PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB National Movement 1885-1919 Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Where the first session of the Indian National Congress was held and under whose presidentship and how many delegates participated in it?
Answer:
First Session of the Indian National Congress held from 28 December till 30 December, 1885 under the Presidentship of Bomesh Chandra Banerjee, 72 representatives took part in it.

Question 2.
When and under whose Governor-generalship Bengal was partitioned?
Answer:
Partition of Bengal took place in 1905 A.D. under the tenure of Lord Curzon.

Question 3.
When and by whom the Muslim League was founded?
Answer:
Muslim League was founded by Muslim leaders on 30th December 1906 A.D. Its main leaders were Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan, Salim-Ulah Khan and Nawab Mohsin.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 4.
When, where and who founded Gadar Party?
Or
By whom and where was the Gadar Party founded? ‘ (P.S.E.H. 2020)
Answer:
Gadar Party was founded in 1913 A.D. by the Indians living in America and Canada. It was founded at San Fransisco.

Question 5.
Write down a note on Swadeshi and Boycott.
Answer:
Swadeshi and Boycott Movement was started in 1905 A.D. in Bengal after the partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon. But very rapidly it spread to other parts of the country. Important leaders of this movement were Surendra Nath Banerjee, Vipin Chandra Pal and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Public meetings were held at different parts of the country. People took oath, in these public meetings, to use local made goods and to boycott foreign made goods. Shopkeepers were forced not to sell foreign made goods and people were also told to not to use foreign made goods. Foreign clothes were burnt at different places of the country. Nationalist newspapers also propagated to boycott foreign made goods. Swadeshi and boycot movement had greatly affected the social, economic and political life of the people. Nationalist feelings of the people were arosed by this movement.

Question 6.
Write a note on revolutionary movement.
Answer:
Revolutionary movement in India originated due to the failure of the moderates and repressive policy of government towards assertive leaders. Main objective of revolutionary leaders was to eliminate the British rule from India. That’s why they founded many secret associations in the country. Revolutionaries in these associations were given the training to fire arms. It’s main centres were in Maharashtra, Bengal, Punjab, etc.

Main leaders of revolutionary movement in Punjab were Sardar Ajit Singh, Pindi Das, Sufi Amba Prasad and Lai Chand Falak. Under their leadership many violent activities took place in cities. Except India, revolutionary movements were started in foreign countries like England, America and Canada. Shyamji Krishna Verma founded Indian Home Rule society in England. This society became the centre of revolutionary activities. Lala Hardyal founded Gadar Party in America.

Question 7.
Write down the main aims of the Indian National Congress.
Answer:
The following were the main objectives of moderates :

  • To establish friendly relations among those who were working in the interest of the country.
  • To end communalism, provincialism and the feeling of religious differences and to sow the seed of Nationalism.
  • To ask the government to make administrative and social reforms.
  • To make a programme to serve the country.
  • To make a programme of next 12 months for nationalists of doing activities of national interest.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 8.
Write down the causes of the rise of national awakening among Indians.
Answer:
National consciousness aroused among Indian people in the second half of 19th century. Meaning of National consciousness is that sense, prevailing among citizens of any nation, with which they start to feel that all of them belong to one nation.

There were many causes of the rise of national consciousness among Indian people and causes of this sense are given below :
1. Impact of Great Revolt of 1857 A.D. Indian people revolted against the British rule in 1857 A.D. to remove foreign rule from the country. This revolt was crushed by the British. After this, they started committing atrocities on Indian people. That’S why a sense of national awakening rose among Indian people to throw away foreign rule.

2. Administrative Unity. The British government started the same legal and administrative system in the country. As a result people living in different parts of the country started to consider themselves as citizens of one nation with which national consciousness rose among the people.

3. Socio-Religious Reform Movements. Many socio-religious reform movements started in 19th century and 20th century in different parts of the country. All the social reformers, like Raja Ram Mohan Roy (Brahmo Samaj), Swami Dayanand (Arya Samaj) Sri Satguru Ram Singh ji (Namdhari Movement), etc. criticised the prevailing evils of society. Socio-religious consciousness was arosed by them, among the people, to remove these evils and this lead to the birth of nationalism among the people.

4. Western Education and Literature. Indian people read books of foreign writers like Hilton, Mill, Burn etc. and came to know about their political rights. Feelings of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity and National Consciousness rose among the people with the views of many scholars like Rousseau, Voltaire, Macaulay, etc.

5. Economic Exploitation of Indians. The British traders used to buy raw materials at less rates, from Indian people and used to send it to England. Then they used to sell goods, made in the factories of England, to Indian people at higher rates. It led to less sale of Indian made goods. Small Scale Industries were destroyed due to unavailability of raw material. As a result, Indian artisans became unemployed. Farmers were forced to pay higher land revenue because of which they were forced to sell their land. In this way, they also became unemployed.

6. Non-appointment of Indians on Higher Posts. The British Government never appointed Indians on higher posts even if they had the ability to do so. So resentment came in them against the British. Except this, Indian employees were given less wages and facilities as compared to the English employees even for same work. So Indian employees were very much annoyed with this. This thing also helped in the awakening of national consciousness.

7. Indian Newspapers and Literature. Knowledge of people was increased ‘/ben newspapers in India started to publish in the English and local languages. People came to know about local and international events from newspapers like Bombay Samachar, Amrit Bazar Patrika, The Tribune, Kesari etc. and national consciousness rose among them. Except this patriotic writings of great writers like ‘Anand Math’ of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee and his song ‘Vande Matram’ became very popular. Poetry and Essays of Ravindra Nath Tagore, Hemchandra Banerjee and Kashavchandra Sen also helped in awakening of national consciousness among the people.

8. Means of Transport and Communication. It became very easy for the people to move from one place to another place with the development of means of transport and communication like Railway, Post and Telegraph office, etc. People started to exchange their ideas. They started to think jointly about solution of their problems.

9. Opposition of Illbert Bill. Governor-General Lord Rippen was the first British
officer who kept soft corner for the Indians. He wanted to give equal rights to Indian judges as compared to European judges. That’s why he introduced a bill called Illbert Bill. But this Bill was opposed by the British. That’s %hy Indian people started opposing the British as well. ”

10. Study of Ancient Literature. Many European Scholars, William Jones, Max Mular, Jacobi etc. studied ancient Indian literature. They proved that the Indian’culture is great. So Indian people started to feel proud of their country and culture. It also led to awakening of national consciousness among the Indian people.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Mr A.O. Hume established Indian National Congress in Bombay in _______ A.D.
Answer:
1885

Question 2.
Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal in _______ A.D.
Answer:
1905

Question 3.
_______ said ‘Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.’
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 4.
The session of Indian National Congress was held in _______ A.D. in Surat.
Answer:
1907.

III. Match the words :

Question 1.

A B
1. Home Rule Movement (i) 1914 A.D.
2. Muslim League (ii) Sohan Singh Bhakna
3. Minto Morlay Reforms (iii) Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan
4. Ghadar Party (iv) Lord Curzon
5. First World War (v) 1916 A.D.

Answer:

A B
1. Home Rule Movement (v) 1916 A.D.
2. Muslim League (iv) Lord Curzon
3. Minto Morlay Reforms (iii) Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan
4. Ghadar Party (ii) Sohan Singh Bhakna
5. First World War (i) 1914 A.D.

IV. Things To Do :

Question 1.
Paste the pictures of leaders related with this lesson in scrapbook and write about the activities performed by them.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 2.
If you would be a leader during that period what role would be played by you in the Swadeshi and Boycott movements?
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide National Movement 1885-1919 Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
After _______ AD, Nationalism in India started to emerge.
(a) 1857
(b) 1870
(c) 1885
(d) 1905.
Answer:
(a) 1857.

Question 2.
Indian National Congress was formed in _______
(a) 1857
(b) 1885
(c) 1887
(d) 1890.
Answer:
(b) 1885.

Question 3.
Who was the founder of Indian National Congress?
(a) Lord Curzon
(b) A.O. Home
(c) Dada Bhai Naoroji
(d) Surendra Nath Banerjee.
Answer:
(b) A.O. Hume.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 4.
In_______ Bengal was divided by Lord Curzon.
(a) 1911 A.D.
(b) 1907 A.D.
(c) 1905 A.D.
(d) 1902 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1905 A.D.

Question 5.
_______ was the movement which was started due to partition of Bengal.
(a) Non Cooperation
(b) Civil Disobedience
(c) Quit India
(d) Swadeshi and Boycott.
Answer:
(d) Swadeshi and Boycott.

Question 6.
In _______, Gandhiji came back to India from South Africa.
(a) 1905 A.D.
(b) 1910 A.D.
(c) 1915 A.D.
(d) 1918 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1915 A.D.

Question 7.
Rowlatt Act was passed in
(a) 1915 A.D.
(b) 1919 A.D.
(c) 1917 A.D.
(d) 1921 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1919 A.D.

Question 8.
When was Arms Act passed?
(a) 1880 A.D.
(b) 1878 A.D.
(c) 1875 A.D.
(d) 1882 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1878 A.D.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 9.
Which act was passed to silence the critics of the British government?
(a) Vernacular Press Act
(b) Arms Act
(c) Rawlat Act.
(d) Govt, of India Act, 1935.
Answer:
(a) Vernacular Press Act.

Question 10.
Who introduced Ilbert Bill to give equal status to Indian Judges as compared to European Judges?
(a) Lord Rippen
(b) Lord Ilbert
(c) Lord Mountbetten
(d) Lord Curzon.
Answer:
(a) Lord Rippen.

Question 11.
Who was the first President of Indian National Congress?
(a) A.O. Hume
(b) Bomesh Chandra Banerjee
(c) Dada Bhai Naoroji
(d) Mahatma Gandhi.
Answer:
(b) Bomesh Chandra Banerjee.

Question 12.
Who gave the slogan that “Freedom is my birth right and I shall have it.”
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Subhash Chandra Bose
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(d) Lala Lajpat Rai.
Answer:
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

Question 13.
Which age of national movement is known as the Moderate age?
(a) 1885-1905
(b) 1905-1925
(c) 1890-1915
(d) 1900-1920.
Answer:
(a) 1885-1905.

Question 14.
When was All India Muslim League founded?
(a) 1907 A.D.
(b) 1906 A.D.
(c) 1908 A.D.
(d) 1909 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1906 A.D.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 15.
When was Lucknow Pact signed?
(a) 1917 A.D. {b) 1915 AD.
(c) 1916 A.D. (d) 1914 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1916 A.D.

Question 16.
Gandhiji went to in 1916 to inspire the peasants to struggle the oppressive plantation system.
(a) Kheda
(b) Kanpur
(c) Ahmedabad
(d) Champaran.
Answer:
(d) Champaran.

Question 17.
Who among the following was the leader of Radicals?
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919 1
(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(b) Lala Lajpat Rai
(c) Bipin Chandra Pal
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Congress was founded by A.O. Hume in _______A.D.
Answer:
1885

Question 2.
Lord Curzon divided Bengal in _______ A.D.
Answer:
1905

Question 3.
_______ said that “Swaraj is my birht right and I shall have it.”
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Question 4.
Surat session of Congress was held in _______ A.D.
Answer:
1907.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer:

Question 1.
After Surat divsion of Congress -in 1907, a pact was signed between both factions in 1916.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 2.
Annie Besant and Tilak were moderate leaders of Congress.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 3.
First President of Congress was Womesh Chandra Banerjee.
Answer:
(✓).

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Home Rule League (i) 1914 A.D.
2. Muslim League (ii) Sohan Singh Bhakna
3. Minto Morley Reforms (iii) Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan
4. Gadar Party (iv) 1909 A.D.
5. First World War (v) 1916 A.D.

Answer:

A B
1. Home Rule League (v) 1916 A.D.
2. Muslim League (iii) Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan
3. Minto Morley Reforms (iv) 1909 A.D.
4. Gadar Party (ii) Sohan Singh Bhakna
5. First World War (i) 1914 A.D.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name any four political associations founded before the foundation of Indian National Congress. What was their objective?
Answer:
Associations:

  1. Bengal British Indian Society
  2. British Indian Association
  3. Indian Association
  4. Bombay Presidency Association.

Objective: Main objective of these associations was to demand reforms in Indian administrative system by the government and to get political rights for Indian people.

Question 2.
What is meant by National Consciousness?
Answer:
Meaning of National Consciousness is to arise one sense in the minds of the people that all of them belong to one nation.

Question 3.
Name any four newspapers which awakened national consciousness among Indians.
Answer:
Bombay Samachar, Amrit Bazaar Patrika, The Tribune and Kesari.

Question 4.
Who introduced Illbert Bill and why?
Answer:
Illbert Bill was introduced by Lord Rippen because he wanted to give equal status to Indian Judges as compared to the British Judges.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 5.
Name three foreign scholars which told that Indian culture was great.
Answer:
William Jones, Max Muller and Jacobi.

Question 6.
Why Nationalist movement from 1885 A.D. till 1905 A.D. is known as Moderate age?
Answer:
Nationalist movement from 1885 A.D. till 1905 A.D. is known as Moderate age because all the Congress leaders of this age were moderate in nature.

Question 7.
Name some moderate Leaders.
Answer:
Ferozshah Mehta, Dada Bhai Naoroji, Surendra Nath Banerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokhle and Madan Mohan Malvia.

Question 8.
Why did Lord Curzon divide Bengal? WTiat was his objective?
Answer:
Lord Curzon said that the partition was necessary for the administrative purposes. But his actual objective was to weaken the national movement by dividing Indians.

Question 9.
When and in which parts Congress was divided?
Answer:
Congress was divided among Moderates and Extremists. This division took place at Surat Session in 1907 A.D.

Question 10.
Who was the President of Gadar Movement? Wfhat was the objective of this movement?
Answer:
The President of Gadar movement was Baba Sohan Singh Bhakna. Main objective of this movement was to remove the British rule from India through revolutionary activities.

Question 11.
Name three main extremist leaders.
Answer:
Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Vipin Chandra Pal.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 12.
Write names of main leaders of Revolutionary movement in Punjab.
Answer:
Sardar Ajit Singh, Pindi Das, Sufi Amba Prasad and Lai Chand Falak.

Question 13.
When were Minto-Morley reforms passed? WTiat was government’s motive behind this?
Answer:
Minto-Morley reforms were passed in 1909 A.D. Government’s main motive behind this was to please extremist leaders and to separate Muslims from Hindus by giving them special rights.

Question 14.
What was the name of newspaper of Gadar Party? Wfhere Gadar Party was founded by Lala Hardyal?
Answer:
Name of the newspaper of Gadar party was ‘Gadar’. Lala Hardyal founded Gadar Party in America.

Question 15.
Name two main leaders of Home Rule movement.
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mrs. Annie Besant.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What was the impact of English language on development of Nationalism?
Answer:
The Indians studied English as it had become the official language. Now Punjabis, Madrasis, Bengalis, Gujaratis and Haryanavis were able to talk to one another through the medium of English. English language thus helped in bringing together the people of different provinces. Indians studied Western literature through English language. Thus they received knowledge about freedom, equality, democracy, etc. They started thinking about starting struggle to achieve freedom for their own country.

Question 2.
What was the effect on the Indian languages and newspapers of discrimination against Indians by the British?
Answer:
The British always treated Indians unequally. The Indians were only appointed clerks on very low salaries. No responsible post was given to them. They were discriminated on the basis of religion, caste and creed. The newspapers which were published in Indian languages could not tolerate it. So they started writing articles which highlighted the problems of the common people. The Government took harsh measures to suppress the press. As a result, Indian public was awakened and the spirit of nationalism gained strength.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 3.
What were the achievements of Moderates?
Answer:

  1. Congress sessions started to held every year just because of efforts of moderate leaders. Indian demands were kept in front of Government through these sessions.
  2. Sense of nationalism was awakened by essays, speeches and columns of newspapers given by moderate leaders.
  3. Moderate leaders like Dada Bhai Naoroji, Surendranath Banerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokhle etc. went over to England to propagate their demands.
  4. Parliament of England passed Indian Council’s Act in 1892, just because of moderate efforts, according to which Indians were given representation in Lawmaking councils.
  5. The British Government arranged to take I.C.S. Exams in India because of their efforts.

Question 4.
When and why partition of Bengal took place? What was its impact on Indian Freedom Movement?
Answer:
Partition of Bengal was ordered by Lord Curzon in 1905 A.D. His actual motive behind this partition was to weaken national movement by dividing Hindus and Muslims. People got angry with the partition of Bengal and they did strikes, took out processions at different places of the country. Swadeshi movement was also started in opposition to the partition of Bengal.

Impacts: This partition had a great impact on the Indian Freedom Movement:

  1. National consciousness rose among the people due to partition of Bengal.
  2. Congress was divided into two powerful parts, i.e. moderates and extremists, due to partition of Bengal.
  3. National movement spread due to partition of Bengal.

Question 5.
What were the main provisions of Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 A.D.?
Answer:
The following were the main features of the Morley-Minto reforms :

  1. One Indian member, S.P. Sinha was appointed as the member of the Executive Council of Governor-General.
  2. Member of Central Legislative Council were increased from 16 to 60.
  3. Members of Provincial legislative council were increased from 30 to 50.
  4. Indirect electoral system was arranged to elect members of legislative council. According to this electoral system, first of all, members of Municipal Committees or District Boards were elected by the people. These elected members further elect the members of legislative council.
  5. Separate electoral system was arranged for Muslims. 6 seats were kept reserved for them in central legislative council. Only Muslim voters were allowed to vote in these six seats.

Question 6.
What were the differences between policies of Moderates and Extremists?
Answer:
The following were the differences between the policies of moderates and extremists :

  1. The Moderates wanted self-government (within the British Empire) and Extremists wanted Swarajya or complete Independence.
  2. The Moderates were in favour of making appeals and sending petitions to the government but hard-liners wanted to resort to the path of agitations.
  3. The Moderates wanted to invite the attention of the government by passing resolutions only whereas the Extremists wanted to get their demands accepted by agitations, protest meetings and demonstrations.
  4. The Moderates believed in the British sense of Justice whereas the Extremists believed that the British would do nothing for the welfare of the Indians.

Question 7.
How Indian National Congress was divided in 1907 A.D.?
Answer:
Session of Indians National Congress was held at Surat in 1907 A.D. Moderate leaders criticised the Swadeshi and Boycot motions introduced by extremists in this session. Except this, dispute occurred between Moderates and Extremists on the issue of Presidentship of Indian National Congress. Moderates wanted to make Ras Bihari Bose as its President but Extremists were in favour of Lala Lajpat Rai. Extremists were totally against the moderate policies and their constitutional methods. So they started to do their work by separating themselves from Indian National Congress. In this way Congress „ was divided.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 8.
When was Muslim League founded? What were the reasons of its origin?
Answer:
Muslim leaders founded their separate political organization on the 30th of December, 1906 A.D. with the name of Muslim League. Its main leaders were Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan, Salim-Ullah Khan, Nawab Mohsin and others.

Reasons: The following were the main reasons of its origin :

  • Muslims wanted to make one separate association to protect their interests.
  • Muslim League was founded by the British Policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ in India.
  • Wahabi Movement started in Arabic countries with which sense of communalism occurred in India.
  • Principal of Mohammadan Anglo Oriented College, Mr. Beck wrote essays to encourage sense of communalism and Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan also propagated in its favour.

Question 9.
Write a note on Gadar Party.
Answer:
Many Indians lived in America and Canada. But they were badly treated by the British. So they felt that they cannot get respect in foreign countries until their country would remain under the clutches of slavery. So they made a plan to get freedom for the country. They gathered at San Fransisco (America) in 1913 A.D. and founded Gadar Party. Sohan Singh Bhakna was made President of Gadar Party. Lala Hardyal was appointed as its secretary.

Main objective of Gadar Party to get freedom for the country through revolutionary activities. Party started to publish one newspaper called ‘Gadar’ to propagate its ideas. Material related to the killing of the British supporters, Looting government treasury, making bombs, destroying Railway lines, cutting telephone wires, to encourage soldiers to do revolt etc. used to publish in this newspaper.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What were demands, programmes of Indian National Congress (1885-1905 A.D.) and describe Government’s behaviour towards the Congress.
Answer:
Main demands of Indian National Congress. The following were the demands of Indian National Congress :

  • indian people should be given the right to elect their representatives for central and provincial legislative councils.
  • Indians should be appointed on higher posts according to their abilities.
  • Education should be spread in the country.
  • Unnecessary restrictions on press should be lifted.
  • Executive and Legislative should he separated from each other.
  • Local institutions should be developed and they should be given more powers.
  • Like England, I.C.S. The exam should also be arranged in India.
  • Expenditure on army should be reduced.
  • Land Revenue collected from the farnwrs should be reduced.
  • Proper system of irrigation should be made.

Programme of Indian National Congress. All the Moderate leaders of Congress (1885-1905 A.D.) were not in fiwour of using revolutionary activities or violent activities to meet their demands from the Government. They used to put their demands in front of government through speeches. motions and applications. They used to pass motion in every session of Congress and used to send it to the government. They believed that Government will definitely accept their demands.

Government’s behaviour towards Indian National Congress. The government wanted that Congress should remain under its control but when it was unable to do then it moved against the Congress. The government restricted government officials to take part in sessions of the Congress. The Government also tried to separate Muslims from the Congress. In this way Government adopted the policy of neglecting towards Congress.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 2.
Explain the founding of Indian National Congress.
Answer:
Many Indians had been planning to form a political organization of all India character. In 1885 A.D.. A.O. Hume, a retired English Civil Servant, appealed to the young graduates of the Calcutta University to form an association for the social, moral and political uplift of the Indians. He got in touch with the prominent Indian leaders like Dada Bhai Naoroji, Feroz Shah Mehta. Bedur-ud-Din Toyabji and founded with their help the Indian National Congress. It held its first session in December, 1885. It was presided over by W.C. Bannerji. After the establishment of Congress, a number of other associations joined it.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919 2
Soon the Congress became the most influential political organization in the country.

Main objectives of the Congress :

  • To develop friendship among the Indians who were working for national cause in various parts of the country.
  • To develop sentiments of national unity by removing prejudices of race, creed, region and religion.
  • To develop a mature public opinion on the social problems of the day.
  • Presentation of popular demands before the Government.

Question 3.
Write down in brief the rise of extremists.
Answer:
National Movement from 1905 till 1919 A.D. remained in the hands of extremist leaders. There were many reasons of origin of extremists whose brief description is given below :
1. Failure of the Moderates. Moderate leaders failed in fulfilling their demands by Government. That’s why youngsters demanded to do powerful political activities.

2. Unemployment. Many Indians got higher education but they remained unemployed. They got annoyed with the British Government and started to think about taking hard steps.

3. Economic Policy of the British. Economic policy started by the British was very helpful in encouraging extremist nationalism.

4. Femine and Plague. Femine occurred in different parts of the country in 1896-97 A.D., Plague also broke out at nearby area of Pune in 1897 A.D. Hundreds or thousands of people died in it. The British Government hardly gave any help in this type of situation. So Indians supported the extremist based movement.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919 3
5. Motivation from Foreign Revolutions. Indians got nationalism to free their country from the world events like French Revolution, American struggle for freedom. Unification of Italy, etc. That’s why they adopted the path of extremist nationalism.

6. Misbehaviour with Indians in Foreign Countries. Indians living in England and South Africa were not properly behaved by the British. So Indian nationalists started a powerful movement to get freedom from the British rule.

7. Russian Defeat From Japan. A war broke out in 1904-05 A.D. between J.apan and Russia. A big country like Russia was defeated by small country like Japan. This Japanese win over Russia awakened the sense of getting freedom in the minds of Indians. It also encouraged extremist nationalism.

8. Speeches of Extremist Leaders. Extremist movement was started by the leaders Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Vipin Chandra Pal. They took out processions and gave speeches at different places of the country. Bal Gangadhar Tilak said that, “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it.’’ This type of views were also expressed by Lala Lajpat Rai and Vipin Chandra Pal. gaj Gangadhar Tilak Extremist nationalism was motivated by these type of views.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919

Question 4.
Explain Home Rule Movement and Lucknow Pact.
Answer:
Home Rule Movement. Home Rule League was founded by Mrs. Annie Besant at Madras and by Bal Gangadhar Tilak at Pune in 1916 A.D. Its main objective was to establish home rule or Swaraj in India and to arose consciousness about Swaraj among the Indians. Bal Gangadhar Tilak was of the view that, “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it.” As a result Indian minister of Britain declared on Aug. 1917 that British Government would establish institutions of self-rule in India and slowly and slowly self-rule will be established in the country. Just after this declaration, Home Rule League came to an end gradually.

Lucknow Pact. First World War started in Europe in 1914 A.D. British fought against Muslim country, Turkey in this war. Sultan of Turkey was the religious leader of all the Muslims of the world. That’s why leaders of Muslim League got annoyed with this and joined hands with Indian National Congress. In 1916 A.D., one pact took place between both the parties at Lucknow according to which separate representation for Muslims was accepted by Indian National Congress. So both these parties started to take part in national movement in association with each other. It gave a new strength to national movement.

National Movement 1885-1919 PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Nationalist Movement: Nationalist movement started in India after the Revolt of 1857 A.D. Main objectives of this movement were national freedom, democracy, social equality and national development. «
  • Early Phase (1885-1905 A.D.): Many political organisations were formed in the second half of 19th century like-Bombay Association, Indian Association, Madras Native Association, Poona Sarvjanic Sabha and Madras Mahajan Sabha. Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 A.D. Congress adopted moderate policies in its early years like spread of education, Industrial development, debt waiver of farmers, etc.
  • Indian Nationalist Movement (1905-1919 A.D.): Even simple and general demands of Congress were not met by the British rulers. Consciousness among people aroused and one extremist party was originated within Congress.
  • Origin of Extremists: Partition of Bengal by Curzon, Russian defeat from Japan, Russian revolution of 1905 A.D. and Leadership of Lal-Bal-Pal gave encouragement to extremism. Extremists wanted that their demands should be met by putting more and more pressure.
  • Boycott and Swadeshi Movement: The movement which came out of anger of the partition of Bengal, gave birth to Boycott and Swadeshi movement. Main objective of this movement was to encourage local industries and to boycott British goods.
  • Extremist Leaders: Lal-Bal-Pal were extremist leaders of Congress who wanted to attain Swaraj through struggle, Boycot and Swadeshi. They dominated Indian politics after 1905 A.D.
  • Revolutionaries: Many youngsters of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal like states started revolutionary movements. They believed in the killing of Britishers, use of weapons and self-sacrifice.
  • Gadar Movement: Gadar Party was founded at San Fransisco (USA) in 1913 A.D. Baba Sohan Singh Bhakna was appointed its President. This organization tried to throw the British out of India through armed revolution under the leadership of Ras Bihari Bose and Kartar Singh Sarabha.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 21 National Movement 1885-1919 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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