PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 7 Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate
Science Guide for Class 7 PSEB Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Intext Questions and Answers
Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 75)
Name the instrument used to measure relative humidity.
Wet Bulb and Dry-bulb thermometers.
Which instrument is used to measuring rainfall ?
Name the source you used to collect weather reports ?
Weather data was obtained from the North Meteorological Department’s laboratory.
1. Fill in the Blanks:
(i) …………………. of a place may change during a day.
(ii) The areas of Earth near North Pole and the South Pole are called ……………….. .
(iii) The amount of water vapours present in air is called ……………… .
(iv) ……………….. is the coldest desert on earth.
(v) Indian hot desert or Thar Desert spread over states of ………………… and ……………….. .
Rajasthan and Gujarat.
2. State True or False:
(i) Reindeer is the main animal of tropical forest.
(ii) Weather and climate both terms have same meaning.
(iii) Camel stores fat in its hump which is consumed during the days it does not get food.
(iv) Whale is the largest animal.
3. Match the Columns ‘A’ with Column ‘B’:
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|(i) It insulates its body and keeps the polar beer warm||(a) Land breeze|
|(ii) This instrument is used to measure humidity in air||(b) Hot and dry.|
|(iii) Imaginary lines on the earth parallel to the equator||(c) Fat layer under the skin|
|(iv) Cood air that blows during day towards coastal area||(d) Dry and wet bulb thermometer.|
|(v) The climate of Rajasthan is||(e) Latitude.|
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|(i) It insulates its body and keeps the polar beer warm||(c) Fat layer under the skin|
|(ii) This instrument is used to measure humidity in air||(d) Dry and wet bulb thermometer.|
|(iii) Imaginary lines on the earth parallel to the equator||(e) Latitude.|
|(iv) Cood air that blows during day towards coastal area||(a) Land breeze|
|(v) The climate of Rajasthan is||(b) Hot and dry.|
4. Choose the Correct Answer:
Weather of a place is affected by:
(d) All of these
(d) All of these.
Climate of coastal areas is:
(a) Hot to dry
(c) Cold and dry
(d) Extreme cold
(c) Cold and dry.
The coldest desert on earth is:
(a) Arabian desert
(b) Sahara desert
(c) Thar desert
(b) Sahara desert.
Arctic region lies at:
(d) 85° N to 90°S
(d) 85° N to 90°S.
5. Very Short Answer Type Questions:
Name any two factors that affect the weather of a place.
Factors affecting the weather of a place are:
- Water / Rain/ Moisture,
- Distance from sea or ocean.
Climate. An average of 25 to 30 years of weather conditions in a place is called climate.
What is sand dune ?
Sand dune. When the wind blows, the sand flies from one place to another. When the wind stops blowing, the sand falls in one place and collects to form low hill structures. These are called sand dunes. They are usually found in desert areas.
What is a polar region ?
Polar Region. The region near the North Pole and the South Pole of the Earth is called the Polar Region. The north snow is centred on these poles. The in the north it is located at Arctic Ocean and in the south it is located at the Antarctic Continent. It is very cold in these areas all the time.
6. Short Answer Type Questions:
How does sea breeze occur ?
The earth heats up faster than water during the day. The air near the bottom of the earth gets warmer and lighter and rises upwards. The air above the sea compared to the air above the earth is cold and heavy. So the wind blows toward the earth. The cool breeze that blows from the ocean to the earth during the day is called sea breeze.
Write three adaptations found in aquatic animals.
Adaptations found in aquatic organisms:
- Streamlined body which helps in swimming.
- Gills, they can take oxygen in the water.
- The presence of fins helps in swimming.
What is green house effect ?
Green house Effect. Infrared and ultraviolet radiation are present in sunlight. The ozone layer of the atmosphere absorbs the ultraviolet radiation but the infrared radiation reaches the earth. Some of these radiations are reflected and absorbed by carbon dioxide. Because the infrared rays have heat, the absorbed radiations heat up the atmosphere. This effect of carbon dioxide is called the green house effect.
Write two effects of climate change.
Effects of climate change:
1. Global warming. Deforestation and combustion of fossil fuels increase the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air. Carbon dioxide gas acts like a glass house and absorbs infrared radiation from sunlight, which raises the temperature. Due to this the green house effect is increasing.
2. As a result, glaciers are melting. Glacier melting alarm for aquatic life. Melting ice raises sea levels, endangering many coastal cities.
7. Long Answer Type Questions:
How is camel adapted to survive in hot desert ? Explain.
The adaptation of the camel to live in the desert:
The camel’s physique and habits have made it adaptable to the hot and dry climate of the desert.
The following adjustments are found in the camel:
- Its feet are flat to walk on the sand.
- Its nose is covered with nasal membranes so that sand does not enter the nose.
- It drinks a lot of water when available. This water spreads to the tissues of the body, which helps the camel to stay without water for many days.
- It accumulates fat in its mouth. When food is not available to it, it uses this fat.
- Very little water immerses through the urine.
- Its long legs keep it high above the hot sand.
Name various factors that affect the climate of a place. Explain any two of them.
Factors affecting the climate of a place:
- Distance from sea level
- Direction of mountains
- Distance from the equator
- Height from the sea.
1. Distance from the sea level.
The climate of the places near the sea is pleasant. During the day the temperature of the earth is higher while the water of the ocean warms up relatively late. The wind blows from the bottom of the ocean towards the earth, which is called sea breeze. The earth cools faster than water at night. So the air above the oceans is hot and light and the air above is moving towards the ocean. The cold breeze that blows toward the sea at night is called the land breeze.
2. The direction or latitude of the mountains.
The shape of the earth is not completely spherical. It is slightly raised near the equator. As a result, the sun’s rays are directed closer to the equator. The latitude of the equator is 0° and it is higher towards the pole. The longitude of the North Pole is 90° N and the longitude of the South Pole is 90°S. The climate near the equator is hot and humid all year round. As the longitude increases, the climate cools down.
Write various adaptations found in Polar beer.
Adaptations in Polar bear. The following adaptations are found in polar bears:
- Its fur is white to camouflage with snow capped areas.
- Its long hairs protect it from extreme cold of cold climate.
- A thick layer of fat deposit under the skin helps to keep it warm.
- Its feet are so shaped that it can run easily on snow.
PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Science Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Important Questions and Answers
1. Fill in the blanks:
(i) The average weather taken over a long time in called ……………. .
(ii) A place receives very little rainfall and the temperature is high throughout the year;
the climate of that place will be …………… and …………….. .
(iii) The two regions with extreme climatic conditions are ……………… and ………….. .
Polar, Tropical Rain forests
(iv) The maximum temperature of the day occurs generally in ……………..
(v) ………………. is used to measure rain.
2. Match the Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’:
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|(i) The coldest desert on earth||(a) Moisture|
|(ii) The amount of water vapours in the air||(b) Deforestation and burning of fossil fuels|
|(iii) Thar desert||(c) Antarctica|
|(iv) Global warming||(d) Rajasthan.|
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|(i) The coldest desert on earth||(c) Antarctica|
|(ii) The amount of water vapours in the air||(a) Moisture|
|(iii) Thar desert||(d) Rajasthan|
|(iv) Global warming||(b) Deforestation and burning of fossil fuels.|
3. Choose the Correct Answer:
What is the cause of change in weather?
Indicate the type of climate in Jammu and Kashmir.
(a) Hot and wet
(b) Hot and dry
(c) Moderately hot and moderately wet
(c) Moderately hot and moderately wet.
Indicate the type of climate in Kerala:
(a) Hot and dry
(b) Hot and wet
(d) Moderately hot and moderately wet.
(a) Hot and dry.
From where do we get daily weather report ?
(d) All of the above.
(d) All of the above.
When is the minimum temperature likely to occur in a day ?
(b) Early morning
(d) None of the above.
(b) Early morning
Maximum temperature of the day occurs generally in:
(a) When the sun rises
(b) In mid noon
(d) When the sun sets.
4. State True or False:
(i) All changes in weather are due to the sun.
(ii) The highest temperature of the day is in the evening.
(iii) Different places have the same temperature.
(iv) Polar areas are located near the Poles.
(v) Penguins live in the plains.
(vi) Days in winter are shorter in length.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
From where do we get daily weather reports ?
We get weather report from Television, Radio and Newspapers.
Which factors are responsible for weather ?
Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall.
What is humidity ?
Humidity. It is the measure of quantity of moistures present in the atmospheric air.
Which department is responsible for preparing weather reports ?
Meterological Department of the Government.
Which instrument is used to measure rain fall ?
Do maximum and minimum temperature remain constant over a week ?
Where from do we get heat and light on the earth ?
We get heat and light from sun.
What happens to the energy emitted by sun ?
It is absorbed and reflected by the earth’s surface.
Climate is average weather report of a place taken over a long period. How long this period is ?
About 25 years.
Which type of climate is found in Kerala ?
Hot and wet.
What is typical desert climate ?
Hot and dry.
Which part of India is wet ?
Why is adaptation by animals necessary ?
For survival of animals.
Short Answer Type Questions
Name the elements that determine the weather of a place.
Elements of Weather:
Temperature, Humidity, Wind-speed, Rainfall.
When are the maximum and minimum temperature likely to occur during the day?
Maximum temperature of the day occurs generally in the afternoon while the minimum temperature occurs in the early morning.
What is rain gauge ?
Rain gauge. It is an instrument used to measure rainfall. It consists of a .measuring cylinder and a funnel on the top to collect rainwater.
Define weather ?
Weather. The day-to day condition of atmosphere at a place with respect to temperature, humidity, wind speed etc. is called weather.
The tropical rainforest has a large population of animals. Explain, why it is so ?
Tropical rainforests have hospitable climatic conditions; so it has a large population of animals. The climate in this region is hot and humid. It lies around the equator and has minimum temperature a little higher than 15°C, length of days and night are generally equal and these places recieve a lot of rainfall. So all these conditions are preferable for a large number of population.
What is cold desert region ? How does polar bear adapt the condition to survive in this region.
Those region/area where temperature may fall below-20°C and rocks are stony and have little vegetation are called cold deserts. In India cold desert lies between Ladakh region in north to Lahaul and spiti valley of Himachal Pradesh. To survive in cold desert, Yak has following adapations:
- Body is covered by long hair or fur.
- The colour of fur is generally black to absorb more and more heat.
- Its feet have sharp toes which help it to climb in uneven paths.
- A layer of fat is deposited under its skin. It helps yak to survive in extreme cold during winters.
Long Answer Type Questions
What is the condition of tropical rainforests ? What type of animals are living in such rain forest ? Write down the main characteristics of these animals.
Tropical rainforest. The area near or around the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn is called the tropical area. The climate in these areas is hot and humid. Here even in winter the temperature is 15°C and in summer the temperature reaches 40°C. The tropical region receives rainfall throughout the year. The most prominent places of the tropical region are the tropical rainforests that form canopies over the area. Elephants, tigers, leopards, snakes, birds and insects are the animals found in rain forest.
Main Characteristics of animals found in rain forest:
- Creeping, snakes, lizards, monitor can easily crawl in dense forests.
- Strong body. Strong body is required to pass through dense forests. So Elephants, gorillas, tigers, leopards, etc. have powerful bodies.
- Special Senses. Many tropical animals have sharp eyesight, sharp hearing and some animals have skin color similar to surroundings for camouflage.
- Strong tail
- Loud voice
- Sharp eyes
- Fruit diet
- Long and big beaks.
Discuss the human activities responsible for climate change.
Human activities responsible for climate change are as follows:
- Population Growth. Consumption of fossil fuels is increasing due to population growth and changes in living standards.
- Deforestation. Large scale deforestation is done to meet the needs of the growing population such as houses, buildings, industries, roads etc.
- Excavation of mines. Excavation of blind mines has increased floods.
- Global warming. Due to excessive cutting of trees and burning of fossil fuels the percentage of carbon dioxide increases. This carbon dioxide gas absorbs infrared radiation from sunlight, resulting in a rise in temperature. As a result, the green house effect continues to grow and as a result glaciers are melting.
Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate PSEB 7th Class Science Notes
- The weather of a place changes day by day and week by week.
- The weather depends on temperature, humidity and rainfall.
- Humidity is a measure of water vapour in the air.
- Indian Meteorological Department of weather forecasting, daily collect statistical data of heat, wind speed at various places and makes weather predictions.
- Atmospheric conditions in terms of temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, etc. of a place is called the weather of that place.
- The weather can change in an instant.
- Factors on which the weather depends, these are called elements of weather.
- Special high-low thermometers are used to measure the temperature. The highest temperature of the day is usually in the afternoon and the lowest is normal usually in the morning.
- All changes in the weather are caused by the sun.
- In winters, the length of the day is shorter and the night is earlier.
- The length of the weather of a place is based on the data collected at that place is called the climate of that place.
- The climate of different places is different. It changes from hot and dry to hot and humid.
- Energy reflected and absorbed by the earth’s surface, ocean and the atmosphere play important roles in determining weather at any place.
- Climate has a great impact on living things.
- Animals are adapted to the conditions in which they live.
- The Polar Regions are located near the poles, such as the North Pole and the South Pole.
- Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Alaska and Siberian areas of Russia in America, are the Polar Regions
- Tropical rainforests are found in India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil, Republic of Congo, Kenya, Uganda, and Nigeria. The Polar Regions have a cold climate.
- Rainfall is measured by an instrument called the rain gauge.
- Penguins and polar bears live in Polar Regions.
- The Polar Regions are covered with white ice.
- The white hairs on the polar bear’s body help protect it and catch prey.
- Penguins are well known animal found in Polar Regions. It is also white and merges well with the background.
- In addition to polar bears and penguins, many other animals are found in Polar Regions.
- Many fishes can live in cold water.
- The climate of the Subtropical Regions is generally warmer, as these areas are closer to the equator.
- Temperatures in these regions vary from 15°C to 40°C.
- In areas near the equator, the length of night and day is approximately equal throughout the year.
- Weather: Everyday changes in the atmosphere in terms of temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, etc., is called the weather of that place.
- Climate: The average weather pattern taken over a long time, say 25 years is called the climate of the place.
- Adaptation: The special characteristics of plants and organisms, that is, the nature that enables them to live in a habitat, is called adaptation.
- Migration: Moving from one place to another to avoid harsh climatic conditions by birds and animals is called migration.
Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 7 Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.