PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200) Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Which rulers of Cholas dynasty again emerged as Cholas Kingdom?
Answer:
Vijayalaya was the first ruler of the Chola kingdom who won Tanjore from the Pallavas and made it as his capital. Prantaka-I was also a powerful Chola ruler who defeated a Pandya ruler. Rajraja–I was the greatest and the most powerful ruler of the Chola kingdom. Rajendra Chola expanded the Chola kingdom by defeating the rulers of Pandya, Chera and Srilanka and conquered their territories.

Question 2.
Which rulers were defeated by Rajraja-I and he captured their territories?
Answer:
Rajraja-I defeated the rulers of Chera, Pandya and Srilanka and captured their territories.

Question 3.
Write about the important conquests of Rajendra Chola.
Answer:
Rajendra Chola (1014 to 1044 A.D.): Rajendra was an ambitious king. He continued his father’s policy and fought many campaigns in the peninsula. But out of all his campaigns two were very bold and daring. One was when his armies marched up the east coast of India, through Orissa, and up to the Ganga. The second was Rajendra’s daring naval campaign. It took place in South-East Asia. This compaign proved a great help to the traders of his kingdom. It also increased the revenue of the Cholas. In south east Asia he achieved important victory over Andeman Nikobar, Malaya, Sumatra and Jawa.

Question 4.
Which languages were developed during the Chola reign?
Answer:
Under Chola kings, education and literature field were developed greatly. They patronized Grammar, Philosophy, Art, Science and Astronomy. The medium of education was Sanskrit and Tamil.

In this period, the religious literature was written in south India. Kamban wrote Ramayana in Tamil. Many inscriptions were written both in Sanskrit and Tamil language. Many of the poets wrote epic in Tamil language. The poet named Nanniah wrote many basic scriptures. The poets Pampa, Ponna and Ranna are the most famous trinity of poets of this time.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

Question 5.
Which religion was very famous during the Chola reign?
Answer:
In the medieval India, Hinduism was the most famous religion during the Chola reign. Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva worshipped by the people. Buddhism and Jainism also existed during this era. Many other religious movements started during this period. Lingayata sect was founded by Basava. Shankracharya preached the advaita philosophy. Madhava and Ramanuja were the other religious teachers of Bhakti movement.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Pallava rulers made _______ their capital.
Answer:
Kanchi

Question 2.
Marco Polo visited the _______ kingdom.
Answer:
Pandya

Question 3.
Rajendra Chola took the title of _______
Answer:
Gangai Koudachola

Question 4.
Women were held great ______ during the Cholas reign.
Answer:
honour

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

Question 5.
Nanniah and Tikkana Telugu scholars translated the ______ into Telugu.
Answer:
Mahabharata.

III. Match the words :

Question 1.

A B
1. Basava (i) Advaita Philosophy
2. Shankracharya (ii) Lingayata Sect
3. Ramanuja (iii) Bhakti Movement
4. Madhava (iv) Bhakti Movement

Answer:

A B
1. Basava (ii) Lingayata Sect
2. Shankracharya (i) Advaita Philosophy
3. Ramanuja (iv) Bhakti Movement
4. Madhava (iii) Bhakti Movement

IV. Write True or False for each statement.

Question 1.
Kamban translated the Ramayana into Tamil Language.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
The Cholas rulers had a powerful Army.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Mahenderavarman built a new town called Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
The Chola kingdom was divided into provinces.
Answer:
True

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

Question 5.
Madurai was the capital of Chola Rulers.
Answer:
True.

V. Activities:

Question 1.
Locate the extent of Pallavs, Pandyas and Cholas kingdoms on the outline map of India.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Question 2.
Paste the pictures of Abu, Khujraho, Mahabalipuram, Kanchi and Tanjore in your note-book.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200) Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which of these was the powerful state of South India?
(a) Pallavas
(b) Pandyas
(c) Cheras
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 2.
______ was the main ruler of Pallava dynasty?
(a) Mahendra Varman I
(b) Prantaka
(c) Raj Raja
(d) Rajendra.
Answer:
(a) Mahendra Varman I.

Question 3.
Chola dynasty was established by ______
(a) Dantidurga
(b) Vijayalaya
(c) Rajendra Chola
(d) Raj Raja I.
Answer:
(b) Vijayalaya.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

Question 4.
(a) Sabha
(b) Mahasabha
(c) Ur
(d) Village Assembly.
Answer:
(c) Ur.

Question 5.
(a) Ur
(b) Sabha
(c) Mahasabha
(d) Mandalam.
Answer:
(b) Sabha.

Question 6.
The chola provinces were known as
(a) Mandalams
(b) Sabha
(c) Valanadus
(d) Ur.
Answer:
(a) Mandalams.

Question 7.
Mandalams were divided into
(a) Sabha
(b) Valanadus
(c) Ur
(d) Mahasabha.
Answer:
(b) Valanadus.

Question 8.
Which of these was the function of village assemblies?
(a) To take care of roads
(b) To provide justice
(c) Temple Maintenance
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

Question 9.
______ defeated the rulers of Chera, Pandya and Sri Lanka and captured their territories.
(a) Rajendra I
(b) Raj Raja I
(c) Prantaka
(d) Mahendra Varman I.
Answer:
(b) Raj Raja I.

Question 10.
Who wrote Ramayana in Tamil?
(a) Kamban
(b) Tulsidas
(c) Kanchi
(d) Rajendra I.
Answer:
(a) Kamban.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name three powerful states of South India during the medieval period.
Answer:
Pallavas, Pandyas, Cholas.

Question 2.
Give brief description of Pandyas Kingdom.
Answer:
Pandya Kingdom was established in southern parts of Tamil Nadu. The capital of Pandyas was known as Madurai or Madura. It was an important centre of education. Marco Polo visited this state and gave a detailed description of this state. During 14th century, Pandyas kingdom declined.

Question 3.
When did Pallavas become powerful? Give a brief description of their successes.
Answer:
The Pallavas became powerful rulers during 5th and 6th century after the decline of Satavahanas. Mahendra Varman I and Narasimhavarman I were two main rulers of Pallava dynasty. They greatly expanded their state and made Kanchi their capital.

They patronized art and architecture. They built shore temple and chariot temple of Mahabalipuram. They built Kailashnath Temple in Kanchi. In the 9th century Pallavas were defeated by Cholas.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

Question 4.
Describe in brief the establishment and decline of the state of Cholas.
Answer:
The Cholas were very powerful state in South India. There rulers were as ahead :

  1. Vijayalaya: He established the Chola dynasty. He won Tanjore from Pallavas, and made it its capital. He ruled from 846 A.D. to 871 A.D.
  2. Prantak I: He was a powerful ruler of Chola state. He sat on the throne in 907 A.D. and ruled upto 955 A.D. He defeated Pandya ruler, controlled the capital Madurai and got the designation Madurai Konda. After this, in the battle of Takolam he was defeated by Krishna III, the Rashtrakuta ruler.

Question 5.
After Prantak I which two rulers made the Chola Kingdom powerful again?
Answer:
Raj Raja I and Rajendra Chola again brought Chola Kingdom into existence and made it a great power of South India.

Question 6.
Give two administrative successes of Raj Raja I.
Answer:

  1. He created a modern Navy.
  2. He was a follower of Shaiv religion but was tolerent towards other religions.

Question 7.
How did the Chola Kingdom decline?
Answer:
The inheritors of Rajendra Chola were always fighting with their neighbouring states. So as a result they became powerless and ultimately declined

Question 8.
Comment on south Indian society from 700 A.D. to 1200 A.D.
Answer:
In south Indian society, the aristocratic class, Brahmins and traders had a pride of place. The different classes of society cooperated with each other for the fulfilment of common objectives. Women had a respectable position in society. They were given high education. The farmers and labourers were related to the working class. They were very poor and led a difficult life.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

Question 9.
Give the main features of religion in south India during 700 A.D. to 1200 A.D.?
Answer:

  1. Hinduism: It was very popular: The Hindu gods such as Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva were generally worshipped.
  2. Buddhism and Jainism: These two religions were also in existence.
  3. Religious movements: Many religious movements came in existence :
    (i) Basava established Lingayata Movement.
    (ii) Shankaracharaya propagated advaita Movement.
    (iii) Ramanuja and Madhava were other great preachers of Bhakti movement. They emphasised on the worship of one God. They gave the sermon that the single, most important means of salvation is loving God with a pure heart. They were against the discrimination based on caste and creed. People were greatly impressed by their teachings.

Question 10.
Write the story of rise and fall of Chola Kingdom.
Answer:
The Chola Kingdom was the most famous state of south India. They ruled for about 400 years. Their states included modern Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

The following were the important kings of Chola dynasty :
1. Vijayalya: He established the Chola dynasty. He won Tanjore from Pallavas, and made it its capital. He ruled from 846 A.D. to 871 A.D.

2. Prantak I: He was a powerful ruler of Chola state. He sat on the throne in 907 A.D. and ruled upto 955 A.D. He defeated Pandya ruler, controlled the capital Madurai and got the title of Madurai Konda. After this, in the battle of Takolam he was defeated by Krishna III, who was the Rashtrakuta ruler.

3. Raj Raja I: He was a brilliant general. He campaigned in many directions. He attacked the kingdom of the Pandyas and of the Cheras as well as parts of Mysore. He also campaigned northwards in the Deccan and the region of Vengi. But he was not able to control them for any length of time.

4. Rajendra Chola: Rajendra was an ambitious king. He continued his father’s policy and fought many campaigns in the peninsula. But out of ah his campaigns two were very bold and daring. One was when his armies marched up the east coast of India, through Orissa, and up to the Ganga. The second was Rajendra’s daring naval campaign. It took place in South-East Asia. This compaign proved a great help to the traders of his kingdom. It also increased the revenue of the Cholas. In south-east Asia he achieved important victory over Andeman Nikobar, Malaya, Sumatra and Jawa.

5. Decline of Cholas: The successors of Rajendra I spent much time and effort and money on fighting wars with the other kingdoms of the peninsula. Some of these wars were not successful. By the end of the thirteenth century, the Chola kingdom was declined.

Question 11.
What were the main features of Chola Rulers?
Answer:
The Chola government was headed by a powerful king who acted on the advice of his council of ministers or Purohita. The kingdom was divided into Mandalams and Valanadus, the villages were ruled by elected assemblies called Urs. The revenue of the Chola kingdom came from two sources—taxes on land and taxes on trade.

The main features of the Chola Government and administration were as follows :

  1. The Central Administration: The king was at the head of the central administration. He was the most powerful person.
  2. Provincial Administration: The whole kingdom was divided into six provinces called mandalam. Each mandalam was under the charge of a governor.
  3. The Village Administration: The administration in villages was carried out by villagers themselves. They elected a village council called ‘Ur’ or Sabha.
  4. Taxes: The government revenue came from three sources—taxes on land and the produce of the land and taxes on trade.
  5. Public Works: Chola rulers spent most of their income from taxes on public works such as building of roads and construction of tanks for storing water and for building temples.

Question 12.
What do you know about the Chola art and architecture?
Answer:
The Cholas were great builders. They were great patrons of art and architecture. The Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjore is a fine specimen of the Chola architecture. The Chola temples were known for their unique features. The gateway to the temples is called ‘Gopuram’. It is beautifully carved and the walls are decorated with scenes depicting gods and goddess. The ‘Shikhara’ was built over the central shrine. It is a spiral-like structure. Raj Raja I build the Raj Rajeshwar temple of Tanjore. It is made in Dravidian style.

Rajendra Chola built a city named Gangai Kond Cholapuram and made it his capital. Many life-size sculptures of bronze have been made in Chola art. The Natraja sculpture of Tanjore are the best examples.

Question 13.
Describe the military achievements of Raj Raja I.
Answer:
Raj Raja I (985-1016 A.D.). He was a brilliant general. He campaigned in many directions. He attacked the kingdom of the Pandyas and of the Cheras as well as parts of Mysore. He also campaigned northwards in the Deccan and the region of Vengi. But he was not able to control them for any length of time.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

Question 14.
Briefly describe the architectural and literary achievements of the Cholas.
Answer:
The Chola kings were great lovers of sculpture. There was great development of sculpture art under their administration.

Chola kings took keen interest in building temples; They donated money and land whole-heartedly for the building and maintenance of temples. The royal temples built by Chola kings were very magnificent. Thus we can say that Chola government has a great contribution in the building of the temples. These temples were centres of education. Raj Raja I built the Raj Rajeshwar temple of Tanjor. It is made in Dravadian style. Rajendra Chola built a city named Gangaikonda Cholapuram and made it his capital. Many lifesize sculptures of bronze have been made in Chola art. The Natraja sculpture of Tanjore are the best examples.

Question 15.
What do you know about the Chola administration?
Answer:
The Chola government was headed by a powerful king who acted on the advice of his council of ministers or Purohita. The kingdom was divided into Mandalams and Valanadus, the villages were ruled by elected assemblies called Urs. The revenue of the Chola kingdom came from two sources—taxes on land and taxes on trade.

The main features of the Chola Government and administration were as follows :

  1. The Central Administration: The king was at the head of the central administration. He was the most powerful person.
  2. Provincial Administration: The whole kingdom was divided into six provinces called rriandalam. Each mandalam was under the charge of a governor.
  3. The Village Administration: The administration in villages was carried out by villagers themselves. They elected a village council called ‘Ur’ or Sabha.
  4. Taxes: The government revenue came from three sources-taxes on land and the produce of the land and taxes on trade.
  5. Public Works: Chola rulers spent most of their income from taxes on public works such as building of roads and construction of tanks for storing water and for building temples.

Question 16.
Which type of agrarian was developed in Tamil Nadu?
Answer:
1. The Chola kings gave special attention towards the development of agriculture. They cleaned the forests with the help of nomadic tribes and created cultiviable lands. As a result there was a great expansion of Zamindari system.

2. They paid special attention to irrigation system. The water from Kaveri river was specially used. Where it was not possible to transfer river water, there they constructed ponds. They even established a pond committee to distribute water to agriculture farms.

3. They would never charge land revenue if there were flood or drought in their state. They even gave loans to farmers during emergencies.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 9 Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200)

Political Developments in South India (A.D.700-1200) PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • States of South India in Medieval Period: Many Rajput states were there. The three most powerful states were—Pallavas, Pandays and Cholas. These would fought to exert their own authority.
  • Pallava Rulers: The main rulers of this dynasty were Mahendra Varman I and Narsimha Varman I. They expanded their kingdoms and made Kanchi their capital.
  • Pallva’s Art and Architecture: They were great patrons of art and architecture. The famous charriot temples of Mahabali Puram have been built by them. These have been built by cutting a single rock. These temples are the unique specimens of Pallava art.
  • Pandya Kingdom: This state was established in the southern part of Tamil Nadu. Its capital was known as Madura or Madurai. It was a main centre of education.
  • Chola Dynasty: It was established by Vijayalaya. Other famous rulers were Prantaka I, Raj Raja I, (985 – 1014 A.D.) and Rajendra Chola (1014 – 1044 A.D.)
  • Assemblies of Cholas: Under Cholas, there was organisation of village assembly to run the village administration properly. Village assemblies were of two types:
    1. Ur. It was the assembly of common people.
    2. Sabha or Mahasabha. It was the assembly of scholorly Brahmins.
  • Functions of Village Assemblies: The village assemblies got their functions performed through different committees. These committees took care of roads maintenance, justice, education, religious festivals, temple maintenance, irrigation and land related functions.
  • Mandalam: The Chola provinces were known as Mandalams.
  • Valanadus: Mandalams were divided into Valanadus. Every Valanadus had many villages.
  • Chola Society: It was an ideal society. Brahmins, traders and craftsmen had a pride of place in society. All the classes of society worked together to fulfil common objectives. The women folk also had a great honour in society.
  • Raj Raja I: He was the most important ruler of Chola dynasty. He invaded the states of Pandya and Chera dynasty as well as some parts of Mysore.
  • Rajendra I: He was another most ambitious Chola ruler. He kept up the victory policy of his father Raj Raja I and fought many battles in southern subcontinent.
  • Decline of Chola State: The inheritors of Rajendra I were incapable and weak, so by the end of 13th century the Chola kingdom declined.
  • Mandalams Valanadus (Kottam): Nadu Sabha

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