other occupations, like carpenter, blacksmith etc. are there in villages but they also make tools related to agriculture. Land is considered as a very important thing in tribal society and people like to live here because their life depends upon the land. Even the economic system and development of people and villages depend upon agriculture.
2. Simple Life. Life of the rural people is very simple. People in ancient rural societies used to do a lot of hard work to fulfil their needs and they were very much away from leisures of life due to this hard work. People also like to engage their children in agricultural works because they don’t like to get education. They don’t have any mental conflicts and problems. They are always ready to help each other in each other’s problems. Any one’s daughter is considered as the daughter of the village. Needs of the people are very much limited because their income is very limited. People like to live a simple life.
3. Scarcity of Population and Homogenity. Population of villages is very less as compared to urban areas. People live in small groups and very much away from each other and these groups are known as villages. There are very less occupations in rural areas except agriculture because of which people like to go to cities to earn money and that’s why populatation in villages is very less. People have close relations with each other and their views are also same due to same occupation of agriculture. Customs, rituals, traditions etc. of rural people are common and there is hardly any difference in their economic, moral and religious life. People in village come to live in cities from far off places but they are the original inhabitants of villages or are living in the nearby areas. That’s why people have homogeneity among themselves.
4. Importance of Neighbourhood. Neighbourhood has great importance in rural society. Main occupation of the people is agriculture’in which they get enough pleasure time. This occupation of agriculture hardly needs much time. That’s why people meet each other, talk with each other and co-operate with each other. People have very close relations with their neighbours. Neighbours generally are of same caste because of which their status is also same. People generally like to give respect to their neighbour. They come very quickly in each other’s problems. That’s why neighbourhood is of great importance in rural society.
5. Control of Family. One person is in complete control of the family in rural societies. Generally patriarchal families are there in villages and every type of decision of family is being taken by the head of the family. Division of labour in villages is being done on the basis of sex. Males are either doing agricutlture or are going out of the house to earn some money and females are taking care of the house by living in the house. Joint family system is there in villages and person adopts the traditional occupation of the family. Every member of the family works with each other and that’s why they have community feeling among them. Family is known as primary group. Younger ones like to give respect to elders.They have a great sense of co¬operation due to same occupation. All the members of the family take part in all the festivals and religious activities. Person always takes advice of family before doing anything. In this way family has complete control on its members.
6. Common Culture. People of a village are not the outsiders who come toTive in the village but are the original inhabitants of the village and that’s why their culture is common. Their culture, rituals, traditions, customs etc. are also common. That’s why they live with each other in a peaceful atmosphere. They have unity among themselves.
7. Community Feeling. Mutual relations of the people in rural societies are based upon co-operation because of which they have community feeling among them. All the members of the village like to help each other at the time of any problem. People have unity among themselves because they have direct and close relations with each other. If any problem comes on any person or the village then the whole village jointly face that problem. All the members of the village respect the customs, rituals etc. of the village and take part in each other’s sorrows and happiness.
8. Stability. Rural society is a stable society because mobility in rural society is very less. Rural society has many geographical or other reasons because of which it is very much different from other societies. These are stable societies because they are self dependent among themselves.
9. Speed of Social Change. Very less mobility is there in rural society because of which speed of social change is very less. Rural people never like to leave their houses to achieve higher status and like to adopt their traditional occupations. That’s why the main occupation of rural people is agriculture from ancient times. Because of the occupation of agriculture they don’t like to move from one place to another and that’s why speed of social change is very less in rural society as compared to urban societies.
10. Isolation. There was a lot of difference between villages and cities during ancient times because of which rural societies had their own world. Means of transport were not developed at that time and it was not possible for the people to move towards cities on bullock carts. Roads were also <«ot good enough and that’s why it was not possible for them to move toward cities. Even today, thousands of villages are there in our country which are very much far off from cities- and are very much backward. Education and means of transport have not yet reached these village. That’s why these people consider themselves different from urban areas. People of backward villages hardly know that what is going on in cities.
What is Indebtedness? What are the causes responsible for Indebtedness?
What is Rural Indebtedness? What are the causes responsible for rural indebtedness?
A money lender has a very important place in rural economy. In most of the areas the word ‘SHAHUKAR’ is used for that person who gives money as loan on interest. He is known by different names at different places. The system of giving and taking loans, in ancient Indian society, was not based upon laws. This system was based upon the traditional and personal relations of both the parties. In this way the relations of both the parties generally were very good. When new laws of agreements were made with the advent of Britishers then the money lenders got a great chance to become rich very quickly. Now the relations between both the parties were not personal and started to be based upon money.
Yet the condition of farmers, in ancient Indian society was very good but their economic condition in British empire became very weak. Generally Indian farmers are poor people. But with this they also want to maintain status and respect in the society and that’s why they hardly care to do more expenditure at the time of many functions like marriage. In this way indebtedness remains in Indian society necessarily. Lakhs of farmers in Indian society are there who are suppressed under the pressure of indebtedness right from the ages. Their expenditure is also increasing day by day. Every increase of population increases pressure on land. Generally people take loan for the marriage of their daughter and most of them are unable to repay their loans; Agriculture in India depends upon rain. If rain is less then their situation also worsens because less rain will result in less production. That’s why farmer has to take loan and he comes under the cycle of indebtedness.
Problem of Indebtedness. Generally loans are given on the basis of individual relations. But now loan is given on the basis of land of the farmer. Indian Agreement Act and Civil Procedure Act has strengthened the hands of money lenders. With this the money lender not only got the right of taking possession of lands of indebted farmer and he also got the right to take possession of the things of the farmer. Money lender can send farmer to jail in case of non payment of loan. In this way the Registration of Document Act of 1864 and the Transfer of Property Act of 1882 has greatly helped the money lenders. With these laws money lenders became richer and richer and the land of farmers started to go in the hands of money lenders.
The number of money lenders and the amount of total loan to farmers was also increased due to this. In 1911 the rural indebtedness was around 300 crore rupees. According to Sir M.L. Darling, this was around 600 crores in 1924 and was around 900 crores in 1930. According to Dr. Radha Kamal Mukherjee, this was around 1200 crore in 1955. So from these statistics it is clear that this was increased rapidly during British rule and even it was increased very quickly after this.
Causes of Indebtedness:
There are many reasons of this indebtedness and these reasons are given below :
1. Absence of Necessary Laws:
The biggest reason of indebtedness is the absence of necessary laws for the security of debted person. Moneylenders never let the indebted person to go out of their clutches due to their higher status. If a person takes loan once from money lenders in the village then he is unable to repay that loan even during whole of his life.
2. Neglect by Government:
The British government had hardly done any effort to save farmers from the hands of money lenders, yet many social reformers had tried to bring the attention of the British Government toward this thing. After independence, Indian government had made many laws to save farmers from the clutches of money lenders. But money lenders have adopted new ways of exploitation of farmers due to loopholes of these laws. Even today lakhs of farmers are under the clutches of money lenders.
3. Economic Disturbances:
In 1929 economic disturbances came because of which condition of farmers became more worse and they remained under the indebtedness of money lenders. After that they never came out of this indebtedness. After independence, many other factors had increased indebtedness like increased expenditure on agriculture, inflation, dependency on diesel in the absence of electricity and that’s why they remain under the indebtedness of money lenders.
4. More Expenditure:
Most of the farmers are poor and they are not in a position to buy things of leisure but they still try to buy things of leisure. Except this rural people have the tendency to spend more than their pocket. They spend more especially at the time of the marriage of their daughter and even try to give more dowry. That’s why they have to take loan. In this way their loan also increases with this.
5. Facility in taking loans:
Rural people are motivated to take more and more loan due to the easy availability of loans to them. If we want to take loan from the bank then we have to complete a number of formalities for the bank. But there is no problem of completing formality with a money lender. Farmer can get a loan from money lender just with personal know-how. In this way easiness of taking loan also encourages them to take loan from the money lender.
6. Tricks of money lenders:
Tricks of money lenders of our country have also increased the process of indebtedness. Generally, money lenders charge too much interest on loan because of which a person is unable to pay even interest of that loan. Sometimes money lenders give money by cutting interest before giving an amount to the person because of which farmer gets very less amount. In this way loan becomes double, triple even within a short span of time. With this there is another tendency in rural society that people are used to pay the loan which was taken by their parents.
In this way, this loan moves on from one generation to another. The illiteracy of rural people is also another reason of indebtedness. Moneylenders are giving less amount to the related person but are writing more amount in their books and taking advantage of their illiteracy. They even give their signatures a blank paper with which money lenders take possession of everything of the related person. Generally, money lenders in villages belong to a higher caste, and lower caste people don’t have enough power to oppose them. In this way due to these causes problem of indebtedness increases.
Define Green Revolution. Write down its components in detail.
The green revolution is the planned and scientific method to increase agricultural production. After the analysis of Five Year Plans, it became clear that if we want to become self-dependent in the field of crop production, we will have to use modern means of production. While keeping in mind this objective, in 1966-67, technical changes started coming in agriculture. In this, high yielding variety seeds, modern means of irrigation, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides were used. The use of developed means in agriculture is given the name of the green revolution. Here the word ‘Green’ was used for green fields of rural areas and the word ‘Revolution’ was used to show allround change. During the first phase of the green revolution “Intensive Agriculture District Programme” was launched in which initially three districts and later on 16 districts were included. In the selected districts, modern methods of agriculture, urea, seeds, means of irrigation were used.
In 1967-68, this program was launched in the other parts of the country. In this program, farmers were informed about the modern methods of agriculture, skill, and new methods of production. The government gave complete help to this program and it became successful. The country became self-dependent in the field of wheat and rice.
Major elements of the Green Revolution. Major elements of the green revolution are given below :
- With the use of high-yielding variety seeds, agricultural production increased.
- Chemical fertilizers, urea also played an important role in increasing production.
- Modern machines of agriculture such as tractor, thresher, combine, pump set, sprayer etc. also contributed in increasing production.
- Modern methods of agriculture, including the Japanese method, helped to increase production.
- Farmers were made aware of modern means of irrigation which helped in increasing production.
- The process of taking two or more crops in one year also contributes to the cause.
- Many institutions were established to provide loans to farmers at low-rate of interest which includes cooperative society, Grameen bank, etc. They gave farmers easy loans to purchase modern machines.
- The government assured the farmers to give ‘Minimum Support Price’ (MSP) for their crops which encouraged the farmers to increase production.
- Programs such as ‘Soil conservation’ also helped the farmers to increase productivity from their land.
- To sell the crops, market committees, cooperative marketing societies were established.
- The government also implemented land reforms such as the end of intermediaries,
protection of labor, consolidation of land, the legal right to the farmer over land, etc. It also helped in increasing production.
- The government also started many programs to increase agricultural production.
What is Green Revolution? Discuss in detail its impact.
Green Revolution. Refer to Question 3.
Impact of Green Revolution. We can divide the impact of the green revolution into two parts—positive and negative. Their description is given below :
Positive Impact. 1. Increase in cereals production. A major achievement of the green revolution was that it increased cereal production in the country especially wheat and rice. The production of rice was quite good but wheat’s production was increased to a great extent. Maize, Jwar, Bazar, Rabi, and other crops were not included in it.
2. Increase in the production of the commercial crop. The major objective of the green revolution was to increase crop production. Initially, there was no increase in the production of commercial crops such as sugarcane, cotton, jute, oilseeds, and potato. But after 1973, there was a great increase in the production of sugarcane. In the same way, later on, the production of oil seeds and potatoes was also increased.
3. Changes in crop pattern. Due to green revolution, there was a great change in the pattern of sowing of crops. First of all, the cereal production started increasing with the rate of 3% – 4% per annum. But there was no change in the production of pulses. Secondly the share of rice in cereals decreased and the share of wheat was increased.
4. Encouragement to Employment. With the use of new technology, agriculture-related employment increased to a great extent. When farmers started producing many crops in one year, it led to increase in employment in an agricultural area. Negative
Impact. 1. Advent of capitalist farming in India. In the program of new agriculture, there was a great need of capital investment such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, means of irrigation etc. Such investment was beyond the reach of small and marginal farmers. It led to the advent of capital farming in India and money started accumulating in the hands of 6% rural population. Poor and marginal farmers were unable to take advantage of green revolution.
2. Side tracking the need for institutional reforms in Indian agriculture. In the program of new agriculture, no stress was given on the institutional reforms of agriculture. Large number of farmers had no landholding. Land was evacuated on large scale. That’s why farmers had to accept the situation of share croper.
3. Widening disparities in income. The advent of technological changes in agriculture increased the income disparity among the rural people. Rich farmers used new technology and increased their income but poor farmers were unable to do so. The condition of labourers further deteriorated.
4. Problem of Labour displacement. Along with green revolution, stress was also given on establishing industries in the country; Industries were established on agricultural land and agricultural labourers became unemployed. This unemployment further gave birth to many other problems. Naxalite movement in the different parts of country was a result of this system.
Define rural society. Discuss various changes taking place in rural society.
Describe the changes taking place in rural society.
Discuss various changes taking place in rural society.
Definition of rural society. See question no. 1.
Changes in rural society. Change is law of nature. No one can change it. Change always comes in every thing of the world. In this way rural society is also going through the process of change. Modern society and technique have brought change in every aspect of the rural society. These changes are given below :
1. Decreasing rural-urban differences. There were a number of differences in rural and urban societies during earlier times. But these differences between both the societies are decreasing day by day. It is not so because rural people imitate the styles of urban people but it is so because the relations of rural and urban people are increasing due to open market economy. They sell their produce in the city and adopt new occupations. That’s why their relations with outsiders are increasing and their ways of living, eating, wearing, thinking etc. are changing according to the urban people. Rural people are getting every type of urban facility due to developed means of transport. Atmosphere like urban areas is increasing due to mobility of occupation and rural-urban differences are decreasing.
2. Decreasing difference of area. The most important change which came in the rural society is that the difference between village and the city is decreasing. Cities are moving towards villages and villages are coming closer to cities. Means of transport, good roads, spread of education and means of communication have brought villages closer to the urban areas. Now rural people are also moving very quickly towards cities. Just within one day they are doing their work and coming back to their villages.
3. Changes in the structure of agriculture and marketization of agriculture. If we look at the ancient times then we will observe that the agricultural production in our country was being done to fulfil the needs. Means of production were very simple and were close to the nature. Agricultural work was being done with oxen and with hands. Even digging of rivers and wells was being done with forced labour. Poeple used to fulfil their needs at local level and exchange of things and services was there.
But with the advent of technology and science and with the opening up of agricultural instituions, structure of agriculture has been completely changed. With the advent of new machines like tractors, threshers etc., increased facilities of irrigation, development of irrigation through rivers and drips, advent of new seeds and with the development of markets, agriculture has reached the market level from subsistence level. Now agriculture is not being done to fulfill the needs but is being done to earn profit. Now exchange of things with money has taken place of exchange of things.
Now people produce crop four times in a year. Production has been increased to a great extent. Now India exports food grains instead of importing food grains. Agricultural work has become easy with the help of science. Now agricultural work is being done with machines not with physical force. The institutional structures of agriculture like Zamindari, Rayotwari, Mahalwari etc. came to an end. Many other occupations related to agriculture have been opened up like dairy, piggery, poultry, fishing etc.
4. Decreasing effect of religion. Religion had great influence on rural people in ancient times. Every acitivity of agriculture was according to the religion which cannot be seen in present age. In earlier times, many trees, animals etc. were considered as sacred but now this influence has been reduced. Religious beliefs, customs of rural people have been completely changed. Rural society, in present mechanical age, is going away from temples, gurudwaras.
5. Change in rural social structure. Karl Marx was of the view that social change comes with the change in economic structure. With the commercialization and mechanization of agriculture not only people become economically better but changes are also coming in old relations. Joint families are disintegrating, respect of parents is decreasing, changes are coming in divison of labour, social values are deteriorating, mental tension is increasing, changes are coming in the status of women etc. There are many aspects in which we can see many changes.
Time of rituals at the time of birth, marriage, death etc. is decreasing, Jajmani system no more prevails, effect of social kinship is decreasing, importance of primary group is also decreasing. People are running towards materialistic happiness instead of relations. Caste relations also have been changed. The supremacy of Brahmins is no more. People are leaving their occupations and are adopting new occupations. Untouchability no more prevails in society. Mobility of occupations is increasing due to reducing effect of caste. Now a person can adopt any occupation of his wish.
6. Increasing effect of science. Atmosphere, beliefs related to atmosphere were dependent upon nature in ancient times and these were the basis of rural life. Land was considered as sacred. Agriculture was being done while keeping in mind the time of sowing. But now old beliefs are no more. Farmer is not a scientist but is using the new scientific methods and leaving the ancient beliefs. Earlier people were afraid of using chemical manures to their land but now they are using more and more fertilizers and machines so that the production could be increased.
7. Decreasing dependency on nature. Farmer, during ancient times, was dependent upon nature for agricultural works. For example in the absence of rain it was impossible for any one to produce anything on the land. Except this it was impossible for a person to do struggle with natural forces. But today it’s not so. Today people are using rivers, tubewells etc. for irrigation instead of rain. Cultivation is being done with new techniques. Now people are capable of securing themselves from hot, cold, flood etc. Now metereological department predicts in advance about rain, hail storms, less rain etc. with which farmer prepares himself in advance to face any such problem.
8. Change in the level of rural life. One of the most important changes which can be seen in rural society is the improvement in the level of rural life. Statistics show that, except some classes, generally whole of the rural life has been improved. Spread of education, advent of education, medical facilities etc. has increased the life expectancy of the person. Severe diseases no more prevail. Place of living has been improved. Good houses, proper sanitation, roads, street lights, schools, dispensaries etc. can be seen in all the villages. Means of recreation are increasing and facilities of games are also increasing. Illiteracy is decreasing day by day. All these positive changes have come in rural life.
9. Change in feeding and wearing. During ancient times, some cases were not used to use many things under the effect of the caste system. They used to wear many simple dresses and of a specific type. But the feeding and wearing habits of the people are changing today due to the decreasing effect of the caste system. Today upper casts are also using meat and alcohol. People are using artificial food in place of simple food like burgers, Pizza, Noodles, Hot dogs etc. Now people are wearing pants, jeans, shirts etc. in place of Dhoti and Kurta. Now females are wearing modern ornaments. Parda Pratha no more prevails in society.
10. Change in the rural political and educational structure. In ancient times, panchayats at the local level were elected which were generally based on the hierarchy of castes. Different castes were sending their representatives to panchayats. But now rural political structure is running according to the national political process. Now members of panchayats are not nominated but are elected by-elections. The judicial system has taken the form of courts. Education in ancient times was generally given in temples, gurudwaras, and madrasas, and education was also based on caste and religion. People of lower castes were not allowed to get an education. But now this structure has been completely changed. Now education is not based on religion but is based on science. Now everyone can get an education. Now education is not in the clutches of caste.
11. Increasing population, planning, and change in occupations. Now the population of villages has been increased to a great extent. The occupational structure has also been changed due to the increasing population, decreasing means of employment in agriculture, and the spread of education. Now agriculture is not considered a profitable occupation. The government is making new plans daily for the upliftment of rural people so that the poor people could get employment. That’s why new occupations, like small industries, dairy, piggery, poultry, electrician, automobile, etc. are increasing in the rural sector. In this way, after looking at the given description we can say that many changes have taken place in the rural sector and many other changes are coming in rural society.
Write an essay on rural society.
India is a rural country in which most of the people live in villages. The rural area is that area where technique is scarcely used, importance is given to primary relations, which are small in size and where most of the people depend upon agriculture. Rural culture is very much different from urban culture. Yet the rural and urban cultures are not the same but they both are very much interrelated. It is very much different from urban society due to many factors yet it is a part of the whole society. Many of its factors like economic, geographical, social, etc. differentiate it from urban society.