PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 8 New Kings and Kingdoms (A.D. 700-1200)
SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB New Kings and Kingdoms (A.D. 700-1200) Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions :
Which type of caste system was prevalent in the society during the medieval period?
In the early medieval period, caste system was very strong. The whole society was divided into four castes. These were — Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. Brahahmins performed religious ceremonies, so they had a place of respect in the society. Kashtriyas became warriors and administrators and participated in wars. Vaishyas traded and did agricultural tasks but the condition of Shudras in society was not good. Rajputs were proud of their high caste.
Which period is called as ‘Rajput Period’?
The period between the eighth century and the thirteenth century is known as the ‘Rajput Period’ because many Rajput states were established in North India during this era.
Why Mahmud Ghaznavi invaded India?
Mahmud Ghaznavi wanted to make Ghazni the most powerful kingdom in the region. That is why he wanted a lot of money to organise large army. Therefore, he invaded India to raise money seventeen times from 1001-1025 A.D.
Why Muhammad Ghori invaded India?
Muhammad Ghori was the ruler of Gaur Kingdom in Afghanistan. He wanted to build up an empire in India. So in 1175 A.D. he invaded Multan and captured it.
II. Fill in the blanks :
Mihir Bhoj was a powerful ruler of the ______ dynasty.
Devpal built a temple of ______ at Bodh Gaya.
Rashtrakuta rulers were the patrons of ______
III. Match the words :
|1. Gurjara Pratiharas rulers||(i) Bengal, Bihar and Jharkhand|
|2. Palas rulers||(ii) Rajasthan and Gujarat|
|3. Rashtrakuta rulers||(iii) Deccan|
|1. Gurjara Pratiharas rulers||(ii) Rajasthan and Gujarat|
|2. Palas rulers||(i) Bengal, Bihar and Jharkhand|
|3. Rashtrakuta rulers||(iii) Deccan|
PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide New Kings and Kingdoms (A.D. 700-1200) Important Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions
Which Kingdom ruled over Rajasthan and Gujarat?
(a) Gurjara Pratiharas
(a) Gurjara Pratiharas.
Who was the most famous ruler of Chauhan dynasty?
(a) Prithviraj Chauhan
(b) Jai Chauhan
(c) Malik Raj Chauhan
(a) Prithviraj Chauhan.
Who founded the Rashtrakuta dynasty?
Who defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in the second battle of Terain?
(a) Mahmud Ghaznavi
(c) Mohammad Ghori
(c) Mohammad Ghori.
Who attacked India 17 times?
(a) Mohammad Ghori
(b) Mahmud Ghaznavi
(b) Mahmud Ghaznavi
Which of these dynasties fought to gain control of Kanauj?
(a) Gurjara Pratiharas
(d) All of these.
(d) All of these.
The period between 8th century and 13th century is known as
(a) Rajput period
(b) Sultnate period
(c) Mughal period
(d) Medieval period.
(a) Rajput period.
______ was the most powerful ruler of Gurjana pratihara dynasty.
Dharampala was a famous ruler of dynasty.
(a) Gurjara Pratihara
Rashtrakutas ruled in ______ region.
Short Answer Type Questions
Write the names of three north and south Indian states in the early medieval period.
- North Indian states-Gurjara-Pratiharas, Palas and Rajputs.
- South Indian states- Pallav, Pandaya and Cholas.
Where did Gurjar a Pratiharas rule?
In some parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Which three dynasties were involved in the triple struggle?
Three dynasties involved in the triple struggle for Kanauj were the Rashtrakutas, the Gurjara-Pratiharas and the Palas.
Who was the most powerful ruler of Gurjara/ Pratihara dynasty? Write his ruling period.
It was Mihirbhqj who ruled from 836 A.D. to 885 A.D
How did Gurjara/Pratihara dynasty come to an end?
The last ruler Rajpal accepted the subordination of Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1018-19 A.D. So he was killed at the hands of Rajputs. In this way, the dynasty came to an end.
Describe briefly Mahendrapal – the Gurjara/Pratihara ruler.
Mahendrapal was the son of Mihirbhoj. He ruled from 885 to 910 A.D. He was a lover of art and literature.
Where did Pala rulers rule? Who established this dynasty?
The Pala rulers ruled over modern Bengal, Bihar and Jharkhand. This dynasty was established by Gopal in 750 A.D.
Write two successes of Palas rulers.
- Architecture, painting, education and literature were greatly developed.
- They followed Buddhism but were tolerant towards other religions.
Write one education related success of Pala ruler Dharampala.
Dharampala established Vikkramshila Vihar, which later on became a great university.
Where did Rashtrakutas rule?
Rashtrakutas ruled in Deccan region. It included the northern region between Krishna river and Tungbhadra river.
Name the famous rulers of Rashtrakuta dynasty.
Dantidurg, Krishna I, Govind II, Dhruva, Govind III, Amoghvarsha and Krishna III were famous rulers of Rashtrakuta dynasty.
Name some main successes of Rashtrakuta rulers.
- They fought with Chalukayas and Pallavas in south India.
- King Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty defeated Pratihara ruler Vatsaraj of Kanauj.
- Rashtrakuta rulers were patrons of art and education.
- King Amoghvarsha was a good poet.
- Krishna I built a Kailash Temple in Ellora.
- Rashtrakutas established trade relationships with other countries.
- They gave patronage to other religions also along with Hindu religion.
What do you mean by Rajput period?
After the death of Harshvardhana, India was divided into many small states. Most of these states were under the occupation of Rajputs. The Rajputs fought with each other. So these Rajput kingdoms formed, dissolved and formed again. Thus from 8th century till 13th century it was mainly Rajputs who ruled over India. So this “period is called the Rajput period.
Comment briefly on the following :
Mihirbhoj: Mihirbhoj I (836 – 885 A.D.) was the famous ruler from Gurjara/ Pratihara dynasty. The Arab traveller Suleman has referred him as a brave warrior and efficient administrator. He got back lost areas from Pala dynasty. He was the worshipper of Lord Vishnu. He inherited the designation of ‘Adi Varah’.
Dharampala: Dharampala (770-810 A.D.) was a famous ruler of Pala dynasty. The Arab trevellor Suleman writes that his military power was far more than his detractors. He fought against Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas. He was also an education lover. He established the famous boddh temple of Vikramshila which later on became a higher learning centre.
Devpal: Devpal was son of Dharampala who ruled from 81V to 850 A.D. He is known as the most powerful of Pala rulers. He won Assam and Orissa. He fought against Pratiharas also and earned a place of pride for Pala state.
Amoghvarsha: Amoghvarsha (814-878 A.D.) was a ruler of Rashtrakut dynasty. He ruled for 64 years. He is famous for his scholorship. He wrote a scripture called ‘Kavi Raj Marg’. This is the very first epic of Kannad literature.
5. Prithviraj Chauhan.
Prithviraj Chauhan: He was the most famous and greatest ruler of Chauhan dynasty. He ruled from 1179 to 1192 A.D. He had Delhi and Ajmer under his control. He defeated the Chandel king Mahoba and also took under his control some other castles. He even fought against Chalukaya king Bhim II. In 1192 he was defeated by Mohammad Ghori.
What do you mean by Tripartite struggle?
It refers to the struggle which took place among Rashtrakutas, Pratiharas and Palas to control Kanauj. Kanauj was a famous city of north India. It was strategically very important in north India. It means that the king who controlled Kanauj could control the fertile plain of the Ganges. So many battles were fought for its control. The Rashtrakutas, Pratihars and Palas—all these dynasties controlled Kanauj one by one. Modern historians call this struggle as tripartite struggle.
Write about two famous Rajput dynasties.
- Pratihara Dynasty: The kings of this dynasty ruled over Kanauj and its surrounding areas. The first great ruler of this dynasty was ‘Nagabhatta I’.Mihirbhoj I was another famous ruler of this dynasty.
- Chauhan Dynasty: This dynasty ruled over Ajmer in Rajasthan. Prithvi Raj Chauhan was a famous king of this dynasty. He fought twice with Mohammad Ghori.
Who was Mahmud Ghaznavi? Why did he invade India?
Mahmud Ghaznavi (999 – 1030 A.D.) was the son of Ghazni state ruler Subakatgin. He invaded India 17 times. The main objective of his invasions was to plunder money from India.
Who was Mohammad Ghori? What was his objective of coming to India?
Shahabud-din, popularly known in history as Muhammad Ghori, was the younger brother of Ghias-ud-din, the ruler of Gaur, a small principality in Afghanistan.
Mohammad Ghori’s Aims in India
- Mohammad Ghori’s aim was not just to plunder the wealth of India but also to establish a Muslim rule over this country.
- He was more political and a better statesman than his predecessor. It was he who clearly perceived the rotton condition of India and thought of founding a permanent empire in this land.
- His main aim was the conquest of India and he was quite successful in achieving it. He never lost courage and continued his efforts ceaselessly and ultimately all his efforts in founding the Muslim Empire in India were fully rewarded.
- Muhammad Ghori’s conquest of India was real and permanent. The territories that he conquered were seldom lost to Islam as was the case with his predecessor, Mahmud Ghaznavi
What was the difference between the invasions of Mahmud Ghaznavi and Mohammad Ghori?
The following were the points of difference :
|Mahmud Ghaznavi||Mohammad Ghori|
|1. He wanted to plunder the Indian wealth.||1. He wanted to establish Muslim state in north India.|
|2. He remain victorious in all his invasions.||2. He was once defeated in his invasions.|
|3. India lost much wealth by his invasions.||3. Muslim state was established by his invasions.|
What was the importance of Kanauj? Name the kingdoms which wanted to occupy Kanauj.
Many of the campaigns in northern India were fought over the city of Kanauj. This had been the capital of Harasha and remained an important city. It was thought that whoever will capture Kanauj could control the Ganga valley. Three major kingdoms were involved in this struggle. They occupied Kanauj in turn. The three kingdoms were those of the Rashtrakutas, the Gurjara-Pratiharas and the Palas.
Write a note about the origin of Rajputs.
The Rajputs have a long and interesting history. Where they came from and who they were, remains something of a mystery. Historians think that some of them belonged to certain Central Asian tribes. The Rajputs always insisted that they were of the Kshatriya caste. Their kings ordered family histories to be written which connected them with either the sun-family (surya-vamsha) or the moon-family (chandra-vamsha) of ancient Indian kings.
According to Colonel Todd, the famous historian, Rajputs are the offspring of middle Asian tribes and came to live in India after the ‘Huna invasion’. Similarly Vedvyas and Gauri Shankar Ojha think that Rajputs are the offspring of ancient Kshatriyas. Another idea is of Chand Bardai, who wrrites in his book ‘Prithivi Raj Raso’, that Rajputs originated from ‘AgnikuF.
Who were the Chauhans? Write a brief note about them.
Chauhans are also known as ‘Chahamans’. Prithvi Raj Chauhan was the most powerful king. He ruled from 1179 A.D. to 1192 A.D. He was a brave warrior. He defeated the Chandel king and snatched many areas. He defeated Mohammad Ghori in the first battle of Tarain in 1191 A.D. But in the very next year (1192 A.D. ), he was defeated by Mohammad Ghori in the second battle of Tarain and was killed. Thus the Chauhan dynasty came to an end in Delhi. Chand Bardai has described the successes of Prithvi Raj Chauhan in ‘Prithivi Raj Raso’.
Write in brief about the main invasions of Mahmud Ghaznavi.
Mahmud was the ruler of Ghazni. He wanted to make Ghazni a big and powerful kingdom. India was extremely rich. So he planned to attack India in order to bring back wealth and thus build a larger army to conquer Central Asia.
The description of his main invasions is as follow :
1. Invasion on Jaipal (1001 A.D.). He invaded Jaipal the Hindu royal ruler of Punjab. Jaipal was defeated and imprisoned. It is said that Mahmud got 2.5 lac gold coins from Jaipal and set him free. Jaipal could not tolerate this insult and put himself to fire.
2. Battle with Anandpal (1008 A.D.). Anandpal was the son of Jaipal. He fought Mahmud Ghaznavi by combining the armies of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Delhi and Ajmer. The battle near Peshwar was terrible but Mahmud emerged victoriously and after that he plundered Punjab.
3. Invasion of Nagarkot (1009 A.D.). He invaded Nagarkot (Kangra) and looted gold and silver from Kangra temples.
4. Invasion on Thanesar (1014 A.D.). Again Ghaznavi plundered the big temples of Thanesar by invading this place.
5. Invasion on Mathura and Kanauj (1018-1019 A.D.). In 1018 A.D., Mahmud reached Mathura but before that he plundered the temples on the way to Mathura and set these on fire. When he reached Mathura, he demolished the temples there also. From Mathura he reached Kanauj. The ruler of Kanauj surrendered and Mahmud plundered and demolished the temples there.
6. Invasion on Kalinjar (1021 A.D.). The ruler of Kalinjar Vidyadhar had a big army but still he could not face Mahmud and ran away from the battlefield.
7. Invasion on the temple of Somnath (1025 A.D.)—Mahmud Ghaznavi attacked the temple of Somnath in Kathiawar in Gujarat. This temple was famous for its unlimited resources. Besides it was considered the holiest temple of the Hindus. Mahmud plundered and demolished this temple and took hundreds of tons of gold and silver and diamonds to his country. It was the biggest victory of Mahmud for which he was honoured by the Caliph. In 1030 A.D. Mahmud died.
Give an account of the important invasions of Muhammad Ghori.
Mohammad Ghori was ruler of Gaur Kingdom in Afghanistan. He sat oh – the throne in 1173 A.D. He decided to invade India after becoming the king. He attacked’ and occupied Multan in 1175 A.D.
His other main invasions are as follows :
1. Invasion of Gujarat. In 1178 A.D. Ghori attacked Gujarat. The ruler of Gujarat faced Mohammad Ghori and badly defeated him.
2. First war of Tarain. Mohammad Ghori wanted to established a Muslim state iri India, so he attacked Delhi in 1191 A.D. Delhi had Prithvi Raj Chauhan as the king who was brave heart king. The two armies faced each other in terrible battle and Mohammad Ghori was defeated badly.
3. Second battle of Tarain. To take revenge of his defeat Mohammad Ghori again attacked India in 1192 A.D. This time Raja Jaichand, the king of Kanauj also sided with him. Under Prithvi Raj Chauhan’s leadership, Rajputs fought very bravely. But in the end it was victory for Mohammad Ghori and Delhi and Ajmer came under Mohammad Ghori’s possession.
4. Battle with Jai Chand. In 1194 A.D., Ghori defeated Raja Jai Chand and won the state of Kanauj.
5. Other Victories. During this time, Mohammad Ghori’s General Mohammad-bin- Bhakhtiar-Khalji controlled Bengal and Bihar. Another General Qutub-ud-Din Aibak won the state of Gujarat.
Thus in a short time Mohammad Ghori controlled the whole of the north India. He is considered to be the real establisher of Turk Empire in India. He died in 1206 A.D.
Write brief notes on :
Economy: The main profession was agriculture. India indulged in international trade also. From India valuable stones, spices, silk and cotton textiles, Chandan (sandal wood) and coconut etc. were exported to foreign countries. From central and western Asia, dates, wine and horses were imported to India.
Religion: Mainly Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism were prevalent. But Rajputs were the followers of Hinduism. So during their ruling period, Hinduism developed considerably. In north India, there were two sects of Hindu religion—Shaivs and Vaishnavs. People would worship Lord Vishnu and Shri Shiv and Shri Shakti. They would also worship the ten Avtars of Lord Vishnu. In this period, in North and South India, Bhakti Movement became very popular. Sri Guru Nanak Devji, Ramanuj ji and Madhavji emphasized on one God’s worship. They gave the sermon that if you want to attain salvation pray to God with a pure heart. They were against the caste system.
New Kings and Kingdoms (A.D. 700-1200) PSEB 7th Class SST Notes
- States in early Medieval Age: In the early medieval period, in north India, there were states of Gurjara- Pratiharas, Palas, Rajputs and in south India there were Rashtrakutas, Pallavas, Pandayas and Cholas.
- Gurjara Partiharas: These rulers ruled the kingdoms in some areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The main rulers of this dynasty were Nagabhatta-I, Mihirbhoj, Mahendrapal and Rajyapala.
- Pala Dynasty: These rulers ruled over modern Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand. This dynasty was established by Gopal (750 A.D.). Other main rulers were Dharampala and Devpala.
- Rashtrakut Dynasty: Established by Dantidurg in 742 A.D. The rulers of this dynasty Taught against Palas and Pratiharas to occupy Kanauj. They gave patronage to art and education.
- Society, Religion and Economic Condition: In this period, the caste system was very rigid. The main religions were Hinduism (Vaishnav and Shaiv), Jainism and Bhuddism.
- Chauhan Dynasty: The most famous ruler was Prithvi Raj Chauhan. He ruled from 1179 A.D. to 1192 A.D.
Rajput Period. After the death of Harshvardhana, in north India mainly Rajputs ruled over different states. So this period is known as Rajput Period.
- Struggle for Kanauj: Kanauj was very important from its location point, of view. So there was great struggle among Palas, Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas to occupy Kanauj. ‘
- Mahmud Ghaznavi: He was the ruler of Ghazni and attacked India 17 times. He took much of the gold, silver from India to his country.
- Muhammad Ghori: The ruler of Gaur kingdom defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the second battle of Tarain (1192 A.D.) and established Turk Empire in India.
Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 8 New Kings and Kingdoms (A.D. 700-1200) Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.