Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 3 Urban Society Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 Urban Society
Sociology Guide for Class 12 PSEB Urban Society Textbook Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. Which are the causes of homelessness in urban society?
(a) Shortage of housing
(b) Entitlement of housing
(c) Entitlement of Land
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
2. The movement of the people from rural areas to urban areas is called:
(a) Urban society
(b) Rural society
3. Which are the causes for the growth of slums?
(b) Poor housing planning
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above
(c) Both (a) and (b)
4. Which is not the feature of slum area:
(a) Acute overcrowding
(b) Inadequate lighting
(d) No sanitation system
5. Which is the cause of homelessness?
(a) Shortage of housing
(a) Shortage of housing
Fill in the Blanks:
1. Urban society is ………………. in size and …………….. in nature.
2. …………….. means of social control found in urban society.
3. An urban community is known for its ……………. division of labour.
4. Housing problem is also known as ……………
5. ………………. represents an urban way of living.
6. …………… and …………….. are the issues of urban society.
1. Urban society is small in size.
2. Trade, industry and commerce are the chief marks of the urban economy.
3. The chances for social mobility are less in urban society.
4. Megacities are suffering from acute housing problems.
5. Slums are part of rural life.
Match the Columns:
|Column A||Column B|
|Shortage of housing||Slum|
|The urban way of living||Urban society|
|Informal housing structure||Heterogeneity|
|Inter mixture of people from different backgrounds||Urbanism|
|Column A||Column B|
|Formal relation||Urban society|
|Shortage of housing||Homelessness|
|The urban way of living||Urbanism|
|Informal housing structure||Slum|
|Inter mixture of people from different backgrounds||Heterogeneity|
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
What is a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions called?
Poor ventilation, acute overcrowding, faulty alignment of streets and inadequate lighting are the features of which type of society?
Large-scale division of labour and specialisation are found in which society-urban or rural?
An attitude in which the interests of the individual take precedence over the interests of the group is called?
The state of being unknown to most people is called:
Urban society is dominated by which relations?
Secondary and formal relations.
Which type of economy is found in a tribal society?
What is the size of the urban population?
The urban population constitutes 37.7 crores or 32% of the total Indian population.
As per the census of India, what is urban society?
The areas which have municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee.
The housing problem is also known as:
Slums are known in India by which different names?
Katras, Gallis, Jhuggi-Jhopadpatti, Chawls, Bustees, Jhopadpatti etc.
Name two types of deviant behaviours existing in slum areas.
Crime, Juvenile delinquency, prostitution, drug addiction etc.
Short Answer Type Questions:
What do you mean by Urban Society?
Write a short note on urban society.
Urban society is the society in which people have formal relations, where people of different religions and cultures live with each other, which is large in size and where 75% or more population is engaged in non-agricultural occupations.
What is a non-agricultural occupation?
Those occupations which are not directly attached to agriculture are known as non-agricultural occupations. Such occupations are available in urban areas where 75% population is engaged in non-agricultural occupations such as jobs, industries etc.
What is Individualism?
When an individual only thinks about himself and his own facilities then this process is known as individualism. In this, one never cares about society or someone else. He only thinks about himself and works for his own profit.
What do you mean by Housing?
Housing is a building in which people live. It is the physical structure that gives us protection from sunlight, rain etc. The level of housing depends upon a few things such as the size of family, income, level of living life etc.
Question 5. What is Congestion?
The meaning of congestion is over-crowding of urban areas. Many households in urban areas are unable to cope up with the increasing population. That’s why many individuals are forced to live in a tiny room and this is congestion.
What is a Slum?
The slum is a colony in which labourers, poor people live in unhygienic conditions and without any facilities. Due to lack of means of living, people are forced to live in slums which adversely affects their health.
What do you mean by urbanisation?
Urbanisation is a process in which rural people migrate to urban areas, settle there and develop the areas. People not only leave their areas but they even change their views, ideals, habits etc.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Explain two characteristics of urban society.
Briefly discuss two characteristics of urban society.
- Size of population: Urban society is large in size as it has a lot of population. Availability of more employment, education, health and entertainment facilities attract rural people to urban areas.
- Non-Agricultural Occupations: One of the major features of urban society is that 75% or more of its population is engaged in non-agricultural occupations. There is the existence of specialisation and division of labour. Many opportunities to earn money are available in urban areas.
Write down the three causes of housing.
- Lack of Houses: There is a lack of houses in urban areas and that’s why there is always a problem of housing in urban areas.
- Poverty: There is too much of the urban population out of which many are poor who cannot afford to buy a house. That’s why there is a problem with housing in cities.
- More Population: The way in which urban population is increasing, housing is not increasing with that pace. That’s why people face the problem of housing.
Write the three causes responsible for slum areas in urban society.
Slums are the social problem of urban society. Discuss.
- Rural-Urban Migration: Rural people migrate to urban areas in search of employment but they do not find any place of living. That’s why they have to live in slums.
- Urbanisation: Many facilities are available in cities and rural people get attracted to them. They do not have any place of living and they are forced to live in slums.
- Poverty: Urban poverty is quite helpful in increasing slums in cities. People don’t have money to buy a house. So they have to live in slums.
Write any two social changes in urban society.
- Occupations in urban areas are increasing. During earlier times, there were very few occupations available but occupations are increasing due to industrialisation and education. People are adopting them and are removing unemployment.
- Individualism is increasing in urban areas. Now people don’t know about their neighbours. They only know about their own interests and they are ready to do anything for their interests.
Write a short note on urban society.
See Question 1. of very long answer type questions (V).
What do you mean by urban society? Discuss its characteristics in detail.
See Question 1. of very long answer type questions (V).
Very Long Answer Type Questions:
Write a detailed note on urban society.
Define urban society. Discuss the major characteristics of urban society in detail.
Urban areas and people living in urban areas are rapidly increasing. More .than 5,000 cities and towns are there in our country. Life of the urban people has been greatly affected due to increase in population. People of the middle class and higher class are able to fulfill their needs but it becomes very difficult for people of lower classes to fulfill their needs.
In simple words city is a formally spread community that is determined on the basis of living standard of the people living in any specific area and on the basis of urban characteristics. Word ‘CITY’ is an English word. Word CITY has come out of the word of Latin language ‘CIVITAS’ whose meaning is citizenship. In the same way the English word ‘URBAN’ has come out of Lastin word ‘URBS’ whose meaning is also city.
Definition on the basis of population. According to the Census Bureau of America, a city is that place whose population is 25,000 or more than it. In the same way Egypt has the limit of 11,000 and France has the limit of 2,000 for any place to be called as a city. In our country India, community of population more than 5,000 is known as Urban area where the density of population is 400 or more than 400 and where 75% or more than 75% of people are engaged in non-agricultural occupations. Definitions on the basis of occupations. That area is considered as Urban area where the main occupation of the people is not the agriculture but is any one else.
- According to Willcox, “The cities include all districts in which the density of population per square mile is more than 1,000 and where there is practically no agriculture.”
- According to Bergal, “City is an institution whose most of the citizens are engaged in other industries except agriculture.”
- According to Anand Kumar, “Urban community is a complex community of secondary relation with more population, based primarily on occupational and environmental differences.”
- According to Lewis Mumford, “City is that centre where more and more power of community and concentration of culture is there.”
- According to Louis Wirth, “In city, people with many social differences are living in an area with more concentration of population.”
So on the basis of these definitions, we can say that the urban communities are large in size, where secondary relations are of great importance, where a number of occupations are there and where the features like division of labour, specialization and social mobility are there.
Characteristics: 1. Large Population. Most important feature of urban society is the large number of people living over there and more density of pupulation. Meaning of density of population is that how many people live in one square kilometre. Cities can be divided in different classes on the basis of more or less population like small cities, medium cities and metropolitan cities. Population of the metropolitan cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata etc., is more than one crore but the population of 13 states of India is less than one crore. Industrial houses, educational institutions, trade centres and commerce centres are more in cities because of which the density of population is more in cities. Because of more population, many problems arise in cities like poverty, unemployment, crime, starvation, slums etc.
2. Less Places of Living. Another important feature of cities is the lack of place of living. It is so because of the more population of cities. It is a very serious problem in big cities. Many poor people live on roadsides or under the trees or in slums. Middle class families live in small houses in cities where there is no place to play for children and where ,there is no separate room for children to sleep and to study. That’s why many times children are able to see those things which should not be seen by them. In this way very less place of living is there in cities.
3. Secondary and Formal Relations. The most important feature of urban society is the large number of population. Peoplg don’t have direct or face to face relations due to this large number of population. People in cities have formal relations with each other. These relations are temporary. Person makes relation with other persons whenever any need arises and these relations come to an end when person’s need is fulfilled. In this way secondary and formal relations are the base of urban society.
4. Different Occupations. Cities are developed on the basis of different occupations. Many industries, occupations and institutions exist in cities because of which different people are engaged in different types of occupations. Doctors, Managers, Engineers, Specialised labourers, non-specialised labourers etc. Thousands of occupations exist in urban areas. More population is necessary for the needs of these different occupations.
5. Division in Economic Classes. Not much importance is given to caste, religion and occupation of the person in urban areas. But population in cities is divided in economic classes on economic basis. Population, in cities, is not divided only in two classes of capitalists and labourers but many other small classes and sub-classes exist in cities on the basis of their economic status. The difference of higher and lower classes also exists in cities.
6. Competition. Every person, in cities, gets enough chances to progress in every sector. We can find literate and able persons, in cities, in large number. That’s why too much competition is there in cities to get admission in educational institutions, to get job and to get promotion in job. Competition has been increased to a great extent due to the development of industrialization.
7. Individualism. The equality of individualism can be seen among the people of urban areas. We can see the sense of individualism instead of community feeling among the urban people. People in cities just consider about their interests. Person has just one aim of his life and that is to collect more and more money with the help of which he can buy all the things of leisure. This feature of individualism is not limited among persons only in economic and political sector but it has reached the familial and cultural sector as well.
8. Social Mobility. More social mobility exists in urban areas as compared to rural areas. People in cities are always ready to leave one place and to go to another place for more profit or in search of good job. We can see local mobility as well as social mobility among the urban people. It means that person’s social status in society changes to higher or lower according to his ability.
9. Higher Status of Women. Status of woman is higher in urban society as compared to rural society. We can see urban women working in any sector without any restriction and she works like males. Many social evils like purdah system, child marriage, no education to females, restrictions on female are either very less in number or are negligible. That’s why the urban woman gets more chances to develop her prsonality. We can see urban females working like males in every field and in every sector.
10. Less Family Control. Very less primary relations are there in urban societies and it also lacks community feelings. Person in cities gets the facilities like making food, washing cloths, creches for taking care of children etc. That’s why there is no need for the person to depend upon other members of the family to fulfill his needs. That’s why females are going out of their houses to do job in any office. It is so because the responsibilities of females for family and children have been taken away by many other institutions. In this way the place of family relations is taken away by money. That’s why the control of the family over its members has been reduced to a great extent.
11. Centre of Social Problems. Urban society has played an important role in increasing many social problems. Many types of social problems, which exists in present societies, are because of urban areas. City is the main centre of many problems like crime, corruption, alcoholism, poverty, unemployment, family disorganization, conflict in different classes, lack of moral values etc. Population and size of cities are increasing day by day and that’s why all the problems are also increasing.
12. Technology and Invention. Many types of developed techniques, education and different types of training exist in urban societies. Urban people have to face new problem daily and that’s why many new inventions daily take place in their areas. We can see many forms of science, better technology, higher education etc. in urban areas.
13. Decreasing Effect of Religion. Number of literate persons are too much in cities. That’s why they never spend their life based on superstitions, mores, beliefs etc. Person understands everything on the basis of reason and science. That’s why they want to understand religious functions on the basis of reason. But no one can prove these religious functions on the basis of reason and that’s why the faith and effect of religion on person is decreasing day by day.
14. Changing Social Classes. Different classes play an important role in maintaining any society. These classes have fulfilled many needs of the society right from the ancient times till today. But in today’s modern times, social classes are very much changeable and flexible. Old classes of cities are coming to an end and they are being replaced by new classes. There is too much difference in working culture of ancient classes and modern classes and that’s why they seem like new classes.
What is housing? What are the causes responsible for housing problems?
The meaning of housing is that building in which people live. It means that physical structure which protects us from sun, cold, rain etc. If there is no housing, people will have to live under open sky and they will not be able to protect them in any way. The level of housing of any one depends upon many factors such as family income is less or more, family is of small size (nuclear family) or of large size (joint family) what is their life style and what is the level of education in the family.
Our country India still is not in a position to provide the basic facility of having a home to millions of its citizens. Having a home is a basic need of an individual. Even after 69 years of independence, our country is having a severe shortage of housing, especially for the poor. This problem is further increased by the increasing population of urban India. The rural migration to urban areas in search of employment has exerted a great pressure on urban housing and basic facilities. That’s why the gap between demand and supply increases in urban areas and that’s why there is a great lack of housing over there.
During last few decades, the urban population is increasing quite rapidly and it’s almost impossible to provide a house to every individual. That’s why the problem of housing, which is also known as homelessness, is becoming a major problem in urban areas. The places of living in urban areas are under such pressure that many persons are forced to live on roads, bus stand, railway station and slums. It has been said that around half of the urban population fives in slums or they pay 20% of their total income as rent of their house. Major cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Chennai are facing this problem.
There are many reasons of the problem of housing such as:
- Lack of houses
- Entitlement of land
- Individual status of homeless persons
- Entitlement of houses.
What do you mean by slums? Write a detailed note on it.
Population of our country is increasing very quickly. Due to this increasing population of the country, many problems are also increasing in the cities Out of these problems, one problem which is creating lot of trouble to us is the p’-obkin of living in the cities. People hardly get houses to five in cities and if they are available then their rent and rates are very high that one common person or poor people cannot afford it, but they have to live in cities because of their occupations. That’s why they have to live in slums. In this way slums have come forward in cities as a very important and serious problem. Tliey are also known as Jhugis, Chawls, Jhopar patti, ‘Bastis’ etc.
In this way we can define slums in this way that, “group of buildings or bad houses where more than required people are living in non-living conditions, where people have to live in unhygienic environment due to non-arrangement of sanitation or due to lack of facilities and with Which a wrong effect is there on the health and morality of the people living in those groups.”
In this way slum is that area in a city where place of living is not good for a better life. Slums can be seen as a social fact. In this way the following things can be seen very early in slums:
- More density of population
- Crowd of people
- Lack of sanitation facility
- Sub-standard houses
In this way, people in slums, live with each other in the non-living and hell-like atmosphere, where too much poverty, temporary houses are there and where is no facility of sanitation: These are those areas where a person cannot live and the atmosphere is not conducive for the people to live a good life. According to census of 2001, Slum is that
- Which is declared as slum by State Government, Local Government and Union Centered Administration.
- That narrow place where minimum of 300 people are living or where 60-70 houses are made in a bad way, where atmosphere is not healthy, whose infrastructure is very bad and where there is a problem of drinking water and sanitation.
Characteristics of Slums:
On the basis of given description we can give certain characteristics of slums which are given below:
1. Problem of place of living. First and the most important feature of slums is that they have the problem of place of living. People are coming to cities, by leaving their villages, in search of any work. They get job in cities but are unable to get house to live. If they find any house then that house is in slums. In these slums, 8¬10 people are living only in one room in non-hygienic conditions and even make their food over there. In this way there is a problem of place of living in slums.
2. Full of crimes. Slums are always full of crimes. The behaviour of most of the people living here is disintegrative. We can include crimes, prostitution, child deliquency, suicide, family disorganization, Alcoholism, drug abuse etc. in disintegrative behaviour. There is no place of thing called morality in these slums. Most the people living here are illiterate and are open to criminal behaviour. In other words persons are very much open to move towards crimes living in slums.
3. Lack of facilities. There is very much lack of facilities in slums. These slums are generally illegal and are made on the illegal occupation on any one else’s land. Because they are illegal that’s why they never get the facilities provided by government like electricity, water, sanitation, roads etc. So due to unavailability of facilities people lack facilities over here and that’s why they have to live life like hell. Atmosphere over here is not conducive for any one to live here. Lack of water and electricity are the main features of these slums. Children are used to die due to many diseases. Even children are open to be suffered by diseases. No facilities of sanitation and no health facilities are there in slums.
4. Over populated. Most of the slums are there in metropolitan cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata etc. People move towards urban areas, by leaving villages, in search of good occupations. They get any work in cities but hardly get any good place to live. Good places of living like flats are very expensive to live and a common person cannot give this much of rent. That’s why he has to find any cheap place of living and cheap place to live is always available in slums. People, in large number, start to live over here and in this way the population of slums increases. Even 8-10 persons are living and cooking in one room.
5. Away from civilized society. People living in slums live in very bad atmosphere and very much away from civilized society. There is no means of contact in slums with civilized society. People living over here know that this place of living is not good for their health and its atmosphere is very bad to live but they don’t have any other option except to live over here. For the whole life they fight with the poverty, unemployment, crimes and feel themselves as helpless. Good facilities are very much away from them.
6. Full of problems. We can find every type ef social problem in these slums. Problems like poverty, Unemployment, prostitution, crimes, child deliquency, violence, drug abuse, bad habits, disintegrative behaviour etc. exist in every slum. Daily workers, rickshaw pullers, thiefs, criminals etc. live over here. Parents and children are living in one room. They observe every thing which should not be seen by them. They feeT attracted towards these things and move towards crimes even in younger age.
In this way we can say that slums are those places, which exist in metropolitan cities, where thousands of people are living in small area and worse environment. These slums are full of crimes and problems and its environment is not conducive and good to live life.
Write down about social changes which occur in urban society.
Many changes are coming in the urban society’s every aspect in modern times because the way in which changes are coming in our social structure, in that same way our urban society system is also changing. New circumstances have exerted a lot of effect on the structure and functions of the urban family. Now we will see that how changes have come in the functions and structure of the cities and other urban institutions.
1. Change in Familial Structure: In earlier societies joint family was of great importance and in those societies joint families exist everywhere. But in modern times a very big change has come in the structure of the family and that change is this that now joint family system is coming to an end. Instead of joint family, nuclear families came into being. With the advent of Nuclear family some changes have also come in the family like:
- Individualistic point of view and outlook
- Change in the relations of male and female
- Limited Size
- Breaking of families
- Higher standard of living
- Instability in the family
- Equal division of property
- Good upbringing of children.
Because of these reasons stability of family has decreased. We can break family at any time with divorce.
2. Breaking up of Families: In ancient times birth of girl baby was known as curse updn the family. She was deprived of education. Slowly and slowly with the change in society, female started to get education. In earlier times female was dependent upon husband after marriage but today she is independent economically and she is very less dependent upon husband. Even in same cases wife earns more than husband. In these conditions family can disintegrate at any time. Except this the position of husband and wife is equal these days. They are proud of themselves because of which fights, conflicts, quarrels start in the family and even children are affected by this. In this way many other reasons are there because of which existence of families is in danger and the future of children and family is not safe.
3. Change in Educational-Functions: With the change in society, changes are also coming in the functions of all urban institutions. Functions of the family, which family was doing for its members, have been changed’completely. In ancient times, child was getting education in the family and the education was generally related with the traditional occupation of the family. It was so because joint family’system was there and whatever function father was doing, child had to adopt same occupation.
Under the guidance of the father-child was getting training. But slowly and slowly with modernization child started to go to educational institutions to get education and because of this he started to go away from the traditional occupation of the family. He started to adopt any other occupation. In this way the traditional function of the family has been changed and goes in the hands of educational institutions.
4. Change in the Economic Functions: In earlier times the family was the centre of economic activities. Every work related to earning was being done by family. In this way all the means of living were available in the family. But with the advent of industrialization all those functions of production were taken away by the big industries like now cloth is made in any textile mill. In this way economic functions of the family have been taken by industries. So the responsibility of family of economic production has been taken away by other institutions.
5. Change in Religious Functions: In earlier times one of the main functions of family was to give religious education to its members. Family was telling its members about religion and morality. But with the advent of new scientific inventions and discoveries outlook of people has been changed from religious to scientific. In earlier societies religion was of utmost importance but today religion has very less importance as compared to earlier time. In earlier times people were used to spend a lot of time for religious functions and religious rituals were performed for a number of days.
But these days people don’t have spare time for religious functions and rituals. Instead of religious functions people are celebrating festivals. Everyone tries to spend more and more money on these festivals. Because of the importance of money, importance of religious actions has been decreased. In this way the religious functions of the family have been reduced.
6. Change is Social Functions: Social function of the family has been reduced. In earlier times husband was just like a God for wife. It was the duty of the husband to keep his wife happy. Except this family was doing an important function of controlling the behaviour of its members but now this function of social control has been taken away by many agencies like police, court, military etc. With this another function of the family was upbringing of children. Child was developing in the family and all the members of the family love the child. But slowly and slowly with modernization, females started to go out of the house and started to go out for job. So for the upbringing of children creches came into being where children are taken care by other females. In this way this function of the family has been reduced.
Except this in earlier times elders of the family were protected by the family and were fully respected by the members of the family. But today husband and wife both are working and they are so busy that they don’t have the time to take care of their elders. Today old age homes have come into being where they are taken care of. In this way social function of the family has been reduced.
7. Decreasing Family Unity: In earlier times joint .families were there but today the unity and system of joint family has come to an end. Every one has its own ideals. No one tolerates any one’s interference. They are living with each other, eating, drinking with each other but hardly bother about them. Clearly they lack unity.
8. Individualistic Approach: Approaches of members of modern societies have been changed to individualistic. Every member-only thinks about his own interests. In ancient time and in rural societies, person has to suppress his wish if it clashes with the interest of the family. Collectivity was heavier then the individualism. There was no value of person’s personal wish. But these things have been changed completely in modern urban societies. Person never likes to leave his wish for the interests of the society. There is no value for a person of society’s wish. He just knows about his own wish.
9. Change in the Status of Women: The status of males and female is equal in urban society but the status of female is very low in rural family. The urban female is well educated and is aware about her rights. With this most of the urban women are working somewhere else except their home. They are working in offices, factories, schools, colleges etc. and are earning equal money with that of males. Even in some cases she earns more then the males.
She helps the family from economic point of view and that’s why she wants that she should be given equal rights with males. If male tries to oppose this then she can take divorce from him. In this way urban female has got equal status with that of males due to her education and economic status. If her in-laws try to exploit the girl or try to commit atrocities on girl then girl can seek justice by going to police or court and can send her husband and in-laws to jail. That’s why the numbers of divorce are increasing and families are breaking.
10. Higher Standard of Living: The standard of living of urban people have become higher. Urban family is small in size in which husband, wife and their unmarried children are living. That’s why it is known as Nuclear family. Income of person in rural society is generally spent on the family. Even unemployed people are also eating by sitting only at home because of which the standard of living of rural people is very low. But urban families are small in size because of which they save some money from their total income. With this wife also works anywhere because of which economic status of the family becomes higher. They buy all the things of leisure with that saved money because of which standard of living of people becomes higher.
Differentiate between tribal, rural, and urban societies.
|Urban Society||Rural Society||Tribal Society|
|1. Urban society is large in size.||1. Rural society is small in size.||1. Tribal Society is small in size.|
|2. Urban society is full of diversities.||2. There is homogeneity in 2. People have similarities rural society and people and unity with each are quite similar to each other.||2. People have similarities and unity with each other.|
|3. Urban societies are full of seconaary relations.||3. Rural societies have primary relations.||3. Blood relations are quite important in tribal societies.|
|4. There are formal means of social control in urban society.||4. Informal means of social control are there in rural society.||4. Informal means of social control are there in tribal society.|
|5. Urban society 18 full of non-agricultural occupations.||5. Major occupation of the rural people is agriculture.||5. Hunting, collecting and rearing animal8 is the major occupation of tribal people.|
|6. Urban society is very much away from nature.||6. Rural society is quite close to nature.||6. They have direct and close relation with nature.|
|7. Urban people are very well educated.||7. Rural people do not lay much stress on education.||7. Most of the tribal people are uneducated|
|8. Urban people are progressive in nature and that’s why they are ready to take risk.||8. Rural people are traditional in nature. So, they don’t like change.||8. Tribal people are traditional and full of superstitions.|
|9. Specialisatîon and division of labour on a large scale is available in urban areas.||9. Simple division of labour is available in rural society.||9. Division of labour is based on sex.|