PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 2 Components of Food

Science Guide for Class 6 PSEB Components of Food Intext Questions and Answers

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 12)

Question 1.
What happens when we add few drops of iodine solution to raw potato?
Answer:
The colour of potato turns blue-black on addition of Iodine drops.

Question 2.
What is the colour of Iodine solution?
Answer:
Violet.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

Question 3.
Besides raw potato which other food items can be used for testing of starch?
Answer:
Boiled rice, wheat flour, sweet potato and sugar cane.

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 13)

Question 1.
Name the chemicals used to test the presence of proteins in food.
Answer:
Copper Sulphate (CUSO4) solution and Caustic Soda (NaOH) solution.

Question 2.
Name any two food items containing protein.
Answer:
Boiled egg and peas.

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 15)

Question 1.
Why paper becomes translucent when we crush cashew on it?
Answer:
Paper becomes translucent due to presence of oily patch.

Question 2.
Name any two food items that contain fats.
Answer:
Cashew, groundnut, mustard seeds.

PSEB 6th Class Science Guide Components of Food Textbook Questions and Answers

Exercise – 1

1. Fill in the Blanks:

(a) We use ………………. solution to test the presence of starch.
Answer:
iodine

(b) Potato, rice and wheat are rich sources of …………………
Answer:
carbohydrates (starch)

(c) Citrus fruits mainly contain vitamin ……………….
Answer:
C

(d) Anaemia is caused by deficiency of ………………
Answer:
iron

(e) Goitre is caused by deficiency of …………………..
Answer:
iodine

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

2. Write True or False:

(a) Vitamin-D is synthesized when body is exposed to sunlight.
Answer:
True

(b) We get calcium from milk and milk products.
Answer:
True

(c) Pulses are chief sources of fats.
Answer:
False

(d) Rice alone can provide all necessary nutrients to body.
Answer:
False

(e) Night blindness is caused due to deficiency of vitamin A.
Answer:
True

3. Match the Column A with Column B:

Column A Column B
1. Protein deficiency (a) Rickets
2. Vitamin A (b) Beri-Beri
3. Vitamin B (c) Scurvy
4. Vitamin C (d) Night blindness
5. Vitamin D (e) Kwashiorkor

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Protein deficiency (e) Kwashiorkor
2. Vitamin A (d) Night blindness
3. Vitamin B (b) Beri-Beri
4. Vitamin C (c) Scurvy
5. Vitamin D (a) Rickets

4. Choose the Correct Answer:

Question (i)
Which of the following is rich source of Protein?
(a) Potato
(b) Mango
(c) Rice
(d) Moong Dal.
Answer:
(d) Moong Dal

Question (ii)
Which of the following is essential for normal functioning of thyroid gland?
(a) Vitamin D
(b) Calcium
(c) Iodine
(d) Iron
Answer:
(c) Iodine

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

Question (iii)
Anaemia is caused due to deficiency of :
(a) Vitamin A
(b) Calcium
(c) Iron
(d) Iodine
Answer:
(c) Iron

Exercise – 2

5. Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
What is balanced diet?
Answer:
The diet that contains adequate amount of all the essential nutrients, roughage and water for proper growth and development of body is called Balanced diet.

Question (ii)
What are the chief sources of carbohydrates?
Answer:
Bajra, jowar, rice, wheat, jaggery, mango, banana, potato, etc.

Question (iii)
Why are the proteins called body building foods?
Answer:
Proteins are essential for growth and repair of body cells so foods rich in protein content are called body building foods.

Question (iv)
What is the importance of roughage for human body?
Answer:
Roughage helps our body to get rid of indigestible food and prevents constipation. It also helps to retain water in food and growth of good bacteria in stomach.

Question (v)
Name any two food items containing fats.
Answer:
Meat, eggs, fish, milk and milk products like butter, ghee etc.

6. Short Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
Why is water essential for life?
Answer:
Water is essential for life because it helps us in absorption of nutrients from food. It also helps us to get rid of wastes from body in the form of urine and sweat.

Question (ii)
Name five types of nutrients that our body need.
Answer:
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

Question (iii)
From where do we get vitamin C ? What can happen to human body due to the deficiency of vitamin C?
Answer:
We get vitamin C from citrus fruits (Lemon, Orange), amla, tomato, broccoli, etc. Due to deficiency of vitamin see we suffer from a disease called scurvy. The main symptoms of this disease are bleeding gums.

Question (iv)
Fats and carbohydrates are called energy giving foods. Explain Why ?
Answer:
These are called energy giving foods because these when digested release large amounts of energy needed for doing various activities.

7. Long Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
What are deficiency diseases? Write briefly about the diseases caused by deficiency of proteins and carbohydrates in human body.
Answer:
The diseases caused due to shortage of nutrients in our diet for long time are called deficiency diseases. In other words, deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals results in certain diseases called deficiency diseases.

(1) Disease caused by deficiency of proteins and carbohydrates both is Marasmus. The main symptoms are dry skin, sunken eyes, prominent ribs, body becomes very lean, thin and weak enough that child may not be able to move.

(2) Disease caused by deficiency of proteins is Kwashiorkor. The main symptoms are stunted growth, swelling of face, dry skin, retention of water in body, discolouration of hair.

Question (ii)
Discuss the importance of minerals for human body.
Answer:
Minerals are the components of food that we need for good health and proper growth of body. These do not provide energy to body. These are needed in very small quantities. Iron, Calcium, Iodine and Phosphorus are important minerals for our body. Their deficiency can cause some disease.

Iron.
It is important mineral needed by our body for formation of haemoglobin in body. Main sources of iron are leafy vegetables, fruits, jaggery, etc. Its deficiency can cause anaemia.

Calcium.
It is important mineral needed by our body for formation of bones. Main sources of calcium are Milk and milk products, eggs, etc. Its deficiency can cause weak bones and tooth decay.

Phosphorous.
It is important mineral needed by our body for providing strength to bones and teeth. Main sources of phosphorus are milk, cheese, banana, bajra, nuts, etc. Its deficiency can cause weak bones and tooth decay.

Iodine.
It is important mineral needed by our body for normal functioning of thyroid gland. Main sources of iodine are iodised Salt, Sea food, Green leafy vegetables, etc. Its deficiency can cause goitre disease. The main symptom of this disease is enlargement of gland in neck (Thyroid).

Question (iii)
What are vitamins? Discuss the importance of different types of vitamins for human body.
Answer:
Vitamins are essential for proper functioning of our body. Like minerals they are also required in very small quantity and also do not provide any energy to body. We need many vitamins like A, B, C, D, E and K.

Vitamin A.
The main sources are eggs, meat, milk, cheese, green leafy vegetables, carrots, papya, etc. It is needed for maintaining healthy eyes and skin. Its deficiency can cause night blindness.

Vitamin B.
The main sources are milk, green vegetables, peas, eggs, cereals, mushrooms etc. It is needed for normal growth and functioning of central nervous system, digestive system. Its deficiency can cause beri-beri disease.

Vitamin C.
The main sources are milk, citrus fruits (lemon, orange), amla, tomato, broccoli, etc. It helps us to increase our immunity and fight against different diseases. Its deficiency can cause scurvy or bleeding gums disease.

Vitamin D.
The main sources are dairy products, fish liver oil, exposure to sunlight, etc. It is required for healthy bones and teeth. Its deficiency can cause rickets disease.

Vitamin E.
The main sources are nuts such as almonds, peanut, vegetable oils such as sunflower and soybean oils, leafy vegetables such as spinach and broccoli, etc. It protects cells from damage, and help in lowering a variety of health problems.

Vitamin K.
The main sources are green leafy vegetables (such as spinach, turnip, mustard, broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage), fish, meat, eggs, and cereals (contain smaller amounts), etc. It is needed for blood clotting.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

PSEB 6th Class Science Guide Components of Food Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Number of important nutrients of food needed by our body is :
(a) Two
(b) Four
(c) Five
(d) Ten.
Answer:
(c) Five

Question 2.
Which is not an energy giving food
(a) Water
(b) Roughage
(c) Vitamins
(d) All
Answer:
(d) All

Question 3.
It is needed for testing protein in a food material :
(a) A solution of Copper Sulphate and Caustic soda
(b) Nitric acid
(c) Iodine
(d) All of these
Answer:
(a) A solution of Copper Sulphate and Caustic soda

Question 4.
Iodine is used for testing :
(a) Carbohydrates (sugar)
(b) Protein
(c) Vitamin
(d) Water
Answer:
(a) Carbohydrates (sugar)

Question 5.
Milk Contains nutrients :
(a) Water
(b) Carbohydrates
(c) Proteins
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 6.
Lime, Amla are source of :
(a) Carbohydrates
(b) Minerals
(c) Proteins
(d) Vitamin-C.
Answer:
(d) Vitamin-C

Question 7.
Fats are tested by :
(a) Salt
(b) Taste
(c) Rubbing on paper
(d) Using iodine solution.
Answer:
(c) Rubbing on paper

Question 8.
Deficiency of Vitamin D causes :
(a) Scurvy
(b) Beri-Beri
(c) Rickets
(d) Goitre.
Answer:
(c) Rickets

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

Question 9.
Weak eye sight is symptom of :
(a) Scurvy
(b) Anaemia
(c) Rickets
(d) Night blindness.
Answer:
(d) Night blindness

Question 10.
Food which contains all the nutrients in proper amounts is known as :
(a) Good diet
(b) Complete diet
(c) Balanced diet
(d) Healthy diet.
Answer:
(c) Balanced diet

Question 11.
Play role in protecting body against diseases.
(a) Minerals
(b) Carbohydrates
(c) Fats
(d) Vitamins.
Answer:
(d) Vitamins.

Fill in the Blanks:

(a) The components of food needed by our body are called ……………….
Answer:
nutrients

(b) The fibrous indigestible material present in food is termed as ……………….
Answer:
roughage

(c) Simple tests can be done for presence of …………….., …………… and …………………
Answer:
carbohydrates, fats, proteins

(d) To conduct test some chemicals like …………….., ……………..and caustic soda are needed.
Answer:
iodine solution, copper sulphate

(e) ……………… and …………….. are the carbohydrates found in food.
Answer:
starch, sugar

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

(f) Carbohydrates and fats provide ……………. to the body.
Answer:
energy

(g) …………… …………….. help in protecting the body against diseases.
Answer:
Vitamins

(h) Proteins are body ……………… foods.
Answer:
building

(i) Different types of vitamins are …………….., ………….. ,………………. ,……………. and …………..
Answer:
A, B, C, D, E, K

(j) Besides different nutrients, water and ………….. are also needed by the body.
Answer:
Dietary fibres

(k) Roughage / dietary fibres helps body to get rid of …………….. food.
Answer:
undigested

(l) Diseases caused by …………….. of a nutrient is called deficiency disease.
Answer:
deficiency

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

(m) Vitamin C gets easily destroyed by …………… during cooking.
Answer:
heat

Write (T) against True and (F) against False statement:

(a) We need only three important nutrients in our food.
Answer:
False

(b) Iodine in a food item cannot be easily tested.
Answer:
False

(c) Copper sulphate is used for testing proteins in the food.
Answer:
True

(d) Fatty substances leave patchy marks on the surfaces on which they are kept or wrapped.
Answer:
True

(e) Proteins protect the body from diseases.
Answer:
False

(f) Only a single vitamin B is present in the body.
Answer:
False

(g) Leafy vegetables are source of roughage.
Answer:
True

(h) Milk and eggs are source of minerals.
Answer:
True

(i) Goitre is a disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin C.
Answer:
False

(j) Rickets is a disease in which teeth decay quickly.
Answer:
False

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

(k) Anaemia is a disease in which body weakens up due to lack of Iron.
Answer:
True

(l) Lack of vitamin B is cause of Beri-Beri.
Answer:
True

(m) Kwashiorkar is caused due to deficiency of vitamin A.
Answer:
False

Matching

Match the following items given in column A with that in column B :

Column A Diseases caused Column B Deficiency of
(1) PEM Vitamin A
(2) Beri-Beri Vitamin D
(3) Scurvy Vitamin B
(4) Goitre Roughage
(5) Rickets Proteins
(6) Night blindness Vitamin C
(7) Constipation Iodine

Answer:
(1) PEM – Proteins
(2) Beri-Beri – Vitamin B
(3) Scurvy – Vitamin C
(4) Goitre – Iodine
(5) Rickets – Vitamin D
(6) Night Blindness – Vitamin A
(7) Constipation – Roughage.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which are the important nutrients required for providing energy to our body for doing various activities?
Answer:
Carbohydrates and fats.

Question 2.
Which nutrient of food is body building?
Answer:
Protein is body building nutrient of food.

Question 3.
Which nutrients act as protective food?
Answer:
Vitamins and minerals.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

Question 4.
Which is more energy rich nutrient – fat or carbohydrates?
Answer:
Fat.

Question 5.
Name diseases caused due to deficiency of vitamin ‘C’ and vitamin ‘D”.
Answer:
Vitamin ‘C’ – Scurvy, Vitamin ‘D’ – Rickets

Question 6.
Which foods are rich in fats?
Answer:
Oil, butter, ghee etc.

Question 7.
Which nutrient is present in Sugar, Potato and cereals?
Answer:
Carbohydrates.

Question 8.
What is effect of excess water in food material?
Answer:
Excess water helps in dissolving minerals.

Question 9.
Why should we not wash rice and dais repeatedly?
Answer:
This will cause loss of vitamins and minerals.

Question 10.
Which chemical is used for Testing Starch in food?
Answer:
Iodine solution.

Question 11.
What happens when copper sulphate solution and sodium hydroxide solution are added to a food material containing proteins ?
Answer:
Appearance of violet colour.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

Question 12.
How are deficiency diseases prevented?
Answer:
By taking balanced diet.

Question 13.
What is the cause of kwashiorkar and marasmus?
Answer:
Deficiency of protein causes kwashiorkar whereas deficiency of proteins and carbohydrates both causes marasmus.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
List few sources of proteins and carbohydrates.
Answer:
(i) Sources of Proteins :
(a) Plant sources : Peas, Soyabean, Grains.
(b) Animal sources : Milk, Fish, Meat.

(ii) Sources of Carbohydrates : Sugarcane, Potato, Beetroots, Mango, Papaya, Banana, Maize.

Question 2.
List few sources of vitamins and fats.
Answer:
(i) Sources of Vitamins : milk, liver, grains, fruit, butter, egg, leafy vegetables.
(ii) Sources of Fats : Ghee, Butter, Oil, Cream.

Question 3.
What are deficiency diseases?
Answer:
Deficiency disease. Diseases that occur due to deficiency of one or more nutrients over a long period are called deficiency diseases. Anaemia, Rickets, Scurvy and Goitre are examples of deficiency diseases.

Question 4.
How will you test carbohydrates, and proteins present in the food?
Answer:
We can test carbohydrate by using iodine solution test. Here we observe that the colour of carbohydrate turns blue-black on addition of Iodine drops.
We can test presence of protein by adding two drops of Copper Sulphate (CUSO4) and 10 drops of Caustic Soda (NaOH) solution to the test tube.

Question 5.
Why is roughage important for us ?
Answer:
Roughage is important for us because it

  1. regulates the process of digestion.
  2. controls the bowel movements.
  3. increases the bulk of bowels.
  4. prevents constipation.

Question 6.
We must take foods that provide us vitamins, why ?
Answer:
We must take foods that provide us vitamins because these

  1. help to digest food.
  2. keep the skin healthy.
  3. keep teeth, joints and gums healthy.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

Question 7.
Why are proteins better known as body building food ?
Answer:
Proteins. These are known as a body building food as they help in growth, repair and maintenance of the body.

Question 8.
What are different types of carbohydrates ?
Answer:
We have two types of carbohydrates. These are simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, etc. are examples of simple carbohydrates. Starch, cellulose, etc. are examples of complex carbohydrates

Question 9.
Proteins are very important for us. Justify the statement.
Answer:
Proteins are very important for us because these play very important roles like proper growth and repair in our body. If we do not have enough protein in our diet then we may suffer from problems like kwashiorkor and marasmus.

Question 10.
Why vitamins are essential for our body ?
Answer:
Need of vitamins for human body. Vitamins are essential because :

  1. They help to digest food.
  2. They keep the skin and mouth healthy.
  3. They keep teeth, gums and joints healthy.

Question 11.
What are the main sources of vitamin C and vitamin D ?
Answer:
Sources of vitamins. Vitamin C is found in all citrus fruits and many fresh vegetables. Vitamin D is found in fish, oil, eggs, milk and milk products.

Question 12.
Write the main difference between Vitamins and Minerals.
Answer:
Differences between Vitamins and Minerals.

Vitamins Minerals
1. Vitamins are compounds which are present in our diet. 1. Minerals are inorganic salts which are present in our diet.
2. For example : Wheat, Rice, Milk, Citrus, fruit etc. are the sources of vitamins. 2. For example : Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Iodine etc.

Question 13.
What are carbohydrates ?
Answer:
Carbohydrates.
These are the main constituents of almost all our diets and our food components. Carbohydrates are energy food. They provide energy to our body to do work and play. In addition carbohydrates add flavour to our food. Many processed foods including breads, pizzas, burgers, noodles, jams etc. are rich in carbohydrates. Sugar and starch are pure carbohydrate.

Question 14.
What are the effects of fat in diet ?
Answer:
Effects of excess fat in diet :

  • Obesity. Excessive deposition of fat on the tissues.
  • Digestive disturbances particularly in children.
  • Cholesterol accumulation/deposition around blood-vessel causing a disease arteriosclerosis and finally heart disease.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

Question 15.
What disease is caused due to deficiency of vitamin C ?
Answer:
Deficiency of vitamin C causes Scurvy.
Example : A guinea pig has a disease of scurvy due to deficiency of vitamin C but when this vitamin was added to its diet, it became healthy and normal.

Question 16.
What is roughage ?
Answer:
Roughage and its role.
Roughage is mainly a plant food. Flour, cereals, potatoes, fresh fruits and raw or cooked vegetables provide roughage in our body. Dried beans and peas are also good sources of fibres.

Question 17.
What happens to a person if the diet is deficient in both carbohydrates and proteins for a longer period of time ?
Answer:
The growth may stop completely. Such a person becomes very lean, thin and so weak that he may not even be able to move.

Question 18.
Name three foods each rich in :
(i) Starch
(ii) Dietary Fibre
(iii) Fats and oils
(iv) Protein
(v) Sugar.
Answer:
(i) Starch : Rice, wheat, bajra.
(ii) Dietary fibre : Spinach, cabbage, lady finger.
(iii) Fats and oils : Ghee, butter, groundnut, cheese.
(iv) Protein : Milk, meat, fish, egg.
(v) Sugar : Milk, banana, sugarcane.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain ‘balanced diet’.
Answer:
Balanced diet.
A diet is said to be balanced when it provides the proper amount and proportion of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, roughage and water to maintain a healthy body. A balanced diet should have the following three qualities :

  • It should be rich in various essential nutrients like minerals and vitamins.
  • It should provide just enough raw material needed for the growth, development, repair and replacement of tissues of the body.
  • It should provide proper energy required by the body.

Question 2.
Write the important functions of water in our body.
Answer:
Important functions of water. The human body contains about 70% water. Water performs the following functions in our body :

  1. It transports food materials within the body.
  2. It helps in the formation of urine and faeces.
  3. It regulates our body temperature.
  4. It is essential part of blood and digestive juices.

Question 3.
Draw a table showing diseases / disorders caused by deficiency of vitamins and minerals.
Answer:
Diseases / disorders caused by deficiency of vitamins and minerals.

Vitamin/ Mineral Deficiency disease/disorder Symptoms
Vitamin A Loss of vision Poor vision, loss of vision in darkness (night), sometimes complete loss of vision.
Vitamin B Beri-beri Weak muscles and very little energy to work.
Vitamin C Scurvy Bleeding gums, wounds take longer time to heal.
Vitamin D Rickets Bones become soft and bent.
Calcium Bone and tooth-decay Weak bones, tooth decay.
Iodine Goitre Glands in the neck appear swollen, mental disability in children.
Iron Anaemia Weakness

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food

Components of Food PSEB 6th Class Science Notes

  • Nutrients are the substances which are needed for proper growth and development of body.
  • Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins are the main nutrients of our food. In addition to these our body needs water and roughage.
  • Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These are instant sources of energy and are called energy giving food.
  • Bajra, jowar, rice, wheat, jaggery, mango, banana and potato are main sources of carbohydrates.
  • We have two types of carbohydrates. These are simple carbohydrates and complex hydrates.
  • Examples of simple carbohydrates are glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, etc. Examples of complex carbohydrates are starch, cellulose, glycogen, etc.
  • Carbohydrates sweet in taste are called sugars.
  • Sucrose is known as table sugar. Fructose is called fruit sugar. Lactose is called milk sugar.
  • Starch is tasteless and insoluble in water. It is made up of many glucose units.
  • Main sources of starch are potato, wheat, rice, maize, etc.
  • During digestion starch is first converted into glucose and finally into carbon dioxide and water. So, starch is not an instant source of energy.
  • Starch detection can be done by iodine test. It gives blue-black colour with iodine.
  • Proteins are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. They are called body building foods. Growth and repair of body cells is the main function of proteins. These I also protect us from many diseases.
  • Plants and animals both are sources of proteins. Proteins from plants are called plant proteins and proteins from animals are called animal proteins.
  • Beans like soyabean, peas and pulses like gram and moon are sources of plant proteins. We also get proteins from spinach, mushroom, broccoli, etc.
  • Mean, fish, poultry, milk and milk products are main sources of proteins.
  • Some proteins speed up various reactions occurring in our body. These are known as enzymes.
  • Enzymes are proteins which speed up various activities inside the body of a living organism.
  • Proteins when added to a solution of copper sulphate and caustic soda gives blue colour. This reaction is used for detecting the proteins.
  • Fats also give us energy. They give larger amounts of energy in comparison to carbohydrates. They do not release energy instantly. Fats are known as richest sources of energy. Carbohydrates are known as instant sources of energy.
  • Important plant sources of fats are vegetable oils like mustard oil, coconut oil and sunflower oil. Other sources of fats are cashew, almonds, groundnut and sesame seeds.
  • Important animal sources of fat are meat, eggs, fish, milk and milk products like butter, ghee, etc.
  • Fats give energy, prevent heat loss from the body.
  • Presence of oily patch on paper confirms the presence of fat in any food item.
  • Our body also need minerals. Calcium, iron, iodine and phosphorus are the important minerals. These do not give us energy.
  • Iron is needed for formation of haemoglobin and calcium is need for forming bones. Phosphorus provides strength to bones and teeth. Iodine is needed for normal functioning of thyroid gland.
  • Vitamins are essential for proper functioning of our body. We have different vitamins like A, B, C, D, E, and K.
  • Sources of vitamin A are eggs, meat, milk, cheese, green leafy vegetables, carrot, papaya, etc. It is needed for healthy eyes and skin.
  • Sources of vitamin B are milk, green vegetables, peas, eggs, cereals, mushrooms, etc. It is needed for normal growth and proper functioning of central nervous system and digestive system.
  • Sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits (lemon, orange, etc.), amla, tomato, broccoli, etc. It is needed for fighting against diseases.
  • Sources of vitamin D are dairy products, fish liver oil, exposure to sun light, etc. It is needed for healthy bones and teeth.
  • Sources of vitamin E are almonds, peanuts, sunflower oil, soyabean oil, leafy vegetables. It is needed for protecting cells from damage, and helping our body to lower different problems.
  • Sources of vitamin K are green leafy vegetables, fish meat, eggs, cereals, etc. It is needed for clotting of blood.
  • Nutrients: are the substances which are needed for proper growth and development of body.
  • Balance diet: The diet that contains adequate amount of all the essential nutrients, roughage and water for proper growth and development of body is called Balanced diet
  • Deficiency Diseases: The disease which is caused due to shortage of nutrients in our diet for long time is called deficiency disease.
  • Goitre: A deficiency disease caused due to deficiency of iodine and its main symptom is enlargement of gland in neck.
  • Scurvy: It is a disease caused by deficiency of vitamin-C and its main symptoms include bleeding gums.
  • Beri-Beri: It is a disease caused by deficiency of vitamin-B.
  • Rickets: It is a disease caused by deficiency of vitamin-D and its main symptoms include softening and bending of bones.
  • Anaemia: It is a disease caused by deficiency of iron and its main symptoms include weakness, fatigue and pale skin.
  • Roughage: The fibrous indigestible material present in food is termed as roughage.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 2 Components of Food Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.