Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 9 Social Movements Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 Social Movements
Sociology Guide for Class 12 PSEB Social Movements Textbook Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. Which of the following is not the feature of a social movement?
(a) Group consciousness
(b) Set ideology
(c) Collective rfiobilisation
(d) only violent in nature
(d) Only violent in nature
2. Who represented Satyashodhak Movement?
(a) Jotirao Phule
(b) Dj. Ambedkar
(c) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
(d) Sri Narayan Guru
(a) Jotirao Phule
3. Which of the following is not a caste movement?
(a) Mahar movement
(b) SNDP movement
(c) Satyashodhak movement
d) Indigo movement
(d) Indigo movement
4. Who founded Self Respect Movement?
(a) Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy
(b) Dr. Ambedkar
(c) Sri Narayana Guru
(a) Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy
5. When people are not satisfied with the existing social order and advocate reconstructing of the entire social order, this type of movement is called :
(a) Revivalist Movement
(b) Reform Movement
(c) Revolutionary Movement
(c) Revolutionary Movement
Fill In The Blanks:
1. SEWA stands for ……………
Self Employed Women’s Association
2. Class movement includes …………… and …………… movements.
3. ……………. gave the slogan “One religion and one god for mankind.
Sri Narayana Guru
4. ……………. made great efforts in order to abolish the practice of sati.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy
5. The peasants were compelled to grow …………….. crop which led to the initiation of Indigo Movement.
1. Social movements involve sustained collective mobilisation through organisation either informal or formal.
2. Social movement is always peaceful in nature.
3. Mahar movement is based on total rejection of the religion of the caste Hindu.
4. SNDP movement was founded by Jotirao Phule.
Match The Columns:
|Column A||Column B|
|Self Respect Movement||Chandi Prasad Bhatt|
|Mahar Movement||Medha Patkar.|
|Chipko Movement||Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy|
|Brahmo Samaj||Raja Ram Mohan Roy|
|Narmade Bachao Andolan||Dr. Ambedkar|
|Column A||Column B|
|Self Respect Movement||Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy|
|Mahar Movement||Dr. Ambedkar|
|Chipko Movement||Chandi Prasad Bhatt|
|Brahmo Samaj||Raja Ram Mohan Roy|
|Narmade Bachao Andolan||Medha Patkar|
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
Who founded Sri Narayana Dharma Paripalana movement?
Sri Narayana Guru.
Who founded the Majdoor Mahajan Sangh?
Who founded Brahmo Samaj?
Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
Who is the father of Chipko Movement?
Chandi Prasad Bhatt.
Name the person who has been awarded Padam Vibhushan for his contribution in Chipko Movement.
Sunder Lai Bahuguna.
Who was the leader of Chipko Movement?
Chandi Prasad Bhatt and Sunder Lai Bahuguna.
Name any two caste movement.
Satya Shodhak movement and Sri Narayana Dharam Paripalana movement.
Who are called peasants?
Those persons who do agriculture on their land to grow something are known as peasants.
What does SEWA stand for?
Self Employed Women’s Association.
Sundar Lai Bahuguna was conferred which award for his contribution?
He was awarded Padma Vibhushan for his contribution to Chipko Movement.
Who founded Brahmo Samaj?
Raja Ram Mohan roy founded Brahmo Samaj.
Short Answer Type Questions:
Why it is called Chipko Movement?
The government at Garhwal region gave the contract of forests to private contractors to cut the trees down. Chandi Prasad Bhatt, Gaura Devi and Sunder Lai Bahuguna started this movement. Whenever cdhtractors come to cut trees, women hugged the trees. That’s why it is called Chipko Movement.
What do you understand by Caste Movement?
Main objective of caste movement was to highlight the struggle of lower castes. These movements were started to get rid of economic exploitation and to remove evil custom like untouchability and related ideology from society.
(a) Peasant movement
(b) Women’s movement
(a) Peasant movement. Peasant movements mainly started in Punjab. Their main aim was to reduce loan and land tax of peasants. These movements continued till related laws were passed.
(b) Women’s movement. Female were suppressed from the ages. To uplift their social status, many movements were organised in 19th and 20th century. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, D.K. Karve etc. were major leaders of such movements.
What do you understand by class movement? Name any one movement.
In class movement, we can include workers movements and peasant movements. Major demand of workers and peasants was to get rid of their economic exploitation. Trade Union movement was one such class movement.
Discuss briefly the factors responsible for the emergence of class movement.
Major aim of class based movements was to get rid of economic exploitation of workers. Less wages, more hours of work, unhygeinic conditions of work, exploitation at the hands of local and foreigner capitalist etc. were few of the reasons for organising such movement.
Long Answer Type Questions:
What do you understand by environmental movement? Specify reasons for the initiation of such movements.
What do you understand by Environment movement? Name any such movements.
Environment movement is one of the finest example of collective struggle of many groups. These movements aimed at saving environment. Major objectives of such movements were control over resources, right of locals to save their culture, environment protection and to maintain ecological balance. Actually, in modern times, stress is given on development which can only done by exploiting natural resources. But this development has some adverse effects on nature. To remove such adverse effects, many reform movements were initiated to protect environment and maintain its balance. Chipko Movement was one of the such movement.
Discuss briefly any two caste movements.
- Satya Shodhak Movement. This movement was organised by Satya Shodhak Samaj which was started by Jyotirao Phule. He was of the view that major division of Maharashtra was Brahmins on one side and lower castes on the other. That’s why the main objective of this movements to stop all the priviledges given to Brahmins so that the lower castes could be uplifted.
- Sri Narayana Dharam Paripalana Movement. This movement was started in Kerala by Sree Narayan Guru in 1895 A.D. He himself belonged to Izava community which was considered untouchable. This caste was not allowed to sacrifice animals or to do idolworship. Major objective of this movement was to uplift Izava community and to remove the custom of untouchability. Along with this, they, wanted to establish such temples which could be open for all the castes.
Enumerate determinants of peasant movement held in Punjab.
Peasant movement in Punjab was confined only to the districts of Jalandhar, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur, Lyalpur and Shekhupura. In these districts, only those Sikh peasants lived who themselves tilled the land. The Princely states in Punjab also faced the outbreak of peasant movements. One such movement was organised in Patiala whose main aim was the restoration of land which was captured by the combine of land lords and officers. Peasants working on the land of landlords refused to share their crop. Major leaders. of this movement were Bhagwan Singh Longowalia, Jagir Singh Jaggo and later on Teja Singh Swatantra. This movement continued till the passing of legislations and peasants, tilling the land, were made owners of that land.
Question 4. What do you understand by Women’s movement? Name any one such movement.
What do you mean by Women’s movement? Discuss any two such movements.
During Vedic age, the status of women was quite good and they enjoyed high status in society. Gradually their status declined and all the rights were taken away from them. Most of the social evils are related with them. That’s why to uplift their status, during 19th century, many movements were started which were known as women movement. First movement was started by Brahmo Samaj which was started by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. This movement was against the prevailing custom of Sati. Due to their efforts, in 1829, Lord William Bentick passed a law, Sati Prohibition Act, 1829 and declared Sati system illegal. In the same way Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar started a movement in favour of Widow Remarriage. That’s why in 1856, the British passed the ‘Widow Remarriage Act’ and allowed widows to remarry.
In what way the position of women is different in pre and post independent India?
In 1947, India got freedom from the British and if we compare the situation before and after 1947, it is quite different. Before 1947, females had no rights. They were not allowed to take education. Yet many schools were opened for them but of no avail. They had no property rights. But after 1947 the Indian Constitution was made and implemented on 26th January, 1950 and women were given equal rights as compared to men. To uplift their social status, many laws were made and were given right in her father’s and husband’s property. They started getting education and doing jobs. In 2011, around 65% women were literate. Now they are taking part in every sector and are uplifting their social status.
Very Long Answer Type Questions:
Write a note on social movement and its features.
When people of any society are dissatisfied with prevailing social circumstances of society and they want to bring change in it then social movement comes into being. Social movement always starts with an ideology. Sometimes social movement develops to oppose any change. Earlier sociologists used to think that social change is an effort to bring change but modern sociologists think that movement either brings social change or stops any change. Different thinkers have given their views about social movement and these are given below :
According to Merril and Eldridge, “Social movement is more or less conscious effort for change in mores of society.” According to Hurton and Hunt, “Social movement is the collective effort for bringing change or doing opposition in society or in its members.”
According to Herbert Blummer, “Social movement can be called as the collective effort to establish a new system of life.”
So on the basis of the views of these different scholars, we can say that social movement is the collective behaviour of members of society, whose aim is to either change prevailing culture and social structure or to oppose that change. So social movement can be understood in the form of effort of social action and collective effort.
Features. Following are the features of social movements :
1. Group Consciousness: The first and important feature of any movement is the existence of group consciousness in it. Consciousness brings unity and more people participate in movement.
2. Collective Action: Social movement cannot be started by one or two persons. For this, many people and their collective actions are required. In the absence of collective action, movement cannot be initiated.
3. Set Ideology: To start a social movement, it is must to have a set ideology and members should have faith in it. In the absence of set ideology, movement cannot start. Along with this, ideology must continue for a longer period so that the movement must not deviate from its path.
4. To Promote Change: Social movement is initiated because of two reasons. First of all it wants to bring change in the existing system and secondly it can oppose the change. Change is must in both the circumstances. In this way social movement brings change in one- way or the other.
5. Brings New social Order: Major objective of social movement is to bring change in the existing system. This change replaces the old system with the new system which in itself is a symbol of change.
6. Violent or Non-violent: It is not necessary that social movement will only non-violent in nature. Sometimes, it can be violent. Sometimes, people are so much fed up with the existing system that they even take the violent path to change it.
7. Unlimited Period: Every social movement starts with an objective in mind. But no one knows that for how much time will it continue and when will the objectives be achieved. In this way movement is for unlimited time period.
What do you understand by social movement? Discuss its various types.
Meaning of Social Movement. See previous question no. 1.
Types of Social Movements. Following are the types of social movements :
1. Reform Movement. Reform movements are those which are actually satisfied with the existing social system but they don’t want to change whole of society but only few parts of society. The institutions such as Press and Church are used to start social movement. For example socio reform movement started in India out of which Brahmo Samaj movement was quite important. It tried to eliminate many social evils such as Sati Pratha, Child marriage, no intercaste marriage, restrictions on marriage etc.
2. Revolutionary Movements. Revotionary movements are not satisfied with the existing social system. Such movements aimed at bringing quick and sudden change in society. As they are not satisfied with the system, that’s why they want to change whole social system. For example, the French Revolution of 1789 and the Russian Revolution of 1917 with which the existing social system was thrown away and the new social system was established.
3. Revivalist Movement. Revivalist movement is also known as Reactionary movement. Secret of such movement lies in the dissatisfaction of society. Some of the members of society do not like few changes and they try to reestablish old values. For example, the movement of Khadi Gramodyog started by Mahatma Gandhi.
Differentiate between caste and class movements. Substantiate by giving examples.
Caste based Movement. Caste based movements were started to highlight the struggle of lower castes and backward classes. These movements were not only aimed at removing economic exploitation but also wanted to get rid of social evils such as untouchability and its related ideology. Lower castes were suppressed from the ages, they had no rights, they were given only cleaning work which fetch them very less income. So, they were quite poor. They were exploited in everyway. That’s why, from time to time, many movements were started to uplift their social status.
First of all Joti Rao Phule started Satya Shodhak movement in Maharashtra to remove authority of Brahmins and to give higher status to lower castes. After this, in 1895, Sri NarayanA Guru started Sree Narayana Paripalana movement in Kerala to give certain rights to Izava Community. He wanted to remove untouchability and to establish such temples which could be open for all. He, even gave the slogan of ‘One religion and one god for mankind.’ After this, in 1925, Periyar Ramaswami started self Respect movement in Tamilnadu whose main aim was to establish such a society in which backward castes could have equal rights. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar also started many movements to uplift the social status of Mahar Castes. Class based Movement.
In class based movement, we can include workers movements and peasants movements. Workers and peasants demanded to remove their economic exploitation. Many trade unions were formed in the country from which we come to know about workers’ demands. During the British times, Jute industry, Cotton industry and tea industry started in India. Poor people started getting work in these industries. They had to work for more hours, were given less wages and worked under unhygienic conditions. Capitalists always exploited them. During different times, many laws were made for them but of no avail. That’s why trade unions were formed to improve their condition. In the same way peasants were also exploited. Zamindars gave their land on rent to peasants and without doing anything took away large portion of their production. Peasants remained poor and zamindars continued to prosper. That’s why in Punjab and many other areas, few movements were organised. After the Indian freedom, government-made many laws and removed zamindari system. One who actually tilled the land was made owner of the land.
What do you understand by peasant movement? Discuss its determinants by citing any one peasant movement.
Peasant movements are associated with the relations between farmers and land owners. When there is lack of co-ordination between agricultural workers and land owners then workers take the path of movement and peasant movement starts from here. Actually these movements start because of exploitation of farmers. Its main base is class struggle and it is different from workers movement. Important base of these movements is agricultural system. A different type of structure has been developed among agricultural classes due to agriculture relations and diversity of land systems. This structure is different in different areas. Agricultural classes of India can be divided into three parts:
The owner is also known as land owner. This class is the owner of whole of that land on which agricultural work takes place. Farmers come after land owners. Small marginal farmers are the owners of small pieces of land. They used to till their land themselves. Third class is of labourers who used to earn money by working in agricultural field. They are generally landless and very poor.
Peasant movements started because of different reasons. As the earning of agricultural labourers is affected by industrialisation, they used to oppose it with a movement, Except this there are certain other reasons of initiating peasant movements like demand of more value of their produce, their exploitation by the officials, bonded labourers, opposition of reducing farming subsidies etc.
Peasant Movement in Punjab. Punjab was the major centre of peasant activities. Around 1930, Kisan Sabha originated. Its major demand was reduction in loan and taxes. Except this, another issue which raised concern was the resettlement of land revenue in Amritsar and Lahore districts. Groups were send to district headquarters and strikes were organised. The culmination of the movement occured with the advent of Lahore Kisan Morcha in 1939. Hundreds of peasants were arrested in the state.
Peasant movement in Punjab was confined only to the districts of Jalandhar, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur, layalpur and Shekhupura. In these districts, only those Sikh peasants, lived who themselves field the land. The Princely states in Punjab also faced the outbreak of peasant movements. One such movement was organised in Patiala whose main aim was the restoration of land which was captured by the combine of landlords and officers. Peasants working on the land of landlords refused to share their crop. Major leaders of this movement were Bhagwan Singh Longowalia, Jagir Singh Jaggo and later on Teja Singh Swantartra. This movement continued till the passing of legislations and peasants tilling the land were made owners of that land.
Elucidate the position of women in India. How do the women’s movement lead to the upliftment of their position.
Around half of population in world and in India is of women. But the status of women is not the same in different countries. Hindu shastras consider woman as ‘ARDHANGINP and she is considered as the LUXMI, DURGA, KALI, SARASWATI goddesses in Hindu society. Woman is also known as ‘BHARAT MATA’ in India and people pay homage to her. Even many religious yagyas and rituals are considered incomplete without female. Status of women was very good in Vedic Age but their conditions became pitiable after that and during Medieval Age. Many social reformers tried to improve the status of women in 19th century. Women started to become conscious about their rights in 20th century and they took part in the freedom struggle with great zeal. With this their point of view started to change and their participation in political and economic sectors was increased to a great extent.
1. Vedic Age. The vedic age is also known as the golden age of Indian society. Status of women in this age was very good. Whatever literature is available to us, if we read that then we come to know that women had rights to get education, marriage and to keep property and they were equal with males. Status of female wa£ very good in family and she was considered as necessary to complete religious and social functions.
Enough importance was given to the education of girls. No evils of purdah, system and child marriage prevailed in that society, yet polygamy was there but woman was kept with great respect in the family. Widow remarriage was not restricted. There was no place of Sati Pratha and that’s why widow female can opt for Sati or not. Status of women in early Vedic Age was equal to males. Disrespect of women was considered as sin and the security of woman was considered as the work of courage. Status of women was very high in India but she was just like a servant in western countries.
2. Post Vedic Age. This age was started from 1000 B.C. and went up to 300 A.D. Woman was unable to get that respect which she was getting in Vedic Age. Custom of child marriage was started during this age because of which it became diffcult for women to get education. Due to nonavailability of education, her knowledge of Vedas came to an end and she was restricted to “take part in religious activities. It became necessary for female, in this age, to obey her husband and marriage also became necessary for her.
Polygamy became very famous in this age because of which her position became lower. In this age people started to. restrict widow remarriage and her function remained confined only to fulfil the responsibilities of the family. Till the later part of this age, independence and rights of female were reduced to a great extent and her independence was very much under the control of males.
3. Smriti Age. This age started to give emphasis on the rules given in Manu Smriti. Many books like Manu Smriti, Prashar Samhita etc. were written’in this age. That’s why this age is also known as the age of Dharm Shastras. Position of female became lower in this age as compared to post Vedic Age. She was respected only in the form of mother. Age of marriage was further reduced and her position was not good in this age. Even in Manu Smriti it is written that woman should be kept under observation all the times. In childhood age she should remain in the observation of father, at young age in the observation of husband and in the old age she should be under the observation of her sons.
Widow remarriages completely came into end in this age and Sati Pratha started to get great importance. The main aim of female was considered as to serve the husband. Age of marriage was around 10-12 years. There was no independent existense of female. All the rights of females were given to either husband or son. Husband was considered as god for her and his service became the main aim of her life.
4. Medieval Period. In Medieval Period and after the advent of Mughal Empire, status of women further deteriorated. Brahmins made many strict rules for females for the security of Hindu religion, to secure respect and to maintain purity of blood. There was no scope of education of women. Purdah Pratha was increased. Age of marriage of girl was further reduced to 8-9 years. That’s why she faced many problems even during earlier part of her life. Sati pratha was very famous and there was no place of widow remarriage. She was confined under the hold of males. Medieval age was considered as the black age for woman. Her position in the family was just like a maid. She had no rights over the property of the family.
5. Modern Age. The Modern age started after the advent of the British. First time in the history, voice was raised to uplift the position of women and the first man to raise his voice for women was Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Sati Pratha also come to end due to his efforts and widow remarriage was also given legal sanction. Later on other social reformers like Dayanand Sarswati, Govind Ranade, Ramabai Ranade, Vivekananda also raised their voice for the education and rights of women. Due to their efforts, the status of women started to improve.
Women started to get education and she came out of four walls of house to take part in freedom struggle. She started to go out for job after getting education and became independent and economically self-dependent. Presently the position of women is very good because she came to know about her rights due to education and self dependence. Now she has every right equal to males like to keep property, to take share in father’s property etc.
Role of movements in uplifting their social status :
Half of the population of the country is of women. So it is necessary, for the development of the country, that their condition should also be improved and the evils related to them should also be removed. After independence many provisions were kept in the Constitution with which efforts were done to improve the status of women. Many laws were made to uplift her social status. The following efforts were done to improve the status and the welfare of the women.
1. Constitutional Provisions. Many provisions were kept in constitution to improve the status of women :
- Article 14 of the Constitution says that everyone is equal in front of law.
- According to Article 15 (1) of the Constitution, there shall be no discrimination with Indian citizen on the bases of religion, caste, sex or living place.
- Article 15 (3) says that the state shall do special efforts for women and children.
- Article 16 says that state shall give equal opportunities to all Indian citizens in the matters of employment and appointments.
- Article 39 (D) of the Constitution says that males and females will get same pay for same work.
- Article 42 of the Constitution says that state shall produce judicial condition of functions and shall provide more and more maternity help.
- Article 51 (A) (E) says that the customs disgracing women’s respect shall be sacrificed.
- Article 243 of the Constitution says that one third seats in local governments- panchayats and municipalities shall be kept reserved.
2. Legislations. Many laws have been made for the security of interests of women and to improve their social status which are given below :
- The Sati Prohibition Act 1829, 1987.
- The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, 1856.
- The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929.
- The Hindu Women’s Right to Property Act, 1937.
- The Special Marriage Act, 1954.
- The Hindu Marriage and Divorce Act 1955 and 1967.
- The Hindu Succession Act, 1956.
- The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, 1986.
- The Maternity Relief Act, 1961, 1976.
- The Muslim Women Protection of Right of Divorce, 1986.
Yet many of these laws were made even before independence but they were also amended after independence. Many problems of women came to an end due to these laws like Dowry system, Sati pratha, Child marriage, No Right to keep property etc. These laws have greatly helped in the improvement of status of women.
3. Women Welfare Programmes. Many programmes were started after independence to uplift the status of women whose description is given below :
- International Women Day was celebrated in 1975 and many programmes were started for their welfare.
- DWAKRA programme was started in 1982-83 to strengthen the rural women from economic point of view.
- Women Development Corporation was established in 1986-87, so that the women could get opportunities of employment.
- National Women Commission was reorganized in 1922 so that the attrocities committed on women could be stopped.
4. Women cells were established in the country. These are those organization of women which arranges for the welfare programmes for women in rural areas. 75% of total money spending on these programmes is given by central social welfare board.
5. Many houses have been established for the working women in cities. Central Social Welfare Board has established hostels in many cities so that the working women could be able to live in cities.
6. Central Social Welfare Board has started many socio-economic programmes after 1958 in country so that the needy women could be provided the employment. Dairy programmes are also included in this. In this way, many programmes were started after independence so that the social status of women could be uplifted. In this way, we can see a very good future of women in coming days.
What do you understand by environmental movement? Discuss two such movements in detail.
Explain Chipko Andolan and Narmada Bachao Andolan as Environmental Movement.
In modern times, more stress is given on development. That’s why more natural resources are used and concerns are raised on their uncontrolled usage. Presently, it has been said that development will give benefits to all. The classes. But actually large industries are made and peasants are displaced from their lands. With industrial development a major problem of industrial pollution is coming farmers. To reduce industrial pollution, many movements were started which were known as environment movements. We can look at environment movement as a collective step taken by many social groups. Major objective of this movement was control on resources, environment protection and to maintain ecological balance. During the decades of 1970’s and 1980’s, many struggles were started to save country from environment pollution, to stop large protects and to stop displacement of the people.
1. Chipko Movement. Chipko movement started during the decade of 1970 in the mountaneous regipn of Gharwal, Uttrakhand. Forests were the means of livelihood for the people living over here. They fulfilled their needs by collecting things from the forests. Government wanted to earn money, so ’it gave forests to contractors. Whenever people visited forests to collect things, contractors stopped them. People of many villages collectively started struggle against this. Whenever contractor come to forest to cut trees, people hugged trees to save them: Women and children greatly participated in it. Chandi Prasad Bhatt and Sunder Lai Bahuguna were the major leaders of this movement. As people hugged the trees, that’s why it is known as Chipko movement. Finally, movement got success and government stopped cutting trees for 15 years.
2. Narmada Bachao Andolan. Narmada Bachao Andolan was started by Medha Patkar and Baba Amte along with few others. It was quite a powerful movement which was started in 1985. This movement was started against the Sardar Sarovar Dam to be constructed on Narmada river of Gujarat. In 1978, Narmada water Dispute Tribunal gave its approval to the Narmada Valley Development Project. Most controversial dam was Sardar Sarovar Project. With the making of this project, 40 lakh people were to be displaced from their homes, lands.
Medha Patkar was the major leader of this movement and she filed a petition in the Supreme Court to stop the construction of this dam. Initially, the supreme court ruled in favour of movement and the work of constructing dam was stopped. Then, the Supreme Court ordered the related states to first place the displaced people. Later on, under certain conditions, it gave its permission to start the work of dam. The Supreme Court further arranged to care about the displaced people. Yet, this movement was not been able to get success for which it aimed, but it made people conscious about their environment.