Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 12 Western Sociological Thinkers Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 12 Western Sociological Thinkers
Sociology Guide for Class 11 PSEB Western Sociological Thinkers Textbook Questions and Answers
Answer the following very short answer questions in 1-15 words each:
The formal study of society as an academic discipline originated in which country and in which century?
The formal study of society as an academic discipline originated in France (Europe) during the 19th century.
Name the three factors responsible for the development of Sociology as an independent discipline.
The industrialist Revolution, the French Revolution, and the ideas of Enlightenment are responsible for the growth of sociology.
State the names of two thinkers associated with enlightenment.
Charles Montesquieu and Jean Jacques Rousseau were the two thinkers associated with enlightenment.
French Revolution took place in which year?
The French Revolution took place in 1789 A.D.
What does the term ‘positivism ’ stand for ?
Positivism says that society works according to certain fixed laws which can be discovered.
Who named two branches of Sociology as social statics and social dynamics ?
Auguste Comte gave the names of social statics and social dynamics as two
Make a chart of Auguste Comte’s law of three stages.
Karl Marx’s theory of class is based on which determinism ?
Karl Marx’s theory of class is based on the ownership of means of production. One group owns all the means of production and the other doesn’t have any.
Who wrote the book ‘Communist Manifesto’ ?
Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx and Fredrich Engles.
What are the stages of social change given by Karl Marx ?
Communism and then socialism are the stages of social change given by Karl Marx.
Who classified the society by the nature of solidarity existing in the society? .
Emile Durkheim classified the society by the nature of solidarity existing in the society.
Name the two kinds of solidarities discussed by Emile Durkheim.
Mechanical and organic solidarity are the two kinds of solidarities discussed by Emile Durkheim.
List the types of social action given by Max Weber.
Max Weber gave four types of social action and these are-Zweckrational, Wertrational, affective action and traditional action.
Name the types of authority mentioned by Max Weber.
Max Weber mentioned three types of authority-Traditional authority, Legal authority and Charismatic authority. „
Answer the following short answer questions in 30-35 words each:
What is enlightenment ?
Enlightenment was the age when great intellectual development took place and many changes came in the philosophical ideas. This time was around 17th-18th centuries. Major thinkers of this age were Montesquieu and Rouseau. These thinkers stressed on the supremacy of science and reason over belief. Due to these thinkers, people started giving stress on using scientific method in social phenomenon.
Write a short note on theological and metaphysical stage.
Comte says that in theological stage, human ideas were imaginative. He considered every thing as a form of God. Concept was that yet all the things are lifeless but ultimate power exists in them. Second stage continued from 14th to 16th century.During this age, the right of uninterrupted observation came forward which was having no limit. That’s why spirituality declined and it also affected the metaphysical aspect.
What do you mean by animism ?
Animism is a theory which says that people believe that God exists only in living things. The meaning of word ‘Anima’ is ‘soul’ or ‘movement’. That’s why people started worshipping animals, birds, land and air as well.
Discuss class as defined by Karl Marx.
According to Karl Marx, “Classes are large groups of people differing from each other by the place they occupy in a historically determined system of social production, by their relation to the means of production, by their role in the social organisation of labour and consequently by the dimensions of the share of social wealth of which they dispose and their mode of acquiring it.”
What do you mean by class consciousness ?
Each class is aware about its members, their position and social status. Such awareness is called class consciousness. Members of all the classes are conscious about their groups and that’s why they generally like to keep relations with the members of their own class.
Define historical materialism.
Historical materialism is understanding history in terms of the relations of the people to the means of production. In simple words historical materialism is the philosophical theory of social development.
Write a brief note on social facts.
Durkheim gave the concept of social fact. According to him, social fact is the every permanent or temporary way of doing action which is capable of exerting external pressure on an individual or every way of repeating action which is available everywhere but keeps independent existence from individual ideas.
Discuss organic solidarity.
Organic solidarity is available in modern societies and is based on the differences existing among its members. It prevails in the societies with more population and poeple have formal relations among them. Repressive laws prevail in such societies.
What do you mean by Zweckrational action ?
It is a type of rational action which is performed while keeping in mind the final goal. In these actions, an actor clearly knows about the goals and select particular means to attain his goals. These are planned and taken after evaluating the goal. These are also known as instrumental action.
What is affective action ?
This action is emotional. It is determind on most of the occassions, by the state of mind of the actor. In this case, the action is not aimed towards a goal but is determined by an emotional reaction of the actor in a given set of circumstances.
Authority is a particular form of power supported by the rules of a social system. It is generally accepted as legitimate by those who participate in it.
Answer the following short answer questions in 75-85 words each:
Explain the law of three stages as propounded by Auguste Comte.
Auguste Comte gave the law of three stages and said that there are three stages of social evolution-theological stage, metaphysical stage and positive stage. In theological stage, all the human ideas were imaginative and he considered all the things as a reaction to the actions of a supernatural power.
Thought was that yet all the things are lifeless but that supernatural power exists among them. Second stage was metaphysical stage which continued from 14th to 19th century.
In this stage, revolutionary movement started and protestent religion originated. In 16th century, negative concept emerged whose main aim was social change. In this, people had the right of unlimited observation. In positive stage, industrial society emerged and science came forward. In this stage there is no conflict in social system and progress.
Discuss the features of mechanical solidarity.
- Members in such societies have homogeneity of behaviour and they behave in a similar way.
- Common beliefs and feelings are the symbols of mechanical solidarity. Collective consciousness exists among the members of society.
- Repressive laws prevail in mechanical societies where there is a system of punishment for criminals.
- Morality is the base of mechanical societies and consequently solidarity prevails in society.
- Religion, as well, is one of the important bases of such societies and individuals
behave according to religion.
Discuss the features of organic solidarity.
- Societies with organic solidarity have differentiation and specialisation amongst them. Many classes prevail in such societies.
- Division of labour is of great importance over here and people depend upon each other to fulfil their basic needs.
- Many organisations and groups prevail over here and that’s why restitutive laws are of great importance.
- In organic societies, contractual relations are the source of social solidarity and individuals are hired on contract.
- In such societies religion is of very less importance.
- Such societies are modern societies.
Differentiate between theological and metaphysical stage.
(i) Theological Stage : This stage started with the beginning of humanity when humans were afraid of natural forces. He considered all the things as a result of action of any supernatural power. He believed that yet all the things are lifeless but god prevails among all.
(ii) Metaphysical Stage : Comte calls this stage as a revolutionary stage of modern society. This state started in 14th century and continued till 19th century. It is divided into two parts. In first part, revolutionary movement started and revolutionary philosophy came after the advent of Protestent religion. Second stage started in 16th century and negative theories started in it whose main objective was social change.
Do you think capitalism will be replaced by communist societies in near future ?
No, we don’t think that capitalism will be replaced by communist societies in near future. Actually capitalist system is based on open market but communist economy is under government’s control and presently no one likes such control. In 1917 A.D, Russian monarchy was replaced by communism but after few decades, economy reached its worst ever condition. That’s why in 1990 A.D., U.S.S.R. was disintegrated and divided into many countries. So we can say that communist societies cannot replace capitalist economies.
Answer the following short answer questions in 250-300 words each:
Has Sociology developed as a full fledged science as envisioned by Auguste Comte ?
Auguste Comte was the one who coined the term sociology in 1839 A.D. He wrote a book ‘The Course of Positive Philosophy’ which got published in six parts. In this book, he wrote that different parts of society are studied by different social sciences. For example, Political Science studies the political aspect of society, economic aspect is studied by economics. So, there must be a science which could study society.
He imagined a science which could study society, social relation etc. and according to his imagination, a new science emerged which is known as Sociology. After Comte, Herbert Spencer gave many a- concept with which the scope of Sociology started expanding. Emile Durkheim was the first Sociologist who tried to establish Sociology as a Science. During his studied, he used scientific method and said that society can be studied with these methods such as observation etc.
Tie gave many concepts to sociology such as social fact, suicide, division of labour, religion etc. and the use of scientific method is clearly visible in his concepts. He was the first professor of Sociology. Karl Marx and Max Weber also gave great contribution in establishing sociology as a science. Karl Marx gave conflict theory and most of the other theories are centered around this theory. Marx studied society from economic point of view and that the history of society is the history of class struggle.
He gave a detailed description of two classes and the continuing conflict between them. He gave many concepts to sociology such as historical materialism, dialectical materialism, class and class struggle, theory of alienation etc. Max Weber also tried to do the same and gave the theory of social action.
He gave scientific explanation of sociology and gave other theories such as social action, authority, domination, religion, bureaucracy etc. After these founding fathers of Sociology, many other philosophers came forward and we cannot neglect their contribution in establishing Sociology as a science.
Among them, Talcott Parsons, J.S. Mill, Malinowaski, Robert Merton, Gillin and Gillin, G.S. Ghurye are quite important.
Since the last few decades scientific methods are used in sociology so that the study could remain objective. With this, it will be possible to implement the findings of one region into another.
After using hypothesis, observation, sampling, interview, schedule, questionnaire, classification, tabulation, use of statistics etc. Sociology has definitely established itself as a science.
What is Marx’s theory of class struggle ?
In Marx’s developed scientific theories, one thing is included and that is he has explained the existence of class before different social classes. Most important thing is that Marx gave a very good explanation of classes. The main aim of Marx was to know about that society, in which we are living and the face which we can see today, why it is so and with which forces changes came in it ? Not only this he has also explained that in future which type of changes will come in this society.
Marx and Angles both concluded after their research that there is a lot of exploitation in the society. So the another aim of their research was to find a conceptual way to establish exploitationless society. On the basis of his study Marx was of the view that the changes which are coming in nature and in human society they are not coming at once. An internal struggle is always going on in nature and society. With this struggle, phenomena are developing and the cycle of natural and social evolution is going on.
The main philosophical concept of Marx is Dialectic materialism. With Dialectic system the explanation of society is known as Historical Materialism. According to him, the development and change in society is not coming because of any king, leader, divine’s mind and courage but it comes due to some specific socio-economic reasons. The ways of thinking, doing work and systerhs are coming from the development level of production system and by the ways of exchange.
Man always tries to produce more with less labour. Internal struggle is always there in the human society and in opposite things of nature. Because of this process man always changes old system of production with new system of production with new natural and®social knowledge. With this the social structure also changes which was based on economic structure. So to understand and to solve the problems of society of any age we have to study the oppositions of socio-economic structure of that age.
What is Class ? Before understanding the concept of class struggle of Marx, first of all we should understand what class is. After analysing history, Marx has strongly advocated that we should study from the point of view that we should find those laws which govern human history and for this we should observe the work and behaviour of common people instead of few specific people.
Every type of society was divided in different groups. In this way different classes form a special socio-economic unit. This unit is known as class. Marx was of the view that in every type of society we can see a number of classes which are divided in different units. According to Marx’s explanation of class, Lenin gave definition of class.
Lenin wrote, “Class is a big group of those people which in any method of social production of history, from their own point of view, from the point of view of their relations with means of production, from the point of view of their role in social structure of labour and because of result of which of how much they are owner of social property, and from the point of view of getting that property they are different from each other.”
According to Marx in any of the ages because of division of labour and because of getting different means of livelihood humans are divided in different classes and every class has its different and special class consciousness. By class, Marx doesn’t mean concept of Indian caste system. By class, he means that group of people which can be defined from their role in production process.
In simple words, “Class is a group of those people which earn their livelihood in the same manner.” The birth of class is based on the ways of production. The way in which production system changes, old classes are also replaced by the new classes.
Marx has explained that there are two classes in every type of society. After understanding the detailed concept of class, now we are in a position to understand the concept of ‘class struggle’. Marx wrote that in every society there are two opposite classes, one who exploits and second which is exploited and the struggle is always there in these two classes.
To this struggle Marx gave the name of ‘class struggle’. In the Communist Manifesto, Marx wrote that with the existence of society, class struggle was also started side by side. According to Marx in the processes of production different classes have different roles to play. So for the interests of the needs of these classes the condition of struggle is must and this struggle gives a base for different and opposite ideologies.
A conflict started in developing powers of production and in functionalist and in relations of static property and with this the speed of struggle increased. Speed of history is determined by the role of classes and we can find social economic classes in all those societies where general principle of division of labour is applied.
According to Marx, class struggle is starting from that production system which divides the society into different classes. In this one class produces after a lot of hard work like slaves, half slaves, farmers, labourers etc. and other class without doing any hard work and any work, uses quite large part .of production like masters of slaves, feudal lords, owners of land, capitalists etc.
This helps in reaching class struggle at its highest stage. Marx believes that when any revolution becomes successful then with this a new socio-economic system emerges. We should keep in mind that according to Marx there is a difference in ‘Class Opposition’ and ‘Class Struggle’. Generally people mix these with each other.
In struggle there is a definite consciousness but in all ‘Class Oppositions’ theTe is no class consciousness. For example, in America before civil war, black slaves had limited opposition against their white masters and in India the social opposition against caste system cannot be called as class struggle.
Class opposition will be mixed in class struggle when in the process of production exploited class will start to feel that now it is impossible for them to live in that condition. In this the role of political parties is quite significant. So for this according to Marx it is the duty of revolutionary political parties that they should speed up class struggle for the development of class consciousness.
In this way in his concept of Historical Materialism, Marx clarified that the history of evolution of society, history of evolution of production system means is the history of production forces and evolution of production relations of man. While studying history we should keep in mind that history is not only about some events, phenomenon, life sketches of kings and queens, greatness or braveness of military generals and it is not only the collection of all these things.
History cannot be a science after analysing all these things. History can be a science when it should have analysis of production system and inter-related social and political institutions of art, religion, behaviour, philosophy, literature and with them the analysis of those producers of material things – common people.
So on this base Marx has divided the whole human history in these parts :
1. Primitive Communal Society: Primitive communal society was the first stage of social history. In this the means of production were underdeveloped like tools of stones, arrow, bow etc. To produce essential commodities joint labour was used. So for this every one had the right over production and there was no economic exploitation and there was no class difference.
2. Slave Society: Second stage of social history was slave society. With the development of agriculture, cattle rearing and tools of metal the production system and relations started to change and slave system was started. With developed means of production the concept of private property came into being and different classes of slaves and slave masters also came into being. In this way class struggle came into being. According to Marx class-struggle was started in this society because in this society masters started to exploit slaves.
3. Feudal Society: This was Feudal Society. In this stage means of production i.e., land came under occupation of some land owners and some feudal lords. Large number of landless half slaves became farmers. The concept of private property also strengthened in this age. We can see the remains of this stage even today in the developing country like India and in underdeveloped countries. In this stage two classes of farmers and feudal lords were made. Class struggle also increased in this stage.
4. Capitalist Society: This age was of the capitalist society. Actually at the end of 15th century when science started to develop then an opposition was started between new means of production and between relations of production system. With the invention of new machines and with the establishment of large industries this age of capitalism was started which prevails even today. In this age two classes were made.
One was capitalist class which was exploiting other class and other was class of labourers which were forced to sell their labour at no cost or very less pay to the owner of means of production i.e. capitalist. In this age with the development of science education increased and because labourers were working with each other in large industries they got organized and gradually class consciousness was developed. Today exploited class is not ready to be exploited by other class. Class struggle is at its best.
This is the last system based on exploitation. Today the destruction of capitalism has started. Human society is going towards socialism in a rapid speed. Example of this is the governments of Russia, China and other countries. According to Marx, the root cause behind exploitation is private property and because of this thing only there are two main classes in every sphere of production in society.
Out of these two classes, one class has all the means of economic production because of which this class is exploiting poor people and other class is that which doesn’t have any means of production. In every age of society we can find struggle (except primitive communism) between these two. It was the assumption of Marx that with the help of its money and means of production capitalist class always tries to force the people to adopt its thinking and life style and system.
According to Marx, “That class which has the material force, all means of production and intellectual power always controls means of mental production also.” For this type of control it uses every type of force. The religion, philosophy, politics, economy, morality etc. which it has forced the people to adopt become slaves of capitalists. To maintain this condition of exploitation it is must to suppress the everything of classes with force.
Social evolution is given by different stages. The evolution of any society, system or historical age depends upon circumstances of that country. No social system lives forever. All processes are dialectic. There is always an internal struggle between new processes of production (Thesis) and old processes of production (Anti Thesis).
It is must to adopt new processes instead of old processes. The qualitative changes happen slowly and slowly, but quantitative changes happen at once. So according to law of evolution revolutionary changes are automatic and compulsory. These changes are based on force. In the process of evolution there is a conflict between opposite forces. In the end class struggle will speed up and it is must for exploited class or labour class to win this struggle.
According to Marx because of this opposition capitalism will automatically come to an end. In capitalist system, poverty, striveness and unemployment will increase very quickly. When it will be beyond the range of labourer class then they will break all the chains and revolutionary age will start. According to Marx capitalism will be the last Social system based on exploitation.
Capitalists will not leave their rights. With peaceful methods exploitation cannot be stopped. So for this revolution is must. A part of society will change into labour class and this revolutionary change will be good for every one. Under the leadership of labour class and after‘the class struggle when the machinery of the state will be under their control then the age of Socialism will start. According to Marx, state is the biggest weapon in the hands of capitalist class to exploit.
Even after revolution the mediocres of feudalism and capitalism will try and go for anti-revolution. So after going to socialism from capitalism it will be the temporary stage of dictatorship of labour class. After the establishment of sqcialism and after the end of exploitation, all the classes will come to an end and every one will get according to his labour but in the developed stage of communism every one will get according to its needs.
Slowly and slowly the state, which was the weapon of exploitation in the hands of capitalist class, will also come to an end and instead of state those institutions will come into being which will be based on cooperation. Classes and class struggle will come to an end. The end of class struggle between labourers and capitalists will come with the end of capitalism. When the means of production will come in the hands of society then the ban on production will go and destruction of production forces will also come to an end.
The idea of end of classes through class struggle is not a dream in present age. World is going very fast towards the establishment of classless socialist society. With the revolution of labourers all the opposition will be solved. It is the historical duty of modern labour class to fulfil this wish of labour class. After this with conscious mind, man will make his history himself. In this way beginning of Marxism is the new step towards development of class struggle of movement of labour class.
Not only Marx and Engles have given a scientific ideology of labourers but also they have given a new conceptual tool in the hands of labour class and they have established a new type of class system of labourers. Firstly they had established a communist league and then they collected all the organizations of labourers in the world and made ‘International Association’ of working class. In this way Marx and Engles have given the concept of class and class struggle.
Write a note on communist revolution in Russia and China.
(i) Russian Revolution: Before 1917, Russia was controlled by the Romanov dynasty. At the beginning of First World War (1914), Tzar Nicholas II had his empire on Russia. Except the area around Moscow, many other areas were included in the Russian empire such as present day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, part of Poland, Ukraine and Belaroos. Georgia, Agminia and Azerbaijan were also included in this.
Before 1914, political parties were not allowed in Russia. In 1898, socialists started Russian Democratic Workers Party and they supported the ideas of Karl Marx. But according to official policies, it had to illegally start its activities. It published its own newspaper, collected labourers and started doing strikes.
Russia was under a monarch who acted as a dictator. Unlike other European nations, Tzar was not responsible to the Parliament. Liberals started a movement to remove such practice. Liberals along with socialists, democrats and social revolutionaries, collected farmers and labourers and during the 1905 revolution, demanded the constitution. Russian workers were influenced by this and they also started demanding less hours of work and more pay.
When they were getting ready for the revolution, police attacked them. More than 100 workers died and more than 300 wounded. As this event happened on Sunday, it-is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ in the Russian history. In 1914 A.D., the First World War started and the Tzar forced Russia into the war. Russian economy was already not in a good shape.
It started showing the signs of decline. Russia involved a great deal in the war. On one side, the Tzar was trying to dissolve the Parliament (Duma) and on the other side, the members of Parliament were trying to save the country from such situation. Under’ these circumstances, on 22 February, 1917, One factory was shut down in Petrograd and all the workers became unemployed. Other workers of 50 more factories, showed them their sympathy and started their strike.
Till then, there was no political party leading the movement. Workers surrounded the government buildings and the government imposed curfew. Workers got scattered till evening but they again came forward on 24th and 25th February. Government called the military and police was asked to observe them.
On 25th February, Sunday, Government dismissed the Parliamant (Duma). Leaders started opposing it and strikers came out on roads, with full force on 26th February. On 27th February, Police Headquarters was destroyed. People came out of their houses and they started raising slogans for bread, pay, less hours of work and democracy. Government again called the military but military refused to shoot the common people. Army men also joined the strikers and they collected in the building in which last time Duma was sitting.
Next day, a workers group met the Tzar. Army Generals also advised the Tzar to accept the demands of strikers. Finally on 2nd March, 1917, he accepted the demands of strikers and his rule in Russia came to an end. In October, Lenin controlled Russia and Russian Revolution come to an end.
(ii) Chinese Revolution : On 1st October 1949, Chinese Communist leader Mao- Tse-Tung declared to establish people’s Republic of China (PRC). With this declaration, the war between the Chinese Communist Party and Nationaliste Party come to an end which started after the second world war. With the establishment of PRC, the official chaos started in 1911 with the Chinese Revolution coming to an end. With the defeat of Nationalist Party, U.S.A severed all its political ties with China.
Chinese Communist Party was established in 1921 at Shanghai. Chinese communists supported the Nationalist Party in 1926-27 at the time of northern attack. This support contiuned till White Terror of 1927 when the Nationalists started killing the communists. In 1931 A.D. Japan captured Manchuria. At this time, govt, of Republic of China had fear of three sided attack-Japanese attack, Communist revolt and attack of the northern people.
Few Generals of Chinese army were fedup with the behaviour of Nationalist leader Chiang-Kai-Shek that he was more interested in internal dangers instead of caring about the Japanese attack. They captured Shek and asked him to cooperate with the communist army. This was the first attempt of having cooperation between the Nationalist Govt, and the Chinese Communist Party (C.C.P.). But this effort remained for a very small period of time. Nationalists started thinking about the Japanese and Communists started spreading their influence in the rural areas.
During the Second World Was, support for the communists increased to a great extent. American officers in China tried to suppress this support in the Nationalist region. Due to these undemocratic policies and the prevailing corruption during the war, Chinese govt, become weak against the communists. In 1945, Japan lost the war and the danger of civil war increased in China. American govt, continued its support to Chiang-Kai- Shek’s govt, as it was only Shek who could reduce the communist influence in China.
In 1945, Chiang-Kai-Shek and Mao-Tse-Tung met to discuss about the formation of govt, post war. Both agreed to restore democracy, collective army and freedom for political parties. Treaty was on the cards but due to the American intervention, it failed and in 1946, civil war started in China.
During the civil war from 1947-1949, the victory of communists was on the cards as they had public support, better army and the weapons captured from the Japanese army in Manchuria. In October, 1949, after winning many areas, Mao-Tse-Tung declared to establish People’s Republic of China. So in 1949, Chinese Revolution came to an end.
What is the contribution of Durkheim to Sociology ?
Famous sociologist and philosopher Emile Durkheim was born on 15 April, 1858 at Lorraine region of north eastern France at a place called Epinel. Durkheim’s initial education was completed in an educational institution at Epinel. Right from his childhood, Durkheim was an intelligent child.
His family was quite famous in their field and that is why he received brilliance from his family. He received education till graduation at Epinel and then he migrated to Paris for getting higher education.
At Paris, his journey of getting higher education started. Here he tried to get admission in the world famous institution ‘Ecole Normale Superieure’. Here only brilliant students were able to get admission. After two unsuccessful attempts, Durkheim was able to get admission over here in 1879 A.D. This institution provided education on the French, Latin and Greek philosophy and these subjects were included in whole of its curriculum.
But Durkheim did not take interest in all these because he was more interested in studying actual political, intellectual and social conditions of society. Durkheim believed that positivism is must in knowledge. He believed that until present political, intellectual and social problems are not studied, while studying any subject or philosophy, that knowledge is not useful.
Due to such ideas of his, Durkheim was so dissatisfied with the atmosphere of this world famous institution that most of the times, he went against his teachers. Even then, he got his son Andre admitted in this institution. In 1880, famous positivist and historian Prof. Fustel de Coulanges became director of this institution. He was one of the teachers of Durkheim who had special feelings for him. Prof. Coulanges changed curriculum over here and Durkheim became very happy.
Durkheim greatly respected Prof. Coulanges. He wrote a book ‘Montesquieu’ in Latin language and dedicated this book to Prof. Coulanges. Here Durkheim met Emile Boutroux. Durkheim was very much influenced by him and he wrote his research paper of Doctrate under his guidance. Here, Durkheim met few more world famous scholars.
He also got many students over there who later on became famous Sociologists. His intellectual and mental thinking increased a lot when he came in contact with these famous scholars. In 1882 A.D., he left Ecole Normale Superieure and for next five years, he taught in different High Schools near Paris. With his influence, he started a new curriculum of Sociology in these schools. Durkheim became famous as a very good teacher.
In 1885-86, he took leave of one year and left for Gerfnany for higher studies. In Germany, Durkheim deeply studied Psychology, Economics, Cultural Anthropology. Here he studied the essays of Comte and came under his influence. Later on he gave birth to Sociological Positivism. .
In 1887, Bordeavux University opened up a new department of Sociology and Durkheim was invited to come over here to study. After studying for next 9 years, in 1896, he became Professor at the same department.
In 1893, Paris University gave him his Doctrate for writing his research paper ‘De la Division du Travail Social’ (Division of Labour in Society). This book got published and he became quite famous ater this. In 1895, Durkheim created his second important book ‘Les Regies da ea Methode Sociologique’ (The Rules of Sociological Method).
In 1897, Durkheim wrote his third famous book ‘Le Suicide : Etude de Sociologie’ (Suicide : A Study of Sociology). After publishing these world famous books, Durkheim’s name was started to consider as a major philosopher, Sociologist and a great writer.
In 1898, Durkheim started a sociology related magazine ‘L Annee Sociologique’ and remained at the post of its editor till 1910 A.D. This magazine of Durkheim became quite famous in the intellectual environment of France. In this magazine, many of the great philosophers such as Georges Devy, Simond, Levi Strauss etc. got their essays published.
In 1902, Durkheim was called in Paris University at the post of Professor and he took charge over here. After Durkheim’s efforts in 1913, Education department’s name was changed to Education and Sociology department. Here Durkheim taught moral education, origin of religion, beginning of family, social philosophy of Comte and Saint Simon.
In 1912, Durkheim, wrote another book ‘Les Formes Elementairs Delavie Religieuse’ (Elementary Forms of Religious Life).
Durkheim got married when he was appointed at Bordeaux University. His wife’s name was Lauise Drefus. He had two children, daughter Marie and son Andre.
His wife helped him a lot. There were many functions such as editing, checking, communication etc. which she did with great labour. First World War started in 1914. Durkheim sent his son Andre in the war and himself started writing essays in newspaper to uplift the morale of people. But war made him mentally weak. During the war, he received the news of his son’s death. He completely broke down after his son’s death. In 1916, Durkheim became sick and on 15th November, 1917, he died at the age of 59 years.
Writings Of Durkheim:
During his lifetime, Durkheim wrote many books which are given below:
- The Division of Labour in Society – 1893
- The Rules of Sociological Method – 1895
- Suicide – 1897
- Elementary Forms of Religious Life – 1912
- Education and Philosophy (After death) – 1922
- Sociology and Philosophy (After death) – 1924
- Moral Education (After death) – 1925
- Sociology and Saint Simon (After death) – 1925
- Pragmatism and Sociology (After death) – 1955
After Durkheim’s death, his wife and friends got published his essays and speeches which increased sociological literature.
Discuss the types of social actions given by Weber. .
Weber gave four types of social action and these are :
1. Zweckrational behaviour : Weber says that by Zweckrational social behaviour we mean by that social behaviour which are directed by for the fulfilment of many objectives rationally while keeping in mind its usage. In this we not only keep in mind the selection of means but here values are also kept in mind. Means are checked fully and the action is edited and directed on that base.
2. Wertrational behaviour : In Wertrational behaviour a good available place is given to any clear and special value. We do not take care of other values. In this rational base is not possible but on moral, religious or beautiful basis it can be accepted. To maintain moral and religious assumption wertrational behaviour can be done. To accept these actions there is no need of any reason or rational base. Just they are accepted as it is because while doing a thing social status increases and personal peace also comes.
3. Affectual behaviour : These types of action can happen due to human sentiments and behaviour. While living in society we have to go through a number of feelings like love, hatred, anger etc. Because of these feelings the state of peace and violence comes in society. While doing these types of behaviour we do not take help of tradition and reason.
4. Traditional behaviour. Traditional actions can be done on the basis of already existing definite traditions. To make social life easy and peaceful traditional actions are quite important. It is quite possible that any situation of conflict can come in society but generally in this type of action there is no need of taking help of rationals or any other influence. These actions are directed and controlled by customs of society.
How does Weber relate economic activity to religion?
Essence of Capitalism:
The early study of Weber was centred on that habit which can be seen particularly in modern society. To explain the religious influence on economic behaviour Weber has written many essays from 1904 to 1905 and on the basis of those essays his most famous book ‘The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism’ was published.
In this book Weber explained that how the development of capitalism was influenced by the thoughts and policies of Protestant Religion. These thoughts were a challenge to Marx’s concept that the social and religious conciousness of man is determined by its social class.
According to Weber’s view the clear cut thing for modern industrial world’s man. is that he should work hard. According to Weber, “Hard work is a duty and its result is inherent in it.” This thought is an extraordinary quality of modern industrial world’s man. Man does not do his work efficiently, because he has to do this work he does so because he wants to do this work.
This is the base of his personal satisfaction. It is expected from a man to do his duty for his livelihood and he does so. It doesn’t matter in which field he is. There is one quotation of America, “If any one is able to do any work then he should do his work in the most efficient manner.” This quotation is the essence of capitalism According to Weber, this concept does not belong to any supernatural aim, in fact it is related with the success of the man which he gets in economic life.
It doesn’t matter that in a particular time this concept was related with religious morality. To clarify the essence of capitalism Weber compared it to other economic process called Traditionalism. In economic processes, traditionalism is that stage in which man wants to earn more and more profit and wants to do less work.
He wants to take more rest during his time of work and he doesn’t want to accomodate with the new methods of work. They can be satisfied with the simple ways of living life and wants to earn profit at once. The accumulation of money is an another part of economic traditionalism. All these characteristics are totally opposite to the essence of capitalism.
Actually modern capitalism is a big complex of interrelated institutions whose base are economic efforts not the efforts of book makers (betting). Capitalism is the complex of lawful forms of business corporations, centre of organizational exchange, the system of giving public loan in the form of government debt letters and the organization of industries whose aim is to produce things on rational basis.
According to Weber, the quality of essence of capitalism is not only the quality of western societies. In many societies many people came into being who had organised their business in quite an efficient way, who were the hard workers than their servants, whose life was simple and who were using their saving to increase their business.
But even after this the effect of the capitalist characteristics was there in western societies. It’s reason was that in west this quality was not developed as a personal quality but was developed as a simple way of living life. In this way the hard working life of people, business behaviour, public loan system, the investment of capital in business continuously and the wish towards hard work is the essence of capitalism.
In contrary to that effort get profit at once, to see hard work as a curse, accumulation of money and to be satisfied with the simple way of living are general economic habits.
After clarifying that the aim of his study was essence of capitalism, Weber has given a number of reasons on the basis of which he wants to find its origin into the religious thoughts of reform movement. Weber asked his one student ‘Badan’ to study religious relations in state and selection of education.
After studying this he concluded that in comparison to catholic students, protestant students are taking more admissions in those educational institutions which are related to industrial life. One another reason also was there that in European time to time less populated groups have completed their social and political losses by their economic hardwok but Catholics were unable to do this.
With the influence of these circumstances Weber’s thought got strength that there must have been a relation between religious policy and economic activities. After this he also had seen in 16th century so many rich states and cities had accepted Protestant religion. Because of so many reasons Protestant religion was increasing its efforts of economic profit.
On this base Weber tried to know that whether Protestant religion was spread in economic backward countries and whether after developed capitalist economy Catholic religion became influencial or not. The main aim of Weber in writing ‘The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism’ was to explain these contradictions and to clarify the influence of religious- policies on economic life.
Wiber here wants to clarify that how the policies of Protestant religion became source of motivation for those people who were in favour of getting economic profit from rational point of view. So according to Weber concepts related to any religion should be analysed from that point to view that how any concept motivates the behaviour of its followers.
While keeping in mind this question Weber analysed the essays written by priests of Protestant religion and clarifies the influence of Kalvinism’s concepts on the daily behaviour of group. As a policy of the Protestant religion the order of Saint Paul was accepted widely: “Whoever will not work will not eat food and like poor, rich also do any work or business to increase the prestige of god.”
In this way hardworking life is according to the religious belief of Protestant religion. Richard Baxter has written, “Just for work god protects us and our actions. Hard work is the moral and natural aim of power. Just with hard work only any one can serve god.” Another Saint John Banian has written, “It will not be said that what you believe but it will be said that whether one was working hard or just talking with other.”
In this way in the Protestant religion working life was accepted as service to god. The praise of hard work has given birth to new laws and rules in Protestant religion. According to it, the wastage of time is a sin. Life is short and valuable, so man should use its surplus time to increase the prestige of god by using it in useful works.
Useless talking, to meet people a lot, sleeping a lot and to keep oneself busy in religious functions by giving loss to daily functions is a sin. It is so because god has given us a work to earn livelihood and we are not doing this. From this point of view the policies of Protestant religion are against ideal of personal policy that ‘the rich should not do any work or religious functions are more valuable that wordly functions.’ This is Protestant Ethic.
Relationship of Capitalism and Protestant Ethics:
After analysing Protestant Ethics and the spirit of capitalism Weber found many equalities in its different basis. These equalities have motivated Weber to clarify that which conditions were the reasons in economic behaviours and religious politics and which conditions were results. First of all Weber studied the religious guilds in 16th and 17th centuries and the influence on human behaviour of changes which came in its assumptions.
First of all many religious guilds stressed on the getting and accumulation of materialistic things and after some time accumulation of money was kept in the category of non religiousness in which to finish all wishes in front of hard work was good enough. These religious guilds had clarified it was an obstacle in the way of hard work.
When this concept of finishing of wish came out of limit of religious centres and started to influence worldly morality then it also started to contribute in the creation of modern economy i.e. capitalism. This change has given direction to Weber’s study that the religious policies are basic reasons which influence person’s economic and secular behaviours.
In this way with the help of many historical proofs Weber tries to clarify that how the policies or Ethics of Protestant religion were helpful in the development of early capitalism. The reform movement of Protestant religion gives right to those people to enter in religions festivals who have full faith in the policies of this religion.
The members of religious councils had to prove that they have the full capabilities to give practical form to the ethics of religions. This tradition to give importance to earn means of livelihood becomes very helpful in the development of capitalism. Slowly and slowly these moral beliefs of Protestant religion were changed as the system of life in the life of its followers.
Weber has accepted this condition as that phenomena with the help of which rationalization increased in the different aspects of western life. This rationalization came in western civilization as different forms and it has direct relation with the development of capitalism. In this Weber has explained the Protestant Ethics and spirit of capitalism and he clarified and understood religion on this base.