PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
__________ is called the F.I.R.
Answer:
First inverstigation report

Question 2.
__________ is the highest court of India.
Answer:
Supreme Court.

Question 3.
The main organs of the government are __________
Answer:
Legislature, Executive and Judiciary

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 4.
The supreme court judges remains in office upto the age of years, while the high court judges upto the age of __________ year.
Answer:
65, 62

Question 5.
PIL means __________
Answer:
Public interest litigation.

Question 6.
Criminal cases are registered under Article
Answer:
134.

II. Put a tick against the Right (✓) and a cross against the wrong (✗):

Question 1.
Judiciary is called the defender of the Constitution.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 2.
Dual Judiciary System is in practice in India.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 3.
An appeal cannot be made in High Court against the District court decisions.
Answer:
(✗)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 4.
The Prime Minister appoint the Judges.
Answer:

Question 5.
Criminal cases are related to quarrels regarding land and property.
Answer:
(✗)

III. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Under which has the Supreme Court been provided special powers?
(A) Article 134
(B) Article 135
(C) Article 136
(D) Article 137.
Answer:
(C) Article 136.

Question 2.
How are the High Court formed?
(A) District level
(B) Tehsil Level
(C) State Level
(D) Village Level.
Answer:
(C) State Level.

Question 3.
How can the Public Interest cases be fijed?
(A) For defending self interest
(B) For defending government interest
(C) For defending public interest
(D) None of the Above.
Answer:
(C) For defending Public interest.

IV. Answer the following questions in not more than 15 words :

Question 1.
What is Judiciary?
Answer:
Judiciary is that part of government which does the work of Justice. It protects the constitution and fundamental rights. It also gives punishment to those who violate the law.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 2.
Which is the highest court of India and where is it located?
Answer:
Highest court of India is known as the Supreme Court and Supreme Court of India is situated in Delhi, the Capital of India.

Question 3.
What are the main Cases?
Answer:
Mainly suits are of two types-Civil suits and Criminal suits. Suits of fundamental rights, marriage, divorce, property, land disputes are included in civil suits. Suits of quarrel, violence, murder, etc. comes in the category of criminal suits.

Question 4.
What are civil cases?
Answer:
Civil cases are related with general public. Suits of fundamental rights of citizens, marriage, divorce, rape, property and land disputes comes in the category of civil suits. They are related with the personal life.

Question 5.
Who are legal Adviser?
Answer:
Whichever lawyer takes up case from the side of government is known as legal adviser.

Question 6.
What is public interest litigation?
Answer:
Public interest litigation can be filed against any department, official or institution of the government. It is necessary that this type of suit should be related with public interest. We cannot use public interest litigation for the protection of our personal interests. This type of case is fought by public prosecutor.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 7.
What is F.I.R.?
Answer:
Meaning of F.I.R. is informing the police quickly if any incident occurs in the surrounding. This information is being given to the nearest police station.

V. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words :

Question 1.
Explain the importance of Judiciary.
Answer:
Judiciary is that part of government that does the work of giving justice. Judiciary is of great importance in Democratic government because it is known as the caretaker of the constitution. It takes care of democracy and it is the supporter of rights and freedoms. The importance of the Judiciary is more in federalism because it resolves the disputes which occur between center and different states. It also has to play a great role for the security and impartial explanation of the constitution. Quality of Judiciary is the topmost criteria of checking quality of any government.

Question 2.
Write the special powers of the judiciary of India.
Answer:
Jurisdiction of Supreme Court is related to listening of appeals. It takes up the appeals against decisions of high court. These appeals are of three types-Constitutional, Civil and Criminal.
1. Constitutional Appeal
(a) If a high court of any state issues a certificate about any civil or criminal case that more constitutional explanation,is required in this case then appeal can be made in Supreme Court against the decision of high court.
(b) If high court does not issue such certificate then-Supreme Court itself can give approval and can take up the case.

2. Civil Appeals,
(a) If high court proves that any legal question of general importance in any case arises then appeal can be made in Supreme Court against the decision of high court.
(b) In some specific cases, appeal can be made in Supreme Court against the decision of high court even without the approval of high court.

3. Criminal Appeals. Supreme Court can listen the criminal appeals against the decisions of high court under the following conditions :
(a) Any such suit in which lower court has not found any person guilty but high court has given him the Death Sentence.
(b) If high court has called any case from the lower court itself and has given death sentence to the culprit.
(c) If high court proves that the case is eligible for further appeal.

Except this under Article 136, Supreme Court has the special right to listen to appeal of any case against the decision of high courts.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 3.
Write about the Judiciary system of India.
Answer:
Supreme Court is situated in the capital of the country, High Courts in different ‘states and District Courts are situated in districts. Gram Panchayat is being organized at village level to give justice to the people. But the scope of righs of Gram Panchayat is not very wide. It solves only cases of small disputes. It is not authorised to give imprisonment to any criminal. It generally fines the criminals.

Question 4.
What are criminal cases? What is difference between civil and criminal cases?
Answer:
Cases of violence, quarrels, abusing, murder, etc. are included in criminal cases. When any person suffers physical loss or his body hurt or any of his body part hurts then this type of issue comes under the category of criminal cases. For example, if any person captures land of other person illegally then it is a subject of civil case. But when both the parties struck and quarrel with each other and if physical loss is there then this case becomes civil as well as criminal. Intention of murder is also included in criminal case. If proceeding of criminal case against anyone under I.P.C. 134 starts then he can be given death penalty.

On contrary to that, civil cases are associated with fundamental rights, marriage, divorce, rape, land disputes. In this way they are related with personal life of the person.

Question 5.
Where can FIR be registered? Explain the role of judiciary in the event of the FIR not being registered.
Answer:
The meaning of F.I.R. is giving first information of any incident to the police. This complaint can be registered at any nearby police station. Police of any police centre cannot deny to register this information. But even then if F.I.R. of any person is not being registered at any police centre then he can take the help of high court or Supreme Court.

It is written in our Constitution that any court can. direct the police to register F.I.R. Except this court itself can register the F.I.R. and can direct the police to investigate the matter. There are certain privileges with Supreme Court. But no such example came around us in which any police officer declined to register F.I.R.’ of any incident.” In this case courts of the country are given specific rights.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Supreme Court consists of one Chief Justice and :
(a) 13 other Judges
(b) 25 other Judges
(c) 20 other Judges
(d) 33 other Judges.
Answer:
(d) 33 other Judges.

Question 2.
The Judges of the Supreme Court of India retire at the age :
(a) 62
(b) 65
(c) 60
(d) 50.
Answer:
(b) 65.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 3.
Number of Judges of the Supreme Court is fixed by :
(a) Parliament
(b) Prime Minister
(c) President
(d) Cabinet.
Answer:
(a) Parliament.

Question 4.
Supreme Court sits at :
(a) Chandigarh
(b) Delhi
(c) Kolkata
(d) Shimla.
Answer:
(b) Delhi.

Question 5.
Salary of the Chief Justice of India is :
(a) ₹ 26,000
(b) ₹ 2,80,000
(c) ₹ 28,000
(d) ₹ 30,000.
Answer:
(b) ₹ 2,80,000

Question 6.
While appointing the Judges of the Supreme Court it is obligatory for the President to consult the :
(a) Chief Justice of the High Court
(b) Law Minister
(c) The Prime Minister
(d) Chief Justice of India.
Answer:
(d) Chief Justice of India.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 7.
Whom does Supreme Court advise
(a) Cabinet
(b) Prime Minister
(c) President
(d) Parliament.
Answer:
(c) President.

Question 8.
Which one of the following is the guardian of the Indian Constitution?
(a) Parliament
(b) Supreme Court
(c) President
(d) Cabinet.
Answer:
(b) Supreme Court.

Question 9.
The Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the :
(a) Chief Justice of India
(b) People
(c) Prime Minister
(d) President.
Answer:
(d) President.

Question 10.
Judicial Review power is with :
(o) Parliament
(6) High Court
(c) Supreme Court
(d) Both with Supreme Court and High Court.
Answer:
(d) Both with Supreme Court and High Court.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 11.
In India, the power of Judicial Review is :
(a) Extra-constitutional
(b) Unconstitutional
(c) Constitutional
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Constitutional.

Question 12.
Which one of the following does not fall within the original Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?
(a) Disputes between the Centre and the State
(b) Disputes between the States
(c) Disputes related to Fundamental Rights
(d) Disputes related to the Directive Principles.
Answer:
(d) Disputes related to the Directive Principles.

Question 13.
Harinder Singh, a resident of Gaushala road has many marriage palaces near his house. He is troubled by the noise caused by these palaces till late in the night. He also understands that the same noise troubles the students, the elders and patients as well. Subsequently he Hies a petition against the urban administration in the High Court. Under which type will the High Court register this petition?
(a) Civil Case
(b) Criminal Case
(c) Public Interest Case
(d) Appeal.
Answer:
(c) Public Interest Case.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
__________ is known as first information report.
Answer:
F.I.R.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 2.
__________ is the highest court of India.
Answer:
Supreme Court

Question 3.
__________, __________ and __________ are the main organs of Government.
Answer:
Legislature, Executive, Judiciarty,

Question 4.
The judges of Supreme Court retire at the age of __________ years.
Answer:
65.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
Judiciary is known as guardian of the Constitution.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 2.
Dual Judicial System is implemented in India.
Answer:
(✗)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 3.
Appeal cannot be filed in high Court against the decision of District Court.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 4.
Judges are appointed by the Prime Minister.
Answer:
(✗)

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Supreme Court (i) State’s Court
2. High Court (ii) Property Dispute
3. Criminal Case (iii) Delhi
4. Civil Case (iv) Violence

Answer:

A B
1. Supreme Court (iii) Delhi
2. High Court (i) State’s Court
3. Criminal Case (iv) Violence
4. Civil Case (ii) Property Dispute

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give the term of Judges of Supreme Court and High Court.
Answer:
Judges of Supreme Court can remain on their post till 65 years of age and judges of High Court can remain on their post till the age of 62 years.

Question 2.
Which privilege is given to Supreme Court by Article 136 of the Constitution?
Answer:
Article 136 of the Constitution has given privilege to Supreme Court that it can listen to any appeal against the decision of High Court in that particular case.

Question 3.
What is Special Courts Act?
Answer:
According to Special Courts Act, appeal can be made only in Supreme Court against the decision of High Court. It is necessary to appeal within 30 days after the decision being given by Special Court.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 4.
Describe the composition of Supreme Court,
Answer:
At present Supreme Court consists of one Chief Justice and 30 other Judges. Article 127 (1) makes provision for the appointment of adhoc judges also.

Question 5.
How the judges of Supreme Court are appointed?
Answer:
The judges of Supreme Court are appointed by the President on the recomendation of Chief Justice of India.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
“Structure of Single Judiciary has been established in India.” Clarify.
Answer:
All the courts of the country are connected with each other. Highest court of the country, Supreme Court, is situated in New Delhi, the capital of India. States have their own high courts. Session Court is there at the district level. Except this Sub-division officer (civil) is there at Tehsil level. Gram Panchayats, Municipal Committees arid Municipal Councils have been established to provide justice to people at local level. High courts are under Supreme Court and district courts are under high courts. In this way court of sub-divisional magistrate is under district court. From this it is clear that structure of single judiciary has been established in the country.

Question 2.
How Judiciary has been made independent and impartial?
Answer:
The following provisions have been kept to., make judiciary independent and impartial in India :

  • Judiciary has been kept separated from legislature and executive so that no government or party could be able to control it.
  • Judges are appointed by the President according to their ability.
  • According to the rules made for term of judges, judges of Supreme Court can remain on their post till the age of 65 years and Judges of High Court can remain till the age of 62 years. Process of removing them from their post is not very easy.
  • Salary of judges is also more than others. It cannot be reduced during their term of office.

Question 3.
Which type of efforts can a person do to register an FIR or First Information Report?
Answer:
The meaning of F.I.R. is by registering report of any incident to the police. This report can be registered at the nearby police station. According to the law, police of any police station cannot deny to register F.I.R. If it does not register the report then the S.H.O. (Station House Incharge) can be called to do so. If S.H.O. also denies to register the FIR then Deputy Suprintendent of Police can be met regarding this. If even he (D.S.P.) denies to do so then person can approach Suprintendent of Police. If he also does so then FIR can be registered in any police station of the country.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Question 4.
Who appoints the Judges?
Answer:
Mainly judges are appointed by the President. He appoints the Chief Justice of Supreme Court and then with his advice, he appoints other judges of Supreme Court.

While appointing judges of High Court, he takes advice of the Chief Justice of Supreme Court as well as of Chief Justice of High Court and Governor of that particular state. Judges of District courts are appointed by Governor of State and he takes advice of High Court in this case.

Question 5.
Express your views on the moving of cases from lower court to the upper courts.
Answer:
A system of providing justice to citizens has been kept in Indian Constitution. If it seems that justice has not been done in any case then any citizen can take the shelter of high court. Appeals can be made in High Court against the decision of District Court and appeals can also be made in Supreme Court against the decision of High Court. High Court is committed to accept the decision of Supreme Court. In the same way District Court is committed to accept the decision of High Court.

Question 6.
Write about the role of Public Prosecutor.
Or
Who are government prosecutors?
Answer:
Public Prosecutor are those lawyers who fight any case in favour of government. Different types of public prosecutors are there for different types of suits. It means that there are different public prosecutors of cases like case between government and government officials, case of public property, criminal cases, civil cases, etc. In all these cases public prosecutor stands in favour of government and he defends the government in every case.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction

Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Parts of Governmment: There are main parts of government—Executive, Legislative and Judiciary. Legislative makes the law, Executive implements the law and Judiciary does the work of justice.
  • Single Judiciary: Structure of single judiciary has been kept in India. All the courts right from top and the bottom, are connected with each other.
  • Freedom of Judiciary: Special provisions are kept to make Judiciary independent and impartial. For example, it has been kept separate from legislative and executive so that it can give its decisions independently.
  • Appellate Jurisdiction of Supreme Court: Supreme Court listen to the suits filed against the decisions of high courts of states. As it is the highest court of the country, that’s why its decisions cannot be challenged any where.
  • Civil Suits: Appeal can be made in the Supreme Court against the decisions of any civil case. But it should be proved by high court that there is a definite legal question of general importance in this case. In special cases, Supreme Court can listen the appeal without the approval of High Court.
  • Public Interest Litigation (P.I.L.): Any person can file a case of public interest in the court as P.I.L. who is not directly related with the case or suit. Court listens to these cases in a regular way as it listen to other cases.
  • First Investigation Report (F.I.R.): It is necessary to inform the police at first instance in case of any incident occur. It is known as F.I.R. or First Investigation Report.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 28 Judiciary and Its Special Jurisdiction Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.