PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Computer Science Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Computer Guide for Class 10 PSEB HTML Fundamentals Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
What should be the first tag in any HTML document?
(a) <head>
(b) <title>
(c) <html>
(d) <document>
Answer:
(c) <html>

Question 2.
What is the correct HTML tag for inserting a line break?
(a) <br>
(b) <lb>
(c) <break>
(d) <newline>
Answer:
(a) <br>

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 3.
A webpage displays a picture. What tag was used to display that picture?
(a) picture
(b) image
(c) img
(d) src
Answer:
(c) img

Question 4.
Page designed in HTML is called is:
(a) Yellow Page
(b) Web Page
(c) Server Page
(d) Front Page
Answer:
(b) Web Page

Question 5.
HTML document is saved using extension:
(a) .htl
(b) .html
(c) .hml
(d) .htnl
Answer:
(b) .html

Question 6.
Table tag has various other tags, these are:
(a) <TR>
(b) <TD>
(c) <TH>
(d) All of the above.
Answer:
(d) All of the above.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

2. Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
HTML stands for …………..
Answer:
Hyper-Text markup Language

Question 2.
…………… list to represent an unorganized list.
Answer:
Unordered List

Question 3.
…………….. tag is used to define the elements of a list.
Answer:
<LI>

Question 4.
ALT stands for …………….
Answer:
Alternate

Question 5.
………… is the main part of the HTML document in which whole information about the webpage resides.
Answer:
<body>

Question 6.
The ………………… contains title that identifies the heading of the html document.
Answer:
Heading

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

3. True or False

Question 1.
HTML is a structured Language.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Table heading starts with <TH> tag and ends with</TH>tags
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Align does not defines the alignment of the attached image in contrast to the other contents of the webpage
Answer:
False

Question 4.
CELLPADDING is the pixel space between-the cell contents and the cell border.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Definition list generally contains the definitions of different terms and their meaning.
Answer:
True

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

4. Full Forms

Question 1.
HTML
Answer:
Hyper Text Markup Language

Question 2.
<B>
Answer:
Bold

Question 3.
<I>
Answer:
Italic

Question 4.
<U>
Answer:
Underline

Question 5.
<OL>
Answer:
Ordered List

Question 6.
<UL>
Answer:
Unordered list

Question 7.
<P>
Answer:
Paragraph

Question 8.
<BR>
Answer:
Break

Question 9.
SRC
Answer:
Source

Question 10.
<IMG>
Answer:
Image

Question 11.
<TR>
Answer:
Table row

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 12.
<TH>
Answer:
Table Heading

Question 13.
<TD>
Answer:
Table Data

Question 14.
LI
Answer:
List Item

Question 15.
URL
Answer:
Uniform Resource Locator.

5. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the tag which is by the beginning and ending tags.
Answer:
Container Tag

Question 2.
Name the tag of the HTML document in which whole information about the webpage resides.
Answer:
Body tag

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 3.
Name a tag which is an empty element that is used to break a line and display the proceeding text from the next line, without giving any space between two lines.
Answer:
<br>

Question 4.
Name the list which have information related to each other but their sequence is not important.
Answer:
Bulleted Lists

6. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is HTML ?
Answer:
HTML stands for Hyper Text markup Language. It is a language used for designing a web page in which text, graphics, and other information are organized, formatted, and linked together. HTML is extremely simple, Flexible, easy to learn, interactive, widely accepted Markup Language.

Question 2.
What is a Tag ?
Answer:
Tag is a HTML command which is understood by web browser. These are also called as elements. These are enclosed in angle brackets. HTML document can not be prepared without these tags.

Question 3.
What is <Img> tag. Explain.
Answer:
<img> tag is used to embed an image in HTML document. It means it displays an image in HTML web page. The general syntax of thi stag is <image SRC=””FILENAME”>

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 4.
Name different tags used to create a table.
Answer:
Following tabgsa re used to create a table in HTML.
(i) <table> </table>
(ii) <th> </th>
(iii) <tr> <tr>
(iv) <td> </td>

Question 5.
Explain Font tag with its attributes.
Answer:
Font tag is used to change the style and shape of the text which is used in any HTML document. It allows to format data on a given web page. Font tag has four main properties:

  • Style: Font style can be changed in three ways – Bold, Italic and Underline.
  • Font Face: Face defines the type face to be used like writing.
  • Font Colour: Font colour gives different colours to the text.
  • Font Size: Font size changes size of text matter.

7. Differentiate Between

(i) Ordered and Unordered List.
The difference between ordered and unordered lists is as follows:

Ordered List Unordered list
1. In an Ordered list, the order of the list item is important. If we charge the order, the meaning of the whole list changes. 1. In an unordered list the order of the items is not significant .We can swap two items or reverse the whole list and it still remains the same list
2. Ordered List starts with <OL> and ends with</OL> tag. 2. Unordered List starts with <UL> and aids with</UL> tag.
3. Ordered List has an <U> (list Item) tag which defines the list dements defined in the list 3. Unordered List has an <U> (List Item) tag which defines the list dements defined in the list
4. In an Ordered List, the attribute used is TYPE Which has values as 1, A, a, I, i. 4. In an Ordered List the attribute used is TYPE Which has values as, o, and SQUARE.
5. Default value of TYPE ATTRIBUTE is 1. 5. Default “value of TYPF. ATTRIBUTE is “Disc”.

(ii) Background and BGCOLOR.
The difference between background and BGCOLOR is as follows:

Background BGCOLOR
1. Background attribute is used in body as well as in table tag ,to add background image in the given webpage or a table. 1. BGCOLOR attribute is used in body as well as in table tag, to change the background color of the webpage or a table.
2. Syntax <body background=”Red”> 2. Syntax is <table bgcolor=nGreen”>
3. Example
<BODY background-“image.jpg”>
3. Example
<body bgcolor=”green”>

(iii) Colspan and Rowspan.
The difference between colspan and rowspan is as follows

1. Sometimes it makes sense for a cell to span multiple columns . This might be used for a header cell that titles a group of columns of entries. 1. Sometimes it makes sense for a cell to span multiple rows. This might be used for a side-bar that groups rows of entries.
2. Allows a single table cell to span the width of more than one cell or column. 2. Allows a single table cell to span the height of more them one row.
3. COLSPAN is attribute that is used in i.e. <th> and <td> tag. 3. ROWSPAN is attribute that is used in i.e. <th> and <td> tag.
4. It provides the same functionality as “merge cell” in spreadsheet programs like Excel. 4. It provide the same functionality as “merge cell” in spreadsheet programs like Excel.
5. Example:
<th colspan=”3″>
5.Example:
<th rowspann=”3″>

(vi) Tag and Attribute.
Difference between tag and attribute is as follows

Tag Attribute
1. Tags contain elements which provide instructions for how information will be processed or displayed. There are both starter tags <TAG> and end tags </ TAG> Tags are used to mark up the start and end of an HTML element. 1. An attribute defines a property for an element, consists of an attribute. Its value appears within the element’s start tag.
2. Tags contains elements as well as attribute 2. Attribute is a part of starting Tag of an element.
3. These are of two types:-Empty Tag and Container Tag 3. Types of Attribute depend upon the tag used .i.e. each tag has its own number of attributes.
4. Example:-

<Table > Here table is a tag.

4. Example:-

<Table Border=”2″ >

Here a table is the Tag and border is its attribute.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

8. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the basic structure of HTML in Details.
Answer:
HTML document has two main parts :
1. Head: The head section contains title that identifies the heading of the HTML document.
2. Body: The body element contains the actual contents or information that you want to display on a web page to the end user.
HTML document contains the following syntax:
<html> <head>
<title>Title Of Webpage </title>
</head>
<body>
Body of HTML Document
</body>
</html>
The tags defined in the above structure basically define or instruct the web browser about the different operation to be performed on the text defined in the given TAGS.

<html> </html>:
HTML document is started <html>and ended </html>with this tag. This TAG informs the web browser from where a web page will start and where it ends. If the commands are not defined in tags then the commands are taken as text by the web browser.

<head> </head>:
Head tag provides Header information. The document title is written in Head Tag. It always occurs in pair. Head Tag is considered very important for a web page. This is a container tag. It defines the Heading of the html document. It starts with<head> tag and ends with </head>. This Tag is always defined below <html> and above <body>tag. It contains information regarding title of the webpage, keywords used by the search engines etc. It contains no text in itself.

<Title> </Title>:
TITLE tag defines the title of the webpage, which is to be displayed on the title bar of the web browser when the web page is loaded in the web browser. It is enclosed in between <Title> and</Title>tags. It should be short and meaningful of <Title> First Web Page </Title>

<body> </body>:
This tag contains the actual information to be displayed on the web browser. When the webpage is loaded in the web browser. It may contain any element or contents related to text, images, audio, video etc. These contents are defined with in <body> and </body> tags.

For Example:
<body>This is document in HTML document. </BODY>
Each Body tag has different characteristics. These characteristics (properties) are termed as attributes. We can select Background colour, text colour, font size etc. with these attributes.

Question 2.
What are the various tags used in table ? Explain with an example.
Answer:
HTML table is created using <table> </Table Tag. HTML tables are composed row by row. You indicate a new row with the <TR> (table row) tag, and you separate the data with either the <TH> (table header) or <TD> (table data) tags. Think of the <TR> tag as a line break, signaling that the following data starts a new table row. Table headers are generally shown in bold and centered by WWW browsers, and table data is shown in the standard body text format.
The basic HTML table tags
1. <TABLE></TABLE>: These HTML tags are the containers for the rest of the table data.

2. <TR></TR>:
Each row in the table is contained by these tags. You can optionally leave off the closing </TR> tag.

3. <TD></TD>:
Defines a cell. Table data is contained within these tags: You can also nest additional tables within a single cell. You can optionally leave off the closing </TD> tag.

4. <TH></TH>:
These table header tags are used to define headers, usually in the first row or column of the table. You can optionally leave off the closing </TH> tag. In addition to the basic tags shown here, some other characteristics of table tag.

5. BORDER attribute:
By using the BORDER attribute of the <TABLE> tag, borders are put around the table. You set the value of this attribute to the number of pixels wide you want the border, like this: BQRDER=1. If you set this attribute to 0, the browser will not display a border.

6. ALIGN attribute:
The ALIGN attribute can be specified in the <TABLE> tag with possible values of LEFT, RIGHT, and CENTER (the default is LEFT). HTML 4.0 specifies a new value for ALIGN of CHAR, which implements alignment on a specified character, such as a decimal point.

7. Table heads:
In most browsers, table heads enclosed by the <TH> </TH> tags are emphasized and centered.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 3.
Explain ordered list with an example ?
Answer:
Ordered list is created using <ol> </ol> Tag. The attribute type may be ‘a’, ‘A’, 1,1, ‘i’, etc. On the face of it, ordered lists look a lot like unordered lists, and a lot of the same rules apply to both constructs. The only difference in HTML is that instead of using <UL> and </UL>, an ordered list is contained within the tags <OL> and </OL>. Ordered lists are based on list items, just as unordered lists are.
However, when an ordered list is displayed in a Web browser, it uses an automatically generated sequence of item markers. In other words, the items are numbered. The markup for a simple ordered list, based on the first example in this chapter: <OL>
<LI>Monday
<LI>Tuesday
<LI> Wednesday
<LI>Thursday
<LI>Friday
</OL>
The above markup will look similar to the previously discussed simple unordered list, with the important difference that each day of the week is numbered instead of preceded by a “bullet.” In other words, it looks like this :
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Ordered lists are as nestable as unordered lists, and you can nest unordered lists in ordered lists, as well as the other way.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 4.
Explain Nested List with example.
Answer:
A list within a list is called nested list. It can be any type of list. i.e. an ordered list can contain unordered list or a definition list or vice-versa. A list can contain any number of lists in it.
This can be seen in following example
PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals 1

PSEB 10th Class Computer Guide Office Tools Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which is related with Internet ?
(a) HTML
(b) XML
(c) CSS
(d) All of Above
Answer:
(d) All of Above

Question 2.
HTML document cannot work without which tag ?
(a) <p>
(b) <hr>
(c) <html>
(d) <table>
Answer:
(c) <html>

Question 3.
What is essential to view a website ?
(a) Internet
(b) Web Brower
(c) None of these
(d) Both of these
Answer:
(d) Both of these

Question 4.
How many types of methods are in a form ?
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
Answer:
(b) 3

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Fill in the Blanks

1. ……………. types of tags are used in HTML.
Answer:
Two

2. Opening and closing tags are used in …………………
Answer:
Container

3. There is no closing tag in ……………………… tag.
Answer:
Empty

4. The text editor named ………….. is set for creating HTML document.
Answer:
Text.

5. HTML document is opened in ………………
Answer:
Browser.

6. …………… extension is used to save HTML document.
Answer:
HTML or HTM.

7. In HTML document first and last tag should be ………… and ………..
Answer:
<HTML>, </HTML> .

8. Unordered list’is also called ……………. list.
Answer:
<UL>

9. …………. list represents numbers.
Answer:
Ordered Nested.

10. When a list U created in another list, it is named …………….. list.
Answer:
Ordered Nested.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

 True or Flase

1. The HTML tags can be written in Capital or small Letters of English Alphabets.
Answer:
True

2. Text is written in word pad to create a home page.
Answer:
True

3. Body tag is written after Head tag.
Answer:
True

4. Container tag is a solo tag.
Answer:
False

5. Title is written in Head Tag.
Answer:
True

6. There are six levels in Heading.
Answer:
True

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

7. The tag <P> is used for paragraph.
Answer:
True

8. The attributes of a list: Face, Size, Colour.
Answer:
False

9. The tag <BR> is used to make the text dynamic
Answer:
False

10. The bullets are marked in an Ordered List.
Answer:
False.

Match the Following

A B
1. HTML Document Body Tag
2. Container Tag Number
3. <OL> Bullet
4. <UL> Face, Size and Color
5. Font attribute Word Pad

Answer:

A B
1. HTML Document Word Pad
2. Container Tag Body Tag
3. <OL> Number
4. <UL> Bullet
5. Font attribute Face, Size and Color

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Full Forms

Question 1.
HTML
Answer:
Hyper Text Markup Language

Question 2.
<B>
Answer:
Bold

Question 3.
<I>
Answer:
Italic

Question 4.
<U>
Answer:
Underline

Question 5.
<P>
Answer:
Paragraph

Question 6.
<BR>
Answer:
Break

Question 7.
<OL>
Answer:
Ordered List

Question 8.
<UL>
Answer:
Unordered list

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the attributes of Unordered Lists?
Answer:

  • Bullet
  • Disc
  • Square

Question 2.
What is a table row?
Answer:
<TR><VTR>-Each row in the table is contained by these tags. You can optionally leave off the closing </TR> tag.

Question 3.
Which tags are used to show table heading and table data?
Answer:
<th> tag is used to give table heading and <td> tag is used to show the data.

Question 4.
Write the procedure of changing the table size.
Answer:
We can change the size of the table by using the width and height attributes of table tag.
<table width = “300” height = “400”>

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 5.
How will you make the border of a table?
Answer:
By giving the border attributes of table tag.

Question 6.
What is meant by cell spacing?
Answer:
The space between two cells is called cell spacing.

Question 7.
Write a short note on colspan.
Answer:
To span two adjacent cells in a column, use the COLSPAN attribute with <TH> or <TD>, as follows:
<TD COLSPAN=2>

Question 8.
What is the use of Anchor tag?
Answer:
Anchor tag is used to create link between two documents.
<a href= “c:\jsb\jap.htmT>

Question 9.
What do you mean by Linking?
Answer:
Linking is used to connect the two documents. It is also called hyperlink.

Question 10.
What is SRC attribute?
Answer:
SRC indicates the source of the file.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 11.
What are the methods of aligning an image?
Answer:

  • Left
  • Right
  • Center
  • Top
  • Bottom
  • Middle.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write names of any four tags used in HTML.
Answer:

Tags Description
<HTML> …</HTML> Encloses the entire HTML document.
<HE AD>… < / HE AD> Encloses the head of the HTML document.
<TITLE>… </TITLE> Indicates the title of the document. Used within <HEAD>.
<BODY>…</BODY> Encloses the body of the HTML document.
<P>…</P> A paragraph. The closing tag (</P>) is optional.
<BR> A line break.
Tags Description
<HR> A horizontal rule line.
<H1>…</H1> A first-level heading.
<H2>…</H2> A second-level heading.
<H3>…</H3> A third-level heading.
<H4>…</H4> A fourth-level heading (seldom used).
<H5>…</H5> A fifth-level heading (seldom used).
<H6>…</H6> A sixth-level heading (seldom used).

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 2.
Write types of tags used is HTML.
Answer:
There are two kinds of HTML tags:
1. Paired (Container) Tag:
A tag is said to be a paired tag if the text is placed between a tag and its companion tag. In paired tags, the first tag is referred to as Opening Tag and the second tag is referred to as Closing Tag.

2. Unpaired ( Empty) Tag:
Unpaired tags work alone, and are usually placed before the text you,want formatted. An impaired tag does not have a companion tag. Unpaired tags are also known as Singular or Stand-Alone Tags. An unpaired tag sometimes also called empty.

Question 3.
What are container tags?
Answer:
Paired (Container) Tag:
A tag is said to-be a paired tag if the text is placed between a tag and its companion tag. In paired tags, the first tag is referred to as Opening Tag and the second tag is referred to as Closing Tag.

Question 4.
What is a Nested List?
Answer:
Nested List. The list entities mentioned above can be combined to produce nested lists. For example, the following contains two numbered lists within one unordered list:
1. Departments in the B-Block:

  • Chemistry
  • Engineering
  • Geology

2. Departments in the C-Block:

  • Economics
  • Politics
  • Sociology

This document describes glossary lists. The following document ([Next] from the menu at the top of the page) explains the formatting of regular lists.

Question 5.
What is HTML?
Answer:
The Hypertext Mark-up Language (or HTML) is the language used to create documents for the World Wide Web. As the name implies it is a mark-up language – the original (ASCII) text is edited and new (text) codes i.e. tags are added to indicate how (and where) the text should appear.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 6.
How will you create home page of a Website? Write the steps.
Answer:
The first page of the website is called home page.
The followings are the steps to design home page:
1. Start___ Program_____ Accessories ______Notepad.
2. Write HTML coding and save with .html extension.
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<IT1LE> Titlf Text Goes Here </TlTLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
Hello Students
</BODY>
</HTML>

Question 7.
Explain definition lists with an example.
Answer:
As you might expect, definition lists begin and end with the tags <DL> and </DL>. However, unlike the unordered and ordered lists, definition lists are not based on list items. They are instead based on term-definition pairs.

Question 8.
Write names of various attributes of font.
Answer:
The various attributes of Font tag are:

  • Face
  • Size
  • Color.

Question 9.
For what purpose Marquee tag is used?
Answer:
The marquee tag is used to navigate the text on web page.
<Marquee> Hello </Marquee>

Question 10.
Mention the names of different types of lists used in HTML.
Answer:
There are three types of Lists in HTML:

  • Ordered List
  • Unordered List
  • Definition List

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the features of HTML?
Answer:
HTML:
Originally, HTML was developed with the intent of defining the structure of documents like headings, paragraphs, lists, and so forth to facilitate the sharing of scientific information between researchers. Web page has many elements as page style, paragraph, list, table and picture etc. Each section is written in the form of tag. The tags indicate that the element viz. heading, list, paragraph etc to which the section of web page relates. Picture, sound and movie can be included in addition to the text in a web page.

Question 2.
Discuss the structure of HTML Document.
Answer:
Structure Of Document:
It is easier to understand the structure of a HTML document. The complete document is written between <HTML> and </HTML> tags. The tags <Head>, <Body>, <Title>etc are written between these. The structure of HTML document is explained in detail below:
PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals 2
Question 3.
What are the different Headings Tags in HTML?
Answer:
HTML Headings:
The heading tag is used to fix the heading. There are 6 levels of heading in all. The levels are numbered as heading 1 to heading 6. All the letters of the heading in a given level have same font. The font size go^S on decreasing as we move from heading 1 to heading 6. The heading in level 1 is expressed by tags <H1> and </Hl>. Similarly in the heading in level 2 we use the tags <H2> and </H2>. <H6> is the lowest level. The font size in it is the smallest.

Tags Description
<HR> A horizontal rule line.
<H1>…</H1> A first-level heading.
<H2>…</H2> A second-level heading.
<H3>…</H3> A third-level heading.
<H4>…</H4> A fourth-level heading (seldom used).
<H5>…</H5> A fifth-level heading (seldom used).
<H6>…</H6> A sixth-level heading (seldom used).

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 4.
Explain type attribute in an Ordered list.
Answer:
HTML Ordered Lists:
If you are required to put your items in a numbered list instead of bulleted, then HTML ordered list will be used. This list is created by using <ol> tag. The numbering starts at one and is incremented by one for each successive ordered list element tagged with <li>.
PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals 3
The type Attribute
You can use type attribute for <ol> tag to specify the type of numbering you like. By default, it is a number. Following are the possible options :
<ol type = “1”> – Default-Case Numerals.
<ol type = “I”> – Upper-Case Numerals.
<ol type = “i”> – Lower-Case Numerals.
<ol type = “A”> – Upper-Case Letters.
<ol type = “a”> – Lower-Case Letters.
The start Attribute
You can use start attribute for <ol> tag to specify the starting point of numbering you need. Following are the possible options:
<ol type = “1” start = “4”> – Numerals starts with 4.
<ol type = “I” start = “4”> – Numerals starts with IV.
ol type = “a” start = “4”> – Letters starts with d
<ol type = “A” start = “4”> – Letters starts with D.

Question 5.
What are the tags used to creating tables in HTML? Explain.
Answer:
The HTML tables allow web authors to arrange data like text, images, links, other tables, etc. into rows and columns of cells.
The HTML tables- are created using the <table> tag in which the <tr> tag is used to create table rows and <td> tag is used to create data cells. The elements under <td> are regular and left aligned by default.
Example
PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals 4
Table Heading:
Table heading can be defined using <th> tag. This tag will be put to replace <td> tag, which is used to represent actual data cell. Normally you will put your fop row as table heading as shown below, otherwise you can use <th> element in any row. Headings, which are defined in <th> tag are centered and bold by default.

Cellpadding and Cellspacing Attributes:
There are two attributes called cellpadding and cellspacing which you will use to adjust the white space in your table cells. The cellspacing attribute defines space between table cells, while cellpadding represents the distance between cell borders and the content within a cell.

Colspan and Rowspan Attributes:
You will use colspan attribute if you want to merge two or more columns into a single column. Similar way you will use rowspan if you want to merge two or more rows.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Science Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

Question 6.
Can you use insert image in your website? If yes, how? Explain with examples.
Answer:
Html Images:
Images are very important to beautify as well as to depict many complex concepts in simple way on your web page. This tutorial will take you through simple steps to use images in your web pages.

Insert Image:
You can insert any image in your web page by using <img> tag. Following is the simple syntax to use this tag.
<imgsrc = “Image URL” … attributes-list/>
The <img> tag is an empty tag, which means that, it can contain only list of attributes and it has no closing tag.
Example
To try following example, let’s keep our HTML file test.htm and image file test.png in the same directory.
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Set Image Location:
Usually we keep all the images in a separate directory. So let’s keep HTML file test.htm in our home directory and create a subdirectory images inside the home directory where we will keep our image test.png.

Set Image Width/Height
You can set image width and height based on your requirement using width and height attributes. You can specify width and height of the image in terms of either pixels or percentage of its actual size.

Set Image Border :
By default, image will have a border around it, you can specify border thickness in terms of pixels using border attribute. A thickness of 0 means, no border around the picture.
Example
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Set Image Alignment:
By default, image will align at the left side of the page, but you can use align attribute to set it in the center or right.
Example
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Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, and it is the most widely used language to write Web Pages.

  • Hypertext refers to the way in which Web pages (HTML documents) are linked together. Thus, the link available on a webpage is called Hypertext.
  • As its name suggests, HTML is a Markup Language which means you use HTML to simply “mark-up” a text document with tags that tell a Web browser how to structure it to display.

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HTML:

Originally, HTML was developed with the intent of defining the structure of documents like headings, paragraphs, lists, and so forth to facilitate the sharing of scientific information between researchers.

Web page has many elements as page style, paragraph, list, table and picture etc. Each section is written in the form of tag. The tags indicate that the element viz. heading, list, paragraph etc to which the section of web page relates. Picture, sound and movie can be included in addition to the text in a web page.

Structure of Document:

It is easier to understand the structure of a HTML document. The complete document is written between <HTML> and </HTML> tags. The tags <Head>, <Body>, <Title>etc are written between these. The structure of HTML document is explained in detail below:
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Creating A Web Page or Html Document:

Web page is the first page of a website. This gives an introduction about whole website. This page contains many types of the links which are related with other web pages.
The whole of work regarding creation of web document is done in notepad. The steps to be followed to open a notepad are:
1. Start → Programs → Accessories → Notepad
Or
2. Notepad can also be opened by typing notepad in Run dialog box.
The notepad windows will be displayed. Create the document in the notepad as under :
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> First Web Page</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
This is my first Web page in HTML document.
</BODY>
</HTML>

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Viewing HTML Document

Save this document as .html extension. For example, you can name this document as MyWebpage.html.
To look at web page we use some web browser. Internet explorer is a commonly used browser. The steps to look a webpage with the help of internet explorer are as under:

  1. Click on Start → Programs → Internet Explorer Internet explorer windows will be displayed.
  2. Click on File → Open Menu
  3. Go to MyWebpage.html file with the help of browse button and click on open button.
  4. Click OK. The internet explorer will show the Page.

Types of Web Browsers:

Web Browsers are software installed on your PC. To access the Web, you need a web browser, such as Netscape Navigator, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox.
There are four leading web browsers – Explorer, Firefox, Netscape, and Safari, but there are many other browsers available. You might be interested in knowing complete browser statistics. Now we will see these browsers in a bit more detail.

1. Internet Explorer. Internet Explorer (IE) is a product from software giant Microsoft. This is the most commonly used browser in the universe. This was introduced in 1995 along with Windows 95 launch and it has passed Netscape popularity in 1998.

2. Google Chrome. This web browser is developed by Google and its beta version was first released on September 2, 2008 for Microsoft Windows. Today, chrome is known to be one of the most popular web browser with its global share of more than 50%.

3. Mozilla Firefox. Firefox is a new browser derived from Mozilla. It was released in 2004 and has grown to be the second most popular browser on the Internet.

4. Safari. Safari is a web browser developed by Apple Inc. and included in Mac OS X. It was first released as a public beta in January 2003. Safari has very good support for latest teclinologies like XHTML, CSS2 etc.

5. Opera. Opera is smaller and faster than most other browsers, yet it is full- featured. Fast, user-friendly, with keyboard interface, multiple windows, zoom functions, and more. Java and non Java-enabled versions available. Ideal for newcomers to the Internet, school children, handicap and as a front-end for CD- Rom and kiosks.

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HTML Tags:

HTML is made up of different tags and attributes. The tag is an HTML command that shows the layout or displays the desired output of a whole or part of the web page. HTML tag is bound by angular brackets ( <> ) that always opens with a < (less than) sign and closes with a > (greater than) sign. It controls the appearance, layout and flow of the web page.
A tag contains three parts: element (identification of tag), attribute and value.
HTML tags can be of two types:
1. Container/Paired Tags
2. Empty/Singular Tags

1. Container/Paired Tags. It is also called container tag. A tag is said to be a paired tag if it along with a companion tag or closing tag appears at the end. For example, the tag is paired tag. The tag with its closing tag is used to render in Bold Text. In paired tag, first tag is called the opening tag and the second tag is called the closing tag.

2. Empty/Singular Tags. The second type of tag is the singular tag, which is also known as a stand-alone tag or empty tag. The stand-alone tag does not have companion tag or closing tag.
For example: Other singular tags are:
Tags Description
<BR> Insert a link break
<HR> Defines a horizontal rule
<!–> Defines a comment

HTML Attributes:

An attribute defines a property for an element, consists of an attribute/value pair, and appears within the element’s start tag. An element’s start tag may contain any number of space separated attribute/value pairs.
An attribute is used to define the characteristics of an HTML element and is placed inside the element’s opening tag. All attributes are made up of two parts – a name and a value:
1. The name is the property you want to set. For example, the paragraph <p> element in the example carries an attribute whose name is align, which you can use to indicate the alignment of paragraph on the page.
2. The valuers what you want the value of the property to be set and always put within quotations.

Tags Attributes

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Body Tags:

It is main tag of HTML. It contains all other tags. Everything written in this tag is displayed.

Background Attributes:

It defines background image of HTML document <Body Background = “Image.JPG”>

Bg Color attribute:

It defines background color of HTML document <Body bgcolor = ” green” >

Difference between Background and BGCOLOR:

The difference between background and BGCOLOR is as ahead:

Background BGCOLOR
1. Background attribute is used in body as well as in table tag ,to add background image in the given webpage or a table. 1. BGCOLOR attribute is used in body as well as in table tag, to change the background color of the webpage or a table.
2 Syntax <body background= “Red”> 2. Syntax is <table bgcolor=”Green” >
3. Example : <BQDY background-‘image.jpg”> 3. Example : <body bgcolor-‘green”>

Text Attribute:

It defines Text Color in HTML document <Body Text = “Read”>

Formatting In Html Documents:

HTML Headings

The heading tag is used to fix the heading. There are 6 levels of heading in all. The levels are numbered as heading 1 to heading 6. All the letters of the heading in a given level have same font. The font size goes on decreasing as we move from heading 1 to heading 6. The heading in level 1 is expressed by tags <H1> and </Hl>. Similarly in the heading in level 2 we use the tags <H2> and </H2>. <H6> is the lowest level. The font size in it is the smallest.

Tags – Description
<H1 >…</HI> – A first-level heading.
<H2>…</H2> – A second-level heading.
<H3>…</H3> – A third-level heading.
<H4>…</H4> – A fourth-level heading (seldom used).
<H5>…</H5> – A fifth-level heading (seldom used).
<H6>…</H6> – A sixth-level heading (seldom used).

Font Tag

Fonts play a very important role in making a website more, user friendly and increasing content readability. Font face and color depends entirely on the computer and browser that is being used to view your page but you can use HTML <font> tag to add style, size, and color to the text on your website. You can use a <basefont> tag to set all of your text to the same size, face, and color.

The font tag is having three attributes called size, color, and face to customize your fonts. To change any of the font attributes at any time within your webpage, simply use the <font> tag. The text that follows will remain changed until you close with the </font> tag. You can change one or all of the font attributes within one <font> tag.

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Set Font Size

You can set content font size using size attribute. The range of accepted values is from 1 (smallest) to 7(largest). The default size of a font is 3.

Setting Font Face

You can set font face using face attribute but be aware that if the user viewing the page doesn’t have the font installed, they will not be able to see it. Instead user will see the default font face applicable to the user’s computer.

Specify Alternate Font Faces

A visitor will only be able to see your font if they have that font installed on their computer. So, it is possible to specify two or more font face alternatives by listing the font face names, separated by a comma.
<font face = “drial,helvetica”>
When your page is loaded, their browser will display the first font face available. If none of the given fonts are installed, then it will display the default font face, Times New Roman.

Setting Font Color

You can set any font color you like using color attribute. You can specify the color that you want by either the color name or hexadecimal code for that color.

Paragraph Tag:

Paragraph is the basic composition of HTML, Paragraph is started with <P> tag and closes with </P> tag. Whenever one has to get to next line leaving one line blank, <P> tag is used. The tag <P> leave a space equivalent to one line between previous line and the following line.

Paragraph Tag Attributes

The paragraph tag has a few basic attributes you should learn about to start with.

  • id – this has to be unique to the page. An id can be used on multiple pages but only once on a single page.
    An id can be used in the stylesheet to set specific formatting to the paragraphs with this id.
  • class – A class is used to apply styling to the paragraph. It can be applied to many paragraphs on the page or across the whole website.
  • lang – defines the language used in the paragraph. You would use this if the contents of the paragraph is different from the base language of the web page. e.g. French when the rest of the page is in English.
  • style – The style attribute is used when you want to apply specific styling to a paragraph.

Novice web page coders and some HTML editors do this when using the design view of the HTML editor like a word processing program. This adds unnecessary coding to the web page as this is a typical styling it can be applied using the stylesheet.

Using the style attribute of the paragraph tag makes it hard to manage the editing of the website because in the future if you want to change the styling you have to hunt down every instance of that inline style in all the pages. This can be quite a bit of work if you have a large site. We would recommend that you try and avoid using this paragraph tag attribute all together but if you absolutely have to use it, use it very few times.

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The Line Break:

The line break tag is used to start the text from the new line. This tag does not leave a blank line space as the paragraph tag does. The text jumps to new line on using line break tag. The tag <BR> is a symbol for line break.

Difference between <P> and <BR> tags.

The difference between <P> and <BR> tag is as follows:

Paragraph <P> Tag Break <BR>Tag
1. <P> tag is a container element which marks a block of text as a paragraph in a webpage and tlxl web browser leaves a line between two paragraphs. This tag has an attribute ALIGN, which can take three values – left, right and center. 1. The <P> tag denotes a paragraph and ends with a </P> and is a container tag. t < BR> tag b an empty element that is used to break a line and display the proceeding text from the next line, without giving any spare between two lines. It has no attribute. The <BR> is a line break and is an empty tag.
2. This tag is used to define paragraphs with in your text. 2. This tag is simply a line break. It just jumps to the next line without any spacing or formatting options.
3. Example: <P>hello Dear students </P> 3. Example : Hello<BR>Dear Students.

The HR Tag

The HR (Horizontal Ruler) tag is a very helpful html element for dividing up sections of text in a page, without having to resort to one pixel high graphic. The problem is that left unstyled, your leaving it up to the browser to determine how it looks. Which can be indifferent at the best of times.

One way to control this is by using the available HTML attributes:

  • align: [left, center and right] noshade: (solid line)
  • size: [pixel value] line height of the element
  • width: [ pixel or percentage value ] width of the element

HTML Lists:

HTML offers web authors three ways for specifying lists of information. All lists must contain one or more list elements. Lists may contain:

  • <ul> – An unordered list. This will list items using plain bullets.
  • <ol> – An ordered list. This will use different schemes of numbers to list your items.
  • <dl> – A definition list. This arranges your items in the same way as they are arranged in a dictionary.

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HTML Ordered Lists

If you are required to put your items in a numbered list instead of bulleted, then HTML ordered list will be used. This list is created by using <ol> tag. The numbering starts at one and is incremented by one for each successive ordered list element tagged with <li>.

Example
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The type Attribute

You can use type attribute for <ol> tag to specify the type of numbering you like. By default, it is a number. Following are the possible options:

  • <ol type = “1”> – Default-Case Numerals.
  • <ol type = “I”> – Upper-Case Numerals.
  • <ol type = “i”> – Lower-Case Numerals.
  • <ol type = “A”> – Upper-Case Letters.
  • <ol type = “a”> – Lower-Case Letters.

The start Attribute

You can use start attribute for <ol> tag to specify the starting point of numbering you need. Following are the possible options:

  • <ol type = “1” start = “4”> – Numerals starts with 4.
  • <ol type = “I” start = “4”> – Numerals starts with IV.
  • <ol type = “i” start = “4”> – Numerals starts with iv.
  • <ol type = “a” start = “4”> – Numerals starts with d.
  • <ol type = “A” start = “4”> – Numerals starts with D.

HTML Unordered List:

An unordered list is a collection of related items that have no special order or sequence. This list is created by using HTML <ul> tag. Each item in the list is marked with a bullet.
Example
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The type Attribute:

You can use type attribute for <ul> tag to specify the type of bullet you like. By default, it is a disc. Following are the possible options:

  • <ul type = “square”>
  • <ul type = “disc”>
  • <ul type = “circle”>

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HTML Definition Lists:

HTML and XHTML supports a list style which is called definition lists where entries are listed like in a dictionary or encyclopedia. The definition list is the ideal way to present a glossary, list of terms, or other name/value list.
Definition List makes use of following three tags:

  • <dl> – Defines the start of the list
  • <dt> – A term –
  • <dd> – Term definition
  • </ dl> – Defines the end of the list

Example
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Difference between Ordered and Unordered Lists:

The difference between ordered and unordered lists is as follows :

Ordered List Unordered list –
1. In an Ordered list, the order of the list item is important. If we change the order, the meaning of the whole list changes.

2. Ordered List starts with <OL> and ends with</OL> tag.

3. Ordered List has an <U> (list Item) tag which defines the list dements defined in the list.

4. In an Ordered List, the attribute used is TYPE which has values as 1, A, a, I, i.

5. Default value of TYPE ATTRIBUTE is 1.

1. In an unordered list the order of the items is not significant. We can swap two items or reverse the whole list and it still remains the same list.

2. Unordered List starts with <UL> and aids with</UL> tag.

3. Unordered List has an <U> (List Item) tag which defines the list dements defined in the list.

4. In an Unordered List the attribute used is TYPE which has values as *, o, and SQUARE. ‘

5. Default value of TYPF. ATTRIBUTE is “Disc”.

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Nested List:

When a list is given in another list. It is called a nested list. We can give as many as list in another lists.

HTML – Images:

Images are very important to beautify as well as to depict many complex concepts in simple way on your web page. This tutorial will take you through simple steps to use images in your web pages.

Insert Image

You can insert any image in your web page by using <img> tag. Following is the simple syntax to use this tag.
<imgsrc = “Image URL” … attributes-list/>
The <img> tag is an empty tag, which means that, it can contain only list of attributes and it has no closing tag.

Example
To try following example, let’s keep our HTML file test.htm and image file test.png in the same directory.
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Set Image Location

Usually we keep all the images in a separate directory. So let’s keep HTML file test.htm in our home directory and create a subdirectory images inside the home directory where we will keep our image test.png.

Set Image Width/Height

You can set image width and height based on your requirement using width and height attributes. You can specify width and height of the image in terms of either pixels or percentage of its actual size.

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Set Image Border

By default, image will have a border around it, you can specify border thickness in terms of pixels using border attribute. A thickness of 0 means, no border around the picture.

Example
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Set Image Alignment

By default, image will align at the left side of the page, but you can use align attribute to set it in the center or right.

Example
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HTML-Tables:

The HTML tables allow web authors to arrange data like text, images, links, other tables, etc. into rows and columns of cells.
The HTML tables- are created using the <table> tag in which the <tr> tag is used to create table rows and <td> tag is used to create data cells. The elements under <td> are regular and left aligned by default.
Example
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Table Heading

Table heading can be defined using <th> tag. This tag will be put to replace <td> tag, which is used to represent actual data cell. Normally you will put your fop row as table heading as shown below, otherwise you can use <th> element in any row. Headings, which are defined in <th> tag are centered and bold by default.

Cellpadding and Cellspacing Attributes

There are two attributes called cellpadding and cellspacing which you will use to adjust the white space in your table cells. The cellspacing attribute defines space between table cells, while cellpadding represents the distance between cell borders and the content within a cell.

Colspan and Rowspan Attributes

You will use colspan attribute if you want to merge two or more columns into a single column. Similar way you will use rowspan if you want to merge two or more rows.

Difference between Colspan and Rowspan Attributes

The difference between colspan and rowspan is as follows:

Colspan Rowspan
1. Sometimes it makes sense for a cell to span multiple columns. This might be used for a header cell that titles a group of columns of entries.

2. Allows a single table cell to span the width of more than one cell or column.

3. ROWSPAN is attribute that is used in i.e. <th> and <td> tag.

4. It provides the same functionality as “merge cell” in spreadsheet programs like Excel.

5. Example: <th colspan=”3″>

1. Sometimes it makes sense for a cell to span multiple rows. This might be used for a side-bar that groups rows of entries.

2. Allows “a single table cell to span the height of more than one row.

3. COLSPAN is attribute that is used in i.e. <th> and <td> tag.

4. It provides the same functionality as “merge cell” in spreadsheet programs like Excel.

5. Example: <th rowspan=”3″>

Tables Backgrounds

You can set table background using one of the following two ways –
1.  bgcolor attribute – You can set background color for whole table or just for one cell.
2. background attribute – You can set background image for whole table or just for one cell.
You can also set border color also using bordercolor attribute.

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Table Height and Width

You can set a table width and height using width and height attributes. You can specify table width or height in terms of pixels or in terms of percentage of available screen area.

Table Caption

The caption tag will serve as a title or explanation for the table and it shows up at the top of the table. This tag is deprecated in newer version of HTML/ XHTML.

Table Header, Body and Footer:

Tables can be divided into three portions – a header, a body, and a foot. The head and foot are rather similar to headers and footers in a word-processed document that remain the same for every page, while the body is the main content holder of the table.
The three elements for separating the head, body, and foot of a table are –

  • <thead> – to create a separate table header.
  • <tbody> – to indicate the main body of the table.
  • <tfoot> – to create a separate table footer.

A table may contain several <tbody> elements to indicate different pages or groups of data. But it is notable that <thead> and <tfoot> tags should appear before <tbody>.

This PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 HTML Fundamentals will help you in revision during exams.