PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

Science Guide for Class 6 PSEB Garbage Management and Disposal Intext Questions and Answers

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 164)

Question 1.
Vegetable peels are ………………… waste. (Biodegradable/Non-Biodegradable)
Answer:
Biodegradable.

Question 2.
Glass is a ………………. waste. (Biodegradable/Non-Biodegradable)
Answer:
Non-Biodegradable.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

Question 3.
Plant leaves are ………………. waste. (Biodegradable/Non-Biodegradable)
Answer:
Biodegradable.

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 165)

Question 1.
Compost is rich in nutrients. (True/False)
Answer:
True.

Question 2.
We can use non-Biodegradable waste in composting. (True/False)
Answer:
False.

Question 3.
Vermicomposting is done by ……………..
Answer:
Earthworms.

Question 4.
Kitchen waste (biodegradable waste) is used in Vermicomposting. (True/False)
Answer:
True.

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 167)

Question 1.
We can also recycle glass and metals to useful product. (True/False)
Answer:
True.

Question 2.
The process of changing the waste and non-useable materials into useful material is called recycling. (True/False)
Answer:
True.

PSEB 6th Class Science Guide Garbage Management and Disposal Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks:

(a) Solid waste is commonly called ………….. .
Answer:
garbage

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

(b) Plastic is a ……………….. material.
Answer:
non-biodegradable

(c) Composting done by earthworms is called ………………
Answer:
vermicomposting

(d) …………… dustbin is used for collecting non-biodegradable waste.
Answer:
Blue

2. Write True or False:

(a) Green dustbin is used for collecting non-biodegradable waste.
Answer:
False

(b) Biomedical wastes are hazardous and infectious.
Answer:
True

(c) A large, low lying area used to dispose off garbage is known as a dump.
Answer:
True

(d) Landfill site is ideal for making parks and playgrounds.
Answer:
True

3. Match the Column A with Column B:

Column A Column B
1. Biomedical waste (a) fly ash
2. Industrial waste (b) medicines and syringes
3. Domestic waste (c) Paddy husk
4. Agricultural waste (d) vegetable peels

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Biomedical waste (b) medicines and syringes
2. Industrial waste (a) fly ash
3. Domestic waste (d) vegetable peels
4. Agricultural waste (c) Paddy husk

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

4. Choose the Correct Answer:

Question (i)
Hospital waste is generally:
(a) Recycled
(b) Incinerated
(c) Dumped in landfill
(d) Composted.
Answer:
(b) Incinerated

Question (ii)
The earthworms used for composting are called:
(a) Redworms
(b) Blueworms
(c) Greenworms
(d) Whiteworms.
Answer:
(a) Redworms

Question (iii)
……………. is a non-biodegradable waste.
(a) Plastic
(b) paper
(c) Vegetable
(d) Animal dung.
Answer:
(a) Plastic

Question (iv)
We can recycle ……………. .
(a) Glass
(b) Metals
(c) Plastic
(d) All.
Answer:
(d) All.

5. Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
What is meant by dump ?
Answer:
The low lying areas used for disposing off garbage are called dumps.

Question (ii)
What type of garbage is collected in blue dustbin and green dustbin ?
Answer:
Blue dustbins are used for collecting non-biodegradable wastes like polythene bags, plastics, glass, etc.
Green dustbins are used for collecting biodegradable wastes like sewage waste, news papers, etc.

Question (iii)
What is meant by recycling ?
Answer:
The process of changing the waste and non-useable materials into useful material is called recycling.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

6. Short Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
Distinguish between biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste.
Answer:

Biodegradable Non-biodegradable waste
(1) Waste materials that can be decomposed by micro-organisms. (1) The waste materials that cannot be decomposed easily.
(2) For example-Sewage waste, vegetable peels, etc. (2) For example-Plastics, glass, chemicals, construction site wastes, etc.
(3) Such wastes are not harmful to environment. (3) Such wastes are harmful to environment.

Question (ii)
What is vermicomposting ? How is it done ?
Answer:
The method used to prepare compost with the help of earthworms is called vermicomposting. The redworms eat the waste material using their gizzards along with soil and convert it into compost.

7. Long Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
Explain how plastic is a boon.
Answer:
Plastic is a latest addition to our development. It is prepared chemically. It has become part of our life. It has both aspects – useful and harmful.

Useful aspects. Everything found around us is made of plastic – shoes, toys, buckets, tubes, pens, bags etc. Even electronic things have plastic components. Life seems to come to an end when we consider to abolish plastic. It is used for making things because it is tough, hard, shiny, durable and above all inexpensive.
From the different uses we can consider that plastic is a boon.

Question (ii)
List various methods of garbage disposal. Explain any one.
Answer:
There are three methods for disposal of garbage. These are :
(1) Composting
(2) Landfill
(3) Incineration
Landfilling. This is a commonly used method for disposing the waste.

Method : Collect the garbage from house and separate it into two groups before it is thrown into the dustbin.
Group I : Garbage from the kitchen like fruits and vegetable peels, egg shells, tea leaves etc.

Group II : Pieces of cloth, polythene bags, broken glass, old shoes, aluminium wrappers etc. Make separate heaps of this garbage and labelled as A, B, C and D. Put these into . separate plastic bags. Tie the mouth of these bags tightly. Put the four heaps in separate pits and cover them with the soil. This way of dumping is done in open land. The dumped content, with time changes to garbage.

Question (iii)
Explain the 4R’s.
Answer:
4R’s are used for waste management. These are (1) Reuse, (2) Reduce (3) Recycle and (4) Refuse.

(1) Reuse. It means to use an item again instead of throwing it away. We can reuse things after separating. For example fans and mobiles can be reused.

(2) Reduce. Reducing the amount of waste we produce is the best way to protect our environment. We can use glass and metal utensils instead of disposable utensils.

(3) Recycle. Conversion of waste material into usable form is called recycling of the waste. We can recycle old news papers into cardboard. Similarly plastic, glass, metals can be recycled.

(4) Refuse. Refuse the plastic and polythene bags. Disposable plastic pollutes our environment. For example using a reusable metal water bottle instead of disposable water bottle.

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Science Garbage Management and Disposal Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question (i)
Name the material which can be recycled ?
(a) paper
(b) old clothes
(c) toys
(d) all.
Answer:
(d) all

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

Question (ii)
Domestic waste constitutes :
(a) bandages
(b) kitchen waste
(c) syringes
(d) none.
Answer:
(b) kitchen waste

Question (iii)
The following item is not one of the waste material:
(a) broken glass
(b) a new bottle
(c) wrappers
(d) broken toy.
Answer:
(b) a new bottle

Question (iv)
Some animals die when they swallow
(a) fruit peels
(b) pieces of clothes
(c) plastic bags
(d) food.
Answer:
(c) plastic bags

Question (v)
Red worms survive at:
(a) high temperature
(b) low temperature
(c) average temperature
(d) none.
Answer:
(c) average temperature

Fill in the Blanks:

(a) All the wrapping materials go out as ………………..
Answer:
garbage

(b) Garbage has both ……………….. and non-useful components.
Answer:
useful

(c) Burning of …………….. produces smoke and ……………… gases which affect the health.
Answer:
agricultural waste, harmful

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

(d) ……………. , ……………………. and ……………. do not rot in the garbage heaps.
Answer:
Iron, glass, plastic

(e) The rotting and conversion of some materials into ……………… is called composting.
Answer:
manure

(f) The food of red worms is ……………….. and ……………….. waste.
Answer:
fruit, vegetables

(g) Red worms have structures like …………….. which help in grinding the food.
Answer:
gizzards

(h) Paper-mache is a paste made of clay and ……………. .
Answer:
paper

(i) Same kind of plastic can be …………… .
Answer:
recycled

(j) The plastic bags are cause of ………………… of drains and sewer system.
Answer:
choking

(k) We should not use ……………. to store eatables.
Answer:
plastic bags

(l) We should never bum ……………… and plastic ………………. .
Answer:
plastic bags, items

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

Write (T) against true and (F) against false statements:

(a) Garbage is always non-useful.
Answer:
False

(b) Composting of waste material can be done only by red worms.
Answer:
False

(c) Every type of plastic can be recycled.
Answer:
False

(d) We are irresponsible as we do not take proper care of the wastage.
Answer:
True

(e) The plastic bags are cause of death of animals.
Answer:
True

(f) Burning of leaves is done to reduce garbage.
Answer:
True

(g) Vermicomposting is a process to reduce useful garbage into useful components.
Answer:
True

(h) Red worms can survive any conditions of the weather.
Answer:
False

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

(i) Landfill is a low lying area.
Answer:
True

(j) Bum the garbage that do not rot.
Answer:
False

Match the column A with column B:

Column A Column B
(1) Composting 3 categories
(2) Landfill sewage, kitchen waste, garbage
(3) Domestic wastes area where garbage dumped
(4) Sewage waste converting waste into manure.

Answer:
(1) Composting – converting waste into manure
(2) Landfill – area where garbage dumped
(3) Domestic wastes – sewage, kitchen waste, garbage
(4) Sewage waste – 3 categories.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is land fill ?
Answer:
Land fill is a low lying open area to dump the waste.

Question 2.
What is garbage ?
Answer:
Garbage: All the waste material from houses, markets, school, offices etc. constitute
garbage.

Question 3.
Name different components of garbage.
Answer:
Useful and non-useful components.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

Question 4.
Which part of red worms help in grinding the food ?
Answer:
Gizzard helps in grinding the food.

Question 5.
Used paper can be remade and is used for other purposes. What is this process known as ?
Answer:
Recycling.

Question 6.
What is colour of garbage after rotting ?
Answer:
Black.

Question 7.
Can salt, pickets be given to red worms ? Why ?
Answer:
No, These materials produce disease causing organisms.

Question 8.
Which coloured bin is used for collecting kitchen waste or degradable waste ?
Answer:
Green.

Question 9.
Blue coloured bin is used for which type of substances ?
Answer:
Recycling material.

Question 10.
What is compost ?
Answer:
Compost. Dead leaves and other plant material are broken down in the soil into nutrients for plants to use is known as compost.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

Question 11.
What do you mean by vermicomposting ?
Answer:
Vermicomposting. It is the method of making compost from kitchen garbage using red worms is called vermicomposting.

Question 12.
Write the types of garbage.
Answer:
Garbage consist of two type of components :

  1. Useful components.
  2. Non-useful components.

Question 13.
How non-useful components of waste or garbage are dumped ?
Answer:
The non-useful component is separated from garbage. It is then spread over the landfill and then covered with a layer of soil. Once the landfill is completely full, it is usually converted into park or play ground.

Question 14.
What is composting ?
Answer:
Composting. The rotting and conversion of some garbage into manure is called composting.

Question 15.
Why it is necessary for us to separate waste into two groups ?
Answer:
It is necessary for us to separate waste into two groups because waste contains two type of components. One are useful and recycled and other are non useful and can not be recycled like polythene bags.

Question 16.
Can polythene bags be recycled ?
Answer:
No, polythene bags cannot be recycled.

Question 17.
Name the material which can be recycled.
Answer:
Paper can be recycled.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is recycling ?
Answer:
Recycling is making of useful substance from the used materials i.e., rotten paper can be recycled to get fresh paper for use.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

Question 2.
Write a short note on Red worms.
Answer:
Red worms. Red worms are small organisms which can convert useful component of garbage into manure. These can survive under normal conditions and get doubled in one month. They feed on vegetable and fruit waste only. Milk products, salt, lemon pickles are harmful to them. Red worms have structures called gizzard for grinding the food material.

Question 3.
How can we minimize the use of plastics ?
Answer:
Steps to minimize the use of plastics

  1. Use paper bags instead of plastic bags.
  2. Use jute or cloth bag while shopping.
  3. Never bum plastic bags and plastic item.
  4. Use washable utensils instead of plastic ones.

Question 4.
How does garbage spoil the landscape ?
Answer:
Spoilage of landscape. Improper management of solid waste leads to spoilage of landscape. Solid waste left untreated is unhygienic. It destroys the surrounding greenery. The texture of soil becomes toxic and rats, house flies, mosquitoes and bacteria make their homes in this waste heap. Thus, destroying the beauty and usefulness of that area.

Question 5.
How is a landfill used for composting ?
Answer:
Following steps are taken for composting the waste in a landfill –

  1. Deposit the garbage in a landfill.
  2. Compress it with bulldozers.
  3. Cover the garbage with at least 6 inches deep soil after every deposit of garbage.
  4. Finally cover properly the top layer with 2 inches of soil.

Question 6.
Why burning of agricultural waste is not safe ?
Answer:
Burning of dried leaves, husk and agricultural waste produces smoke and harmful gases which have an adverse affect on the health.

Question 7.
What is role of municipality to separate the garbage ?
Answer:
Role of municipality to separate the garbage. In some town and cities, municipality provides separate dustbin for collecting different kinds of garbage. Blue coloured bin is for materials which can be recycled and green coloured bin is for kitchen waste, or the waste which can easily rot or decompose, when get buried in the soil.

Question 8.
Is it possible for all of this garbage to be changed into compost ? How ?
Answer:
No, it is not possible to change all of this garbage into compost because it contains two kind of components- (i) useful (ii) non-useful.

(i) Useful Components : The components from kitchen waste like fruits, vegetable peels, eggs shells, waste food can be changed to manure. Waste papers can be recycled.

(ii) Non Useful Components : The components like piece of cloth, polythene bags, broken glass, aluminium wrappers and broken toys cannot be changed to manure or compost.
Hence all type of garbage cannot be changed into compost.

Question 9.
How does a landfill basically works ?
Answer:
The basic working of a landfill involves the following three steps:

  • Deposit the refuse.
  • Compact it with buldozers.
  • Cover the garbage with at least 6 inches deep of soil after each day operation and with a final cover of 2 feet when the area is full.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How can we reduce garbage and deal with it ?
Answer:
Steps taken to reduce and deal with garbage are:

  1. Reuse plastic items and bags whenever it is needed.
  2. Use vermicomposting at home.
  3. Recycle paper.
  4.  Donot throw plastic bags here and there after use.
  5. Make full use of your note books. Use slates for rough work.
  6. Make people aware of proper practices for disposing different kinds of waste.

Question 2.
Discuss whether plastic is a boon or a curse ?
Answer:
Plastic is a latest addition to our development. It is prepared chemically. It has become part of our life. It has both aspects – useful and harmful.

Useful aspects. Everything found around us is made of plastic – shoes, toys, buckets, tubes, pens, bags etc. Even electronic things have plastic components. Life seems to come to an end when we consider to abolish plastic. It is used for making things because it is tough, hard, shiny, durable and above all inexpensive.

Harmful aspects. It is difficult to dispose plastic as it bums with a foul smell and lots of smoke containing harmful gases.

Plastic do not rot even under undesirable conditions. Instead it create havoc in daily routine. Such as plastic bags when swallowed by animal are cause of their death as they choke their alimentary canal. These bags choke the drains and sewage thus causing a great problem. Some times food becomes poisonous when stored in plastic bags. Plastic things become shapeless when kept near fire.
So from above point of view plastic is a boon as well as a curse.

Question 3.
What do you know about waste ? Classify them according to their nature.
Answer:
Waste : The materials discarded by human beings in their day to day activities are considered as domestic waste.
Domestic waste may be classified into the following types :

  1. Food Waste : The animal, fruit or vegetable residue (also called garbage) resulting from the handling, preparation, cooking and eating of food.
  2. Ashes : Residue left over from the burning of wood, coal, coke etc. or from partially burnt materials.
  3. Rubbish : Waste material like cardboard, plastics, rubbers, wood, furniture, glass, broken utensils etc.
  4. Human excreta : Waste product excreted from the body is termed excreta.
  5. Plastic bag : Used plastic bags made of synthetic material are often thrown away.

Question 4.
What do you mean by dumping ? Explain improved form of open dumping method (Land filling).
Answer:
Waste dumping is a method of controlled final disposal at landfill sites which must be done by using state-of-the art method.
The improved form of open dumping is termed as land-filling.

Method: Collect the garbage from house and separate it into two groups before it is thrown into the dustbin.

Group I: Garbage from the kitchen like fruits and vegetable peels, egg shells, tea leaves etc.

Group II: Pieces of cloth, polythene bags, broken glass, old shoes, aluminium wrappers etc. Make separate heaps of this garbage and labelled as A, B, C and D. Put these into separate plastic bags. Tie the mouth of these bags tightly. Put the four heaps in separate pits and cover them with the soil. This way of dumping is done in open land. The dumped content, with time changes to garbage.

Question 5.
What do you mean by vermicomposting ? How can we prepare manure by vermicomposting ? Explain with activity.
Answer:
Method of preparing compost from kitchen wastes with the help of red worms is called vermicomposting.

Method to prepare manure by vermicomposting (Activity): Take a wooden box and place it where there is neither too hot nor too cold. Spread a net at the bottom or spread sand as an alternative. Also spread some vegetable waste along it. Dried animal dung could also be used as a spread over sand. Sprinkle some water to make this layer wet. Pit is ready for composting. Now put some red worms on the pit. Cover them loosely with a gunny bag. To feed red worms vegetable waste, coffee, tea leaves can be used.

Question 6.
How do red worms make vermicompost ?
Answer:
Red worms do not have teeth. They have a structure called ‘gizzard’ which helps them in grinding their food. Egg shells could be mixed with the wastes. They help redworms in grinding their food. Red worms need moisture around them. With all this, the number will be doubled. After 3-4 weeks, we will see loose soil like material in the pit called
vermicompost.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal

Garbage Management and Disposal PSEB 6th Class Science Notes

  • Any substance which is no more useful is called waste.
  • Solid waste is called garbage. It is generated by human activities.
  • Garbage has both useful and non-useful components.
  • The are many types of wastes like industrial waste, domestic waste, agricultural waste, biomedical waste, etc.
  • Two types of garbage or solid waste are (i) biodegradable wastes and (ii) non-biodegradable waste.
  • For proper disposal of garbage, we must do segregation before disposing the garbage. We can do this by using differently coloured dustbins.
  • To manage the waste there are the 4R’s i.e. reuse, reduce, recycle, refuse.
  • Some part of garbage can be reused.
  • Usually garbage is collected and thrown in landfills.
  • Composting or vermicomposting can be done of useful components or biodegradable component of garbage.
  • Dry leaves, husk of wheat and part of crops should not be burnt as they produce lots of smoke and harmful gases.
  • Red worms are good for vermicomposting of vegetable and fruit waste, coffee and tea leaves, weeds etc. but oily, pickled, salty food and milk products are not good for red worms.
  • Some types of plastics, paper, glass and metal can be recycled.
  • Plastics bum with a foul smell and produce lots of harmful gases.
  • ☆ Plastic bags cause choking of drains and sewer systems.
  • Plastic bags eaten by animals are cause of their death.
  • Plastic are useful as things made of them last long.
  • Incineration method releases harmful gases and causes pollution.
  • e-waste include the discarded mobiles or any electronic device.
  • Garbage: The solid waste is called garbage.
  • Dump: A large low lying area used to dispose off garbage.
  • Landfill: A low lying area to be filled by garbage is landfill.
  • Biodegradable Waste: Waste material that can be decomposed by the action of microorganism into harmless substances.
  • Non-biodegradable Waste: The waste materials that cannot be decomposed easily.
  • Incineration: The process of burning waste in closed containers.
  • Compost: The decomposition of organic material into useful material is compost.
  • Vermi-Composting: The method of preparing compost with the help of red worms is vermicomposting.
  • Gizzard: The teeth like hard structures present in red worms for grinding purpose is called gizzard.
  • Recycling: The process of using few materials again and again is recycling.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage Management and Disposal Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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