Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 11 Social Change Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 11 Social Change
Sociology Guide for Class 11 PSEB Social Change Textbook Questions and Answers
Answer the following very short answer questions in 1-15 words each:
Define social change.
Many changes often come in social relations and this is social change.
Name the basic sources of social change.
There are three basic sources of social change-innovation, Discovery and Diffusion.
Give two features of social change.
- Social change is a universal process which comes in everxf society.
- Comparison is must in social change.
What is endogenous change ?
The changes which develop within a society are known as endogenous change.
Name some factors responsible for social change.
Natural factors, beliefs and values, social reforms, demographic factors, tech-nological factors, educational factors etc.
What is progress ?
When we proceed in a desired direction to achieve our goal s then the change is known as progress.
Give examples of planned change.
To give education and training to the people ig planned cha nge.
Give two examples of unplanned change.
Natural calamities such as flood, earthquakes with which complete change comes in society.
Answer the following short answer questions in 30-35 words each:
Explain the meaning of social change.
When change comes in different parts of society and this ch; mge affects lives of most of the people living in society, it is known as social changi. It means that structural change comes in the living style of the people.
What is diffusion ?
The meaning of diffusion is spreading of something more wid< sly. For example when cultural ideas spread from one group to the second group it is known as diffu¬sion. Social change in most of the society often comes due to diffusion.
State a brief note on evolution and revolution.
(i) Evolution. When change comes in a definite direction ar id change comes in traits and composition of an element, it is evolution.
(ii) Revolution. The sudden and spontaneous change is revolution. Existing sys¬tem comes to an end and is replaced by a new system.
List out the three basic ways in which change takes place.
Change in three basic things brings change in society and these are :
- Behaviour of the group
- Social structure
- Cultural attributes.
What are t he three sources from which change can originate ?
The meaning of innovation is creating something new by using an already known elememt. In this, new technique is innovated by using an already existing technology.
‘In means the ,act of finding for the first time or to invent something new about which we don’t know anything.
It means to spread something widely. If cultural ideas of one group spread into the other, it is known as diffusion.
Briefly outline the difference between social and cultural change.
(i) Social change can come consciously or unconsciously but cultural change alsways comes with conscious efforts.
(ii) Social change is the change which comes only in social relations but in cultural change, a major change comes in religion, ideas, values etc.
Answer the following short answer questions in 75-85 words each:
What are t he main types of social change ? Briefly discuss them.
Evolution, progress, development and revolution are the main types of social change. When internal, gradual and sequal change comes and social institutions start to become complex., it is known as evolution. When change comes in any thing in a desired direction, it is known as development. When people proceed towards a desired direction to achieve something and goal is achieved, it is known as progress. When sudden and quick change comes and the existing system is replaced by the new one, it is known as revolution.
Disc uss briefly the demographic factor of social change.
Demogra phic factor also exerts a great influence on social change. Social organisation, traditions, institutions, customs etc. are also influenced by the demo graphic factor. Increase or decrease in population, change in sex ratio affect social relations. Change: in population becomes an obstacle in the way of society’s economic progress and a reason of many social problems. Increase in population often creates the situation of n alemployment and poverty which leads to the increase in corruption and disturbance in society.
Describ e any four factors responsible for social change.
- Natural Factor: Due to natural factor such as flood, earthquake etc. soci¬ety completely cl langes and social change takes place.
- Demogrs iphic Factor: Increase or decrease in population, change in sex ratio also becomes a r eason of social change.
- TechnoHogical Factor: If change takes place in most of the existing tech¬niques in society, social change takes place.
- Educational Factor: When most of the society’s population starts to take education, it becomes one of the factors of social change.
Highlight the few points of differences between educational factor and technological factor.
- Educational factor can become a reason of tecnological factor but techno-logical factor cannot become a reason of educational change.
- With the increase in literacy rate, every one in society gets affected but techno-logical factors have a very slow impact on the people.
- With education planned change can take place but with technological factors, both planned and unplanned change takes place.
Answer the following short answer questions in 250-300 words each:
Define Social Change. Discuss its features in detail.
Word ‘Change’ is value free word. It never tells us about good or bad or about any rule. In general sense change is that difference which is there in the present state and earlier state of any thing. Like any one has money today but was poor yesterday. His position has been changed due to money.
Comparison is necessary in change be-cause if we want to clarify any change then it can be clarified only by comparison. In this way, social change is related with society. When change comes in society or social relationships then it is known as social change.
Every type of change in the human society cannot be called as social change. Social change is related with the change which comes in social relationships. We can include mutual actions and relations in different parts of society in social relationships. Meaning of change is the difference in existing conditions and earlier condition of any thing.
That’s why when we compare the existing condition and earlier condition of anything then we observe some difference. This difference is social change. In this way we can say that social change is related with the difference in social structure, actions, relations,organizations etc. Man is dynamic by nature and no society can live without change.
1. According to Gillin and Gillin, “Social change as variations.from the modes of life, whether due to alteration in geographical conditions in cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies, and whether brought by diffusion or invention within the group.”
2. According to Kingsley Davis, “By social change, I meant only such alterations as occur in social organization that is structure and function of society.”
3. According to Jones, “Social change is a term used to describe variations or modifications of any aspect of social process, social patterns, social interactions or social organization.”
4. According to Eldridge and Marril, “In its concrete sense, social change in activities that differ from those which they (or their immediate forefathers) engaged in some time before, society is compared of vast and complex network of patterned human relationships in which all men participate. When human behaviour is in the process of modification, this is only another way of indicating that social change is occurring.”
On the basis of given definitions, we can conclude that according to all sociologists, when any change or difference comes in any aspect of social interactions, social organization, social relationships, social process etc. then it is called a social change. In this way, we can say that every change is not a social change. Social change exists in the social relationships of society or organizations or actions.
Features of Social Change:
1. Social change is universal : Social change is that change which comes in every society. No society is completely static because change is the law of nature. It doesn’t matter which society it is, whether it is ancient or modern, it exists in every culture and society. Demographic change in society, change because of inventions, change in values and ideals etc. always exists in society. It is right that the speed of social change is different in different societies but change is always universal.
Social change is a universal phenomenon which occurs in all societies and in all ages. The time from which human society has started, changes have come in it and will remain forever. Every stage of human society has gone through changes, yet the speed of change in them might be different. Change is law of nature and no one can be prevented from this.
2. Definite prediction is not possible in social change : Any type of definite prediction is impossible in social change. It is so because social relationships are not definite. They keep on changing. For example, if we predict that caste system, untouch ability or dowry system etc. will come to an end in the coming ages and may be we’ll not be able to find complete end of these evils in society. That’s why if we will predict definitely-then it can be proved wrong.
We cannot imagine definitely about behaviour of a person. That’s why prediction is impossible in social change. Social change is a community change. It doesn’t mean that there is no rule of social change or we cannot imagine about it. It’s meaning is only that sometimes because of any reason change comes at once about which we have never thought of.
3. Speed of social change is not uniform: Yet social change is universal but its speed is different in different societies. It comes very quickly in some societies and in some societies its speed is very slow. For example, if we compare ancient and modern societies then we can see that speed of change is very fast in modern societies as compared to ancient societies.
Even this speed is very fast in metropolitan cities and very slow in smaller cities . The reason of difference of speed is that the factors, which bring social change, are different in different societies. We can imagine about change by comparing two societies.
4. Social change is community change : If any change comes in the life of one person or some people then it cannot be called as social change. It is so because social change is not personal. It is that change which comes in the life style of majority of persons living in a large community. So if change will affect only few persons, then it can be called as individual change.
But when majority of the people of a group are affected by the change then it can be called as social change. In this way, the nature of social change is social. It is not related with the change in any specific group, institution or caste but it is related with the changes which comes in whole community.
5. Social change is the result of interaction of number of factors : Social change is not the result of only one factor. Our society is complex in nature. Change comes in every sector of society because of many factors. Generally we can see that change comes because of economic progress, development in technology, change in atmosphere or change in demography. Yet it is right that change comes because of any factor but other factors are also reasons of change.
6. Change is law of nature : Existence of social change is law of nature. Change comes even against our wish. We cannot control natural forces which often brings change. Man is dynamic by nature. Change in society either comes because of natural forces or because of planned ways of humans to fulfil their needs. We always want new things and try to achieve them. So the dynamic nature of person is also responsible for social change.
Explain in detail the sources of social change.
W. G. Ogburn has given a detailed description about the sources of social change. Accordings to Ogburn, out of three factors, one or more sources are the reasons of social change and these three sources are :
The meaning of innovation is to prepare a new thing by using the existing elements. It means to prepare a new system of knowledge by using existing knowledge. For example by using the technology of an old car, innovating a new tech¬nology, finding technology for increasing its speed and to increase its mileage. Innova¬tion can be technological as well as social. In this, change can come in form, function, meaning or principle and consequently whole of society can change.
Discovery is the act of finding something for the first time. It means that when any thing is found for the first time, it is known as discovery. For example, some one made car or scooter for the first time or any scientist finds a news species of plant. It can be called as discovery. It means that elements are already existing in this world but we are not aware about it.1 With discovery, a new thing is added to the culture.
In reality, elements may have existed in the world but after its discovery, it becomes a part of our culture. However, it becomes a factor of social change at the time when it is put to use when it is merely known. Social and cultural circumstances either encourage or discourage the capacity of culture.
The meaning of diffusion is the spreading of something. For example when cultural ideas of one group spread to another it is called .diffusion. Social change in almost all the societies come due to diffusion. It operates both within and between societies. Diffusion takes place at the time* when relations are made between societies. It is a two way process.
Due to diffusion elements of one culture are spread into the other, it changes and adopts the elements of other. For example the English used in England is very much different from the English used in India. When India was under the British occupation, many of their cultural elements were adopted by the Indian people. In this way during diffusion, change comes in the ele-ments.
Write down the factors influencing social change.
1. Physical Environment. Change in physical environment comes through those processes which are out of control of humans. New directions open for humans due to these changes which indirectly affect the culture of humans. All these inani-mate phenomena are included in physical environment which affects social life in one way or the other. Change in climate like rain, heat, cold, change of season, earth-quakes, thundering, changes related to topography availability of minerals, rivers, stones etc.
affects greatly the social life. Physical changes affect the human ability to do work. Behaviour of humans is different in winter and summer. Human way of working changes with the change in climate. Humans work very quickly in winter and people get angry in summer. People like to live in those physical conditions where they should be able to spend their life very easily. People don’t like to live at those places where natural calamities like earthquake, flood etc. frequently come.
People live at those places where all the facilities of living life are easily available. Balance of population disturbs due to changes in physical environment because of which many problems occur. Physical environment affects the culture also. Where land is fertile, people do agricultural work and people living near coastal areas catch the fish.
2. Biological Factor. Some sociologists are of the view that biological factor is the important factor of social change. Meaning of biological factor is that quantitative aspect of population which occurs due to heredity. Like human sex is determined at the time of birth and on this base different physical differences exist in males and females.
Their social behaviour is also different due to this change. Females take care of house and children but males go out for work to earn money. If the proportion of males and females is not the same in any society then many social problems occur due to this.
Physical features are determined by heredity and these features create the similarities and disimilarities like being white or black. In U.S.A. jealousy is there due to colour. White female is known as beautiful and black female never gets that respect which any white female can get. Behaviour of the person is also related with the features of heredity.
Behaviour of the child is according to the behaviour of parents. Humans have more or less anger. Heredity and mental level both are inter related. Human behaviour and mental level are veiy important in social life. In short, we can say that individual traits of a person are determined by his hereditary traits. These traits affect the interactions of humans.
Human relations occur due to interactions on the basis of which social system and structure are determined. If any change comes in it then that is social change. In this way we can say that biological factors become the reason of social change. Great people help in bringing social change due to qualitative aspect of population.
3. Demographic Factors. Structure, size, distribution etc. of population affect the social structure. Countries with more population have to face many problems like poverty, unemployment, lower standard of life etc. Like India and China have to face many types of problmes. Countries with less population like U.K., Canada etc. have less problems and higher standard of life.
Countries with more population have many types of customs to reduce birth rate. For example, family planning prevails in India. Small families came into being due to family planning and social relations change due to smaller families. Those countries, where population is less, have different types of relations. Status of females is higher in them and there is no concept of family planning. In short, changes come in the patterns of interactions of people due to size of population.
In this way change also comes due to structure of population. In structure of population change comes due to age division, regional division of population, sex ratio, social structure, rural-urban ratio, ratio of population on technical level, immigration, emigration etc. These traits of population put a great effect on social structure and no problem can be solved without taking care of it.
4. Cultural Factors. Change in the material and non-material culture affects the social relations. Concept of family planning has put a great effect on the institution of family. Because of less number of children, they can upbring their children in a proper way. Direction of social change is also determined due to cultural factors. This not only determines the direction of social change but it also determines its limits by giving it speed.
5. Technological Factors. Yet the technical factors are the part of material aspect of cultural but it has its own important. These technological factors give a great contribution in social change. Technology changes our society. This change yet comes in our material environment, but change also comes in customs, traditions, institutions of the society with this factor. Means of transport and communication, machines of daily use etc. have completely changed our life and society.
Production on the large scale was started due to invention of machines, division of labour and specialization was increased. Cities were developed very quickly, standard of life became higher, industries were developed but quarrels, accidents were also increased, villages were changed into towns and cities.
Effect of religion was decreased, conflict was increased. In this way some aspects of social life are there which are greatly affected by technology. So in modern times technological factor is a very big factor of social change.
6. Ideological Factor. Except these factors different types of ideologies also bring a lot of change in society. For example, social change has come due to change in the institution of marriage, dowry system, increasing education among women, decreasing effect of caste system, change in gender relations etc. So many changes have come in social relations and individual relations due to new .ideologies. In short, new ideas and theories affect the inventions and economic conditions. Actually new ideology comes due to revolution.
What do you mean by social change ?’Highlight the demographic factor of social change.
Demogarphic Factor : If we look at the society carefully then we will’see that population in our society is increasing or decreasing. Many problems of society are related only with more or less population. If we look at the 19th century then we can see that demographic factor was responsible to bring social change to a certain extent.
The effect of demographic factor is not related only with India but the whole world is affected by this. It is right that the increasing population in our country is producing many problems like to weaken the country from economic side, to produce social evils etc. but its effect is different in different countries.
In this way, we can see that demographic factors bring many changes in structure, organizations, functions, actions, ideals etc. of society. Social change is also related with this. Now we will look at the meaning of demographic factor. Meaning of Demographic Factor : Demographic factor is related to population. It means that we include size, density and distribution of population in this.
Demographic factor is that factor of social change which directly affects our society. Richness or poorness of society depends upon demographic factor. It means that the country with more population will have lower standard of living and countries with less population will have higher standard of living.
For example the countries like India and China have more population and that’s why their problems of poverty, unemployment etc. are increasing. But the countries like Canada, Australia, Britain etc.
have less population because of which their standard of living of people is higher than others. So from this example we can imagine that population plays an important role in bringing social change in society. In demographic factor, the increasing-decreasing birth rate and death rate affect our society.
From this description we come to conclusion that many changes in our society are because of more or less population. Increasing population of a country can create many problems for it. Now we will see that how demographic factor affects our social life.
1. Poverty : With increasing population people are unable to meet their daily needs. According to the theory of Malthus, the increase in population is like Geometry means 8 x 8 = 64 but increase in production is Arithmetically means 8 + 8 = 16. It means that 64 people are there to eat when production will meet the demand of only 16.
That’s why problems like poverty and starvation are increasing. It means that development in economic means is generally very slow but birth rate increases very quickly. Thus it affects the economy of the country adversely.
(а) Hereditary occupation or agriculture : India is basically an agriculturist country because of which most of the population is engaged in agriculture. Agriculture is that occupation in which more number of people are required. One person alone cannot control every work of agriculture. That’s why children in more number are required because if the family will be big then agriculture will be possible.
(b) Illiteracy : In a country like India, illiteracy is also a reason of increasing population. Most of the people in India are illiterate. Illiterate people are surrounded by many types of superstitions like son is necessary because of which they are without any conciousness about small family. They hardly see any benefit of small family because of which their standard of living is generally low. They are not conscious about getting education, raising their standard of living, health of children etc. It is all because of illiteracy.
(c) Cultural restrictions : People in India are very much influenced by culture that they cannot free themselves from the restrictions of culture. For example, according to Vedas, son will give fire to the body of the father. That’s why son is necessary. Even person gets more respects after the birth of son. In this way these cultural restrictions pressurise the person and he hardly thinks about progress.
(d) Protection : Actually every person is thinking that when he gets old then his children will take care of him. More numbers of children give more satisfaction to person that they will take care of him in his old age.
The traditional outlook, importance of having a son or lack of education are some of the reasons which are responsible for more population. For the development of country control over population is necessary. For this person should be educated so that he should be aware about the problems of increasing population.
2. Unemployment: With the development of industrialization and urbanization, unemployment has also been increased. People had to come out of their houses to get education. People of villages started to live in cities, because of which population of cities was increased and the number of houses were decreased.
Inflation started to go up. Function of domestic production was gone in the hands of factories. Machines started to do more work in minimum time. That’s why humans were replaced by machines and unemployment was increased.
3. Low Standard of Living : With the increase in population, poverty and unemployment also started to increase with which the standard of living of people became low. Earning members are decreasing and consumers are increasing. With increasing inflation it is difficult for people to give all the facilities to their children. Value of things has also increased which has resulted in low standard of living.
After looking at the growing problems related to population Indian Government took many steps. It was seen that the growing population is the main reason behind poverty. That’s why programmes of family planning were started.
With this help of films and T.V. steps were taken to change the attitude of people regarding having son or daughter. Government has given sanctions to small family as compared to bigger families. So the solution of problem of increasing population can be found in the programmes of family planning.
4. Immigration : Immigration and emigration also affect the population. For example, people from Bangladesh, Tibbet, Nepal, Sri Lanka are coming to India and start to live in India. With this immigration population increases very quickly. Poverty, starvation, inflation and many other problems are coming due to this.
5. Emigration : If .people are coming to India through immigration then people are also going out of India through emigration. Emigration means when people are leaving their country and started to live in another country. Specially the people with better education like Doctors, Engineers, Scientists etc.
are going to another country to live for better future. Country spends a lot of money to train and educate them but other countries are taking the benefit of their intelligence.
One reason of emigration is that our country is not giving them money according to their ability and even some don’t have any employment. Whichever country gives them employment and better facilities, they are going to that country. Even they break their family to go abroad. No one takes care of their parents. It affects the whole social structure of our society.
Discuss the role of educational factor in the process of social change in detail.
Education is also one of the important factors of bringing social change. Actually education is the main base of progress. Knowledge of person increases after getting education. That’s why person finds solution of problems, which exist in society, after getting education. Countries with more educated people develop more as compared to other countries.
It is so because literate person gives his cooperation in removing problems of society. The percentage of illiterate people is more in Indian society. That’s why people are still related with superstitions. To remove these superstitions it is necessary that the person should be educated. To know about the effects of educational factor on society, first of all it is necessary that we should know about the meaning of education.
Word Education has come out of Latin word ‘Educere’ whose meaning is ‘to bring up’. Meaning of education is not only to give bookish knowledge to person but also to prepare him for future by putting good habits in him. According to Anderson, “Education is the social process by which an individual learns the things necessary to fit him for the life of his society.”
In this way on the basis of given description we can say that mores, customs, traditions, culture etc. of society are transmitted to other generation by education. This is given in informal and formal both ways. Formal education is given in educational institutions like school, college and universities.
Educational Factor and Social Change:
1. Educational factor and family:
Educational factor has put a great effect on the institution of family. Man has to arrange for bread and butter in ancient society just to live. All the members of the family were engaged in same occupation. Standard of living was very low because people were unconscious about the progress.
People started to live according to the changed values with the advent of formal education. Earlier all the members of the family were engaged in same occupation but now they started to adopt new occupations according to their wish and ability.
With this the new system of nuclear family came into being instead of traditional joint family. If person does hard work in modern societies then he can raise his standard of living. Now he achieves his position with his ability. Now his status is not ascribed but is achieved.
In this way educational factor has changed the structure and functions of family. In modern families where both husband and wife are doing work, children are generally taken care in cretches. That’s why the control of family on its members has been reduced.
Family is also very much affected by western education. Individualistic senses were developed in the person. Members of joint family started to go towards city for job after coming out of villages. People started to adopt new ideas instead of ancient ideas. Today it is right that some people are doing agricultural work jointly or with each other but their family life is certainly different.
A Conflicting situation has come in the views of old generation and younger generation. People became materialistic due to changes in the ways of living of the people. That’s why joint families have started to disintegrate. Number of literate persons in the family now has been increased.
2. Effect of educational factor on caste system: Caste system in’Indian society is that social evil which has produced obstacles in its progress. Education in the caste system was restricted only to the members of higher caste and the type of education was religious. Caste system started to weaken with the advent of British empire because all the people were Indians for Britishers.
They treated all the Indians in similar way. They gave emphasis to western education in the field of education. That’s why education became secular. Modern educational system gave emphasis on values like liberty, equality and fraternity. School, colleges of formal education were started. Person of every caste started to get education in these institutions. All members of higher and lower castes started to get education in same school with which the sense of untouchability was reduced.
3. Effect of educational factor on marriage: Institution of marriage has also been changed under the effect of educational factor. Outlook of educated persons towards marriage has been changed. In earlier times family was arranging the marriage and the bride or bridegroom was determined by the elder members of the family. They were of the view that marriage should be done in the family with equal status. They hardly considered the qualities of boy or girl instead they were considering the status of family.
But now the individual qualities of boy or girl are considered. Now marriage is not considered as religious sacrament but is considered as a contract which can be broken at any time. Now number of love marriages and court marriages are increased. Child marriages were popular in ancient times which have many demerits. But now the age of marriage is fixed by law that marriage is possible at a specific age.
Now the element of adjustment is there in the relations of husband and wife instead of religious sacrament. Now educated female is not the slave of male. If husband misbehaves with wife then she can give divorce to husband and can five separately. Educated youth never do haste in doing marriage. In fact they give preference to their career. Except this, love marriage and court marriages are increasing day by day.
4. Effect of education on social stratification : Education is one of the- important factors of social stratification. It has divided the whole society in two parts (i) literate and (ii) illiterate. A person gets position in society by education. Person gets higher education to achieve higher status. Educational qualification leads to the achievement of position in society. In this way the population of modern society is divided on the basis of education. Literate person gets respect in society.
Status of a person,was ascribed in ancient society. In means that the person was getting status from his family in which he is bom. But with the development in educational sector, status of a person is achieved. It means that person gets social position in modern societies according to his qualities and ability. Person can achieve higher status with “his will, hard work and ability.
5. Effect of education on position of women; Educational factors have played an important role in changing status of woman. Educated woman in modern society is taking part in every sector of society. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India and ruled over it for many years. With the spread of education, the age of marriage of a girl has been increased.
Now she is free to choose her partner of life. Love marriage is given importance and number of divorces has been increased. Position of women has been improved due to education. Family of small size is preferred. When a female starts to do job after getting education then she prefers to produce less number of children.
Upbringing of children is out of family these days and the wish of higher standard of living has put economic pressure on them. It is easy to give education to one or two children. Now female in Indian society is standing equally with males in every sector of society. Now she does not spend her life as a slave of male but spends her life as his friend.
6. Effect of education on social values : Education not only produces personal values but also develops the values like equality, democracy. It is education because of which all humans are equal in front of law. Under the effect of education many social evils like Sati System, child marriage, caste system, No to widow remarriage etc.
either are finished or are on the verge of finishing. Many good customs like widow remarriage, Inter caste marriage etc. are coming forward due to education. Now discrimination has been finished, position of women has been improved considerably due to education. Modern society and all the values of modem society are the contribution of education.
7. Effect of education on occupations : The basis of occupation in ancient societies was not education but was caste system. Person had to adopt the occupation of his caste in which he is born. There was no effect of education. But under the effect of modern education the importance is given to individual’s abilities instead of caste system. Now the occupation of a person is not dependent upon his caste but is dependent upon what he is and what is his educational qualification.
In modern times if a person wants to increase his ability then he should be educated. If any person wants to achieve higher status then it is necessary for him to be educated. Education has decreased the importance of caste system. Equality related to caste has been reduced to a great extent. Now any one can achieve any status after getting education.
Write a detailed note on technological factors of social change.
Technological factors are very important in bringing social change in Indian society. Many new things are invented in society daily which greatly affects the whole society. In modern society the speed of these inventions has been increased because of which change often comes in society. Progress of any society is related with the technology of that society. Lot of progress has come in means of transport, communication, post etc. from technological point of view.
Today’s age is known as Machine Age because of which we can see the effect of machines in every sector,of society. Even according to many sociologists technological factor is the main factor in bringing social change in society. Actually all those machines, tools and things are included in technological factor in which human force is used.
Technology and Social change : Now we will see that how technology has played an important role in bringing social change.
1. Changes in the area of production :
Technology has greatly influenced the sector of production. Domestic production was affected by the opening of industries Biggest change was that the domestic production has been changed in the factories production. Thousands of persons are working in big industries, females came out of houses due to end of domestic production. Social life of females is changed with this.
Now more production is there at less cost and the quality is much better than the domestic quality. Females have got employment in big industries. People were making cloth and sugar in their houses. But now this production has come in the hands of factories. Now many textiles and sugar industries are there where thousands of people are working.
2. Development in means of communication : With the development of factories, machines and more production, development in the communication system was also necessary.
With the development of means of communication relations were established with other countries. With the help of modern techniques like Telephone, Radio, T.V., Magazines, Printing Press etc. dependence in interrelations was produced. Because of development of means of communication exchange of cultures was started with which proximity was produced in different countries.
In earlier societies communication was there only with talking and symbols, but when the writing was started with talking then different groups started to understand each other. With this speed came in daily life of the people. It was very helpful in establishing relations with the people of other countries. Now person is doing work according to his ability and his standard of living has been changed.
Development of communication has not only done progress in our society, but our social life has also been greatly affected by this. Instead of primary relations, secondary relations among humans has been established. It became easy for the person to come out of houses because person can talk from anywhere with his family members. But privacy has come to an end and family control has been reduced. .
3. New techniques of agriculture : Now new techniques are used in the field of agriculture, like new tools, use of chemical manure, new machines etc. are used by different people with which the standard of living of the people has been changed. With the use of chemical manures production in agriculture has been increased.
Now people are using new types of seeds. In ancient times, whole family was doing agricultural work. With machines people have been able to do more work with less human force. India’s business is also increased due to more production of agriculture. Number of people from villages started to work in industries.
4. Development of means of transportation : With the development of means of communication, means of transport also developed. They developed because people came in contact with each other. Planes, Buses, Cars, Cycles, Raliways, Ships were invented with which it became easy to go from one country to another. People started to go to work to far off places because they got a number of facilities at far off places. Because of this the mobility in humans has also increased.
The discrimination in Indian society was also decreased with the development of means of transport. People started to go in same means of transport with which the equal relations were established in the people of different castes.
5. Changes in Family : Under the effect of technological factors the institution of family has completely changed. Modern family has been changed completely. All the members of the family have to come out of house to earn bread and butter. That’s why all the functions of the family are taken away by other institutions. Small children are taken care of by cretches.
Functions related to health are taken away by Hospitals. Recreational functions of the family are taken away by cinema, T.V., pictures etc. Now the attitude of person is personal. Structure of the family has been changed. Now small families are developed. Now small and nuclear families are developed in place of joint families.
6. Changes in Marriage System : Marriage was a religious sacrament in the ancient society. Marriage of the person was generally fixed by his elders. But because of technical factors the outlook of people towards marriage has been changed. Now marriage is not a religious sacrament but is accepted as a social contract. Base of marriage is contract which can be broken at any time.
First of all now marriage is not considered as a religious sacrament but now it is considered as a social contract. Now base of the marriage is contract which can be broken at any time. The institution of marriage has been completely changed. Area of selection of mate has been increased. Person can marry out of caste with his wish.
If husband and wife are having opposite views then they can separate from each other. Now woman does not consider herself inferior to man. Now they are economically not dependent upon males. That’s why their status is considered as equal to man.
7. Changes in Caste System : In ancient times, caste system was so effective that person could neither adopt occupation of his choice nor he was allowed to establish contacts with other castes. Society was divided in four parts. Humans were getting social status according to their caste. But with the progress in technological sector, caste system has weakened to a great extent.
Now society has been divided on the basis of classes not on castes. Now the household production has gone in the hands of factories instead of houses. Person had to come out of house to earn money. People of all the castes have to work with each other in factories with which untouchability is reduced to a great extent.
Now humans get job on the basis of their ability. Even at some places people of lower castes are at higher positions and people of higher castes are at lower position and they have to work under them. Now relations between all the castes are on equal terms.