Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 7 Westernisation and Sanskritisation Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Westernisation and Sanskritisation
Sociology Guide for Class 12 PSEB Westernisation and Sanskritisation Textbook Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. Change in the beliefs is a:
(a) Structural change
(b) Cultural change
2. Which of these is a cultural process of change?
Which of these is a change process of Culture?
3. The process by which those who occupy traditional low positions attempt to gain a higher position in the <caste hierarchy is called as:
4. Who have given the statement, “The changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rules, and the term subsumes changes occurring at different levels-technology, institutions, ideology, values.”
(a) Yogendra Singh
(b) M.N. Srinivas
(c) K.L. Sharma
(d) None of the above
(b) M.N. Srinivas
5. The development of westernization is traced from which period:
(a) Vedic period
(b) Post Vedic period
(c) Mughal period
(d) British period
(d) British period
Fill in the Blanks:
1. British and Indians were considered the carriers of ……………….. process.
2. ……………….. means concern for the welfare of all irrespective of caste, religion, economic status, age, and sex.
3. For the caste to be dominant, it should have ………………., ………………… and ………………
more land, more population, higher status
4. …………………. alone are not the object of imitation.
1. The form and pace of westernisation of India remains same from region to region and from one section of population to another.
2. Structural change occurs with the process of Sanskritisation.
3. Sanskritisation is the process where vertical mobility takes place in which one moves in downward direction.
4. For a caste to be dominant it should own a sizeable amount of the arable land locally available.
Match The Columns:
|Column A||Column B|
|Upper Caste||Positional change|
|Sanskritisation||Ranking of status|
|Westernisation||Welfare of all|
|Column A||Column B|
|Hierarchy||Ranking of status|
|Upper Caste||Reference Group|
|Humanitarianism||Welfare of all|
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
What is the process called by which one gains higher position in the caste hierarchy?
It is known as Sanskritization.
Name one process by which cultural change occurs.
Which period can be considered as the indicator of initiation of westernisation?
The British period.
By which process upward mobility takes place by the process of imitation?
Which cultural process works outside the framework of caste?
From which period the origin of westernisation can be traced?
The British period.
Who are considered to be the carriers of westernisation process?
Soldiers, those people who were at higher posts, traders and owners of plantations, Christian missionaries etc.
Who has used the term Sanskritisation instead of Brahminisation?
Name any two groups among the British who helped to spread westernization.
Educated Indians, social reformers, Christian missionaries, etc.
Name any one criterion to identify the dominant caste by M.N.Srinivas.
More population, more holding of arable land etc.
Short Answer Type Questions:
What is meant by Westernisation?
M.N. Srinivas used the word westernisation for the changes which came in Indian society during the British rule. According to him, under the impact of Western culture, ways of living, eating, wearing etc. many changes came in Indian society.
Does westernisation lead to social reforms?
Yes, westernisation led to social reforms because after getting western education, many Indian social reformers started doing reforms in Indian society. Consequently many social evils were removed such as Sati system, no widow remarriage etc.
What is meant by Sanskritisation?
Sanskritisation is a process in which members of lower caste collectively adopt the traditions, customs, ways of living life etc. of upper caste people. Consequently, after one or two generations, their social status automatically moves in upward direction.
What do you understand by humanitarianism?
The meaning of humanitarianism is welfare of all irrespective of their caste, age, gender, religion, economic status etc. During the first half of 19th century, humanitarianism became one of the bases of many reforms brought by the British.
Mention various levels at which changes occurred due to westernisation.
The process of westernisation brought many changes such as the caste based differences were reduced, people started getting education, changes came in the people’s ways of living and eating, higher status of women, changes in social institutions etc.
Long Answer Type Questions:
What are the various pre-requisites for the process of Sanskritisation?
- There is positional change in the process of sanskritisation but there is no structural change. Social structure remains the same.
- Imitation is a necessary element in sanskritisation. It means whatever people observe about their ideal caste, they start doing the same thing.
- There is upward mobility in Sanskritisation because when people adopt living style of upper caste after one or two generations their position also changes in society.
- In the process of sanskritisation, social status of an individual changes but it doesn’t mean that his caste will also change. It remains the same.
Explain the process of Sanskritisation.
M.N. Srinivas, an Indian sociologist, gave the concept of sanskritisation. He used this word to explain the process of social mobility in traditional social structure. This is the process in which a lower caste, collectively adopts the customs, traditions, living style etc. to achieve higher status in society. With this process, lower caste persons even sacrifice their traditional customs and traditions.
Why is Sanskritization preferred to the term Brahminisation?
M.N. Srinivas preferred the word Sanskritization over Brahminisation and there was a reason behind it. Actually in Brahminisation, lower caste people adopt the ways of living, customs, traditions etc. of Brahmins. But this is not the case in sanskritization. In sanskritization, lower castes adopt ways of living of the upper caste living in their area. It can be any of the three upper castes i.e. Brahmin, Kshatriya or Vaishya. In this the model caste can be any of the upper three castes. . So, Sanskritisation is an open and wide concept but Brahminisation is a small ‘ concept.
Give details on the carriers of westernisation process.
Along with the British, Indians are also considered carriers of westernization. There were three British groups which helped in the expansion of this process and these were
- Sepoys and those officers who were at higher posts
- Traders and plantation owners
- Christian missionaries. Except these, there were those Indians who were directly or indirectly in contact with the British.
- Those Indians came in direct contact with the British living style. They either worked at the homes of the British or those who left Hinduism and adopted Christianity.
- Those Indians were indirectly related to the British. They were those who took western education, started doing government jobs, or started trading.
Sanskritisation results only in positional change in the system and does not lead to any structural change. Discuss.
There is no denying the fact that sanskritisation results only in positional change in the system but not the structural change. In this process, social status of 1 an individual changes but not the caste. It means that one can adopt the living style of his model caste but he cannot be included in that caste. One needs to live whole of his life in the caste in which he is born. Any tribal person can adopt life style of any caste but he cannot be a member of that caste.
Bring out differences between westernisation and sanskritisation.
- The process of westernisation is a secular process but in sanskritisation aspect of purity and impurity is quite important.
- There is development and upward mobility in westernization but there is imitation and upward mobility in sanskritization.
- The process of westernization works out of caste based structure but the process of sanskritization works within caste based structure.
- With westernisation, change comes in the status of whole society but in sanskritisation social status of an individual changes.
Very Long Answer Type Questions:
Write note on westernisation and its features.
Discuss the features of westernisation in detail.
Write a note on westernisation.
What is westernisation? Discuss its features.
Generally the meaning of westernization’Is taken by impact of western countries over India. England, France, Germany and’U.S.A. are those western countries which greatly influenced Indian society. Educated class of India tries to imitate life style of the people of these countries. Prof. M.N. Srinivas gave a detailed description of westernization. Other Sociologists also tried to explain westernization but they mainly concentrated on giving explanation of impacts of westernization on Indian society. Srinivas wrote a book ‘Social Change in Modern India’ and in this book he wrote, “I have used the term westernization to characterize the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule and the term subsumes changes occurring at different levels, technology, institutions, ideology and values.”
So from this definition it is clear that the concept of westernization includes the changes which come in institutions, ideology etc. of Indian society and which came due to political and cultural contacts with western countries. Westernization can have many ideals like England, U.S.A. or other European countries.
Features Of Westernization:
1. Continue after Independence. The process of westernization hardly came to an end even when Britishers left our country. This process continuously is going on even after independence. From Modern Indian Culture, ways of living, eating habits, new ways of mannerism, spread of western education etc. we can tell that India is westernizing even in today’s age.
2. Westernization is different from modernization. Yet the process of modernization is encouraged by westernization but these both concepts are different from each other. Wersternization is only related with all those good or bad effects over Indian society which were exerted due to British contacts but the process of Modernization includes positive impacts of western and other countries like England, Germany, France, Russia, U.S.A., Japan, China etc. over Indian society. Except this the impact of modern science and technology, information and science over Indian society is also known as modernization.
3. Impact of the British culture on Indian Society. Westernization is the impact of the British culture over Indian society. Yet India is also influenced by other western countries but the process of westernization does not include the impact of other western countries. To clarify this statement Srinivas has written that, “I have used the term westernization to characterize the changes brought about in Indian Society and Culture as a result of over 150 years of the British rule.”
4. Westernization is not confined to urbanites. Impact of westernization was not confined only to urban areas during British empire. But whoever came in their contact like rural farmers, smaller officials, military men etc. became westernized. It was spread even in rural areas as well.
5. Conscious and Unconscious process. The process of westernization is a conscious as well as Unconscious process. Some of the aspects of culture, like language, technology etc. were consciously adopted by the IndiAnswer: But many westernized ideas, values, eating habits, living habits were unconsciously adopted by the IndiAnswer: Eating by sitting on the dining table, saying good morning or good night etc. are some of its examples.
6. Ethically Neutral. Many good, bad, positive, negative, organizational, disorganizational changes came in Indian society through westernization. Westernization is not related with positive and negative aspects of change. All the changes which come under this concept mean ethically westernization is a neutral concept.
Write a note on Dominant Caste.
The concept of dominant caste was given by M.N. Srinivas. He used this term first time in one of his essays, “Essay on the Social System of a Mysore village”. Srinivas created this concept when he was doing study in Rampur village near Mysore city of Karnataka. According to Srinivas, dominant caste is that caste of a village which has:
- Availability of lot of arable land at local level.
- More population.
- Higher status in local hierarchy.
Except these factors, few more new factors are coming forward such as:
- Western education .
- Jobs in administratio
- Urban means of earning.
Srinivas was of the view that the dominant caste was not confined only in Rampur village. It exists in other villages of the country as well. Traditionally, those castes whose population is less, have more money, arable land, political power etc. become dominant castes; in villages. According to him, traditionally upper castes are dominant as western education and other related facilities are easily available to them. During earlier times, there was no importance of caste population but with the advent of universal adult suffrage, many castes have become dominant in their areas.
Srinivas was of the view that many new bases of dominant caste are coming forward but the traditional basis still prevails and castes with more population have not yet become dominant castes. But the given bases of dominant caste are more than enough.
What do you understand by cultural change? Explain two cultural processes of change.
Society strives its continuity and existence according to the environmental and conditions of its surrounding people have been descending down from generation to generation with the addition of new ideas and objects. The dynamic process of society enhances culture with refreshment and for every generation a new culture than for the previous. A stagnant society is dead but there is none today how so primitive it may be. Technological developments and social changes in the form of evolution and progress at any rate exist there as the adjustment factors change them according to the environmental conditions. Hence the societies and cultures are undergoing changes which are known as cultural change.
According to Horton and Hunt, “Change in the culture of society is called cultural change.” According to Kingsley Davis, “Cultural change embarrasses occurring in any branch of culture including art, science, technology, philosophy etc. as well as changes in the forms and rules of social organization. It is the modification or discontinuance of existing tried and tested procedures transmitted to us from the culture of the past, as well as the introduction of new procedures.
Two cultural processes:
- Westernization. See Question No. 1.
- Sanskritization. See’Question No. 5.
What do you understand by westernization? Explain its impact on Indian society.
Highlight the impacts of Westernisation.
Meaning of Westernization. See Question No. 1.
Impact of Westernization on Indian Society. Westernization has greatly affected our Indian society. None of the corners of our country remained away from the impact of this process. So the impact of westernization over Indian society is given below:
1. Impact on Family. Traditionally joint families exist in our country in which three to four generations live with each other. But westernization encouraged individualism and materialism in our country. It reduced community feeling and sense of sacrifice among the members of the family. Educated youth became conscious about their rights. They started to disobey their elders. Females became conscious to maintain their identity. Joint families started to disintegrate very quickly due to this consciousness among females and youngs. Nuclear families started to replace joint families. In this way structural and functional impacts of westernization were exerted upon family system. Relations, rights and duties of members of the family were also changed.
2. Impact on Marriage. Indian marriage system also came under the influence of westernization. Before the British, many traditional customs prevailed in Indian society like marriage within the caste, restriction on widow remarriage, child marriage, Hypergamy etc. Marriage was considered as a religious sacrament. Rules of Spinda, Gotra and Sparvara were obeyed by the people in marriage and there was no place of thing named divorce. But many changes came in the institution of marriage due to western culture, ideas, views etc. Child marriages were legally stopped, late marriages were started, widow remarriages were started, love marriages and court marriages were started, divorces were increased and polygamy was stopped. Monogamy became ide’al type of marriage. Marriage became a contract due to westernization.
3. Impact on Caste System. Caste system was one of the important bases of Indian society but it. has also been changed due to westernization. The British established large scale industries in India and developed means of transport and communication. With this they made Indians familiar with facilities like post, telegraph, newspapers, press, roads, planes, railways etc. Large scale industries were established and people of different castes started-to work with each other in these industries. They started to use means of transport to move from one place to another. This thing reduced the sense of superiority and inferiority. People of one caste started to adopt occupations of other castes. Money system was started for providing services and people started to take services of other castes. Restrictions of caste system were reduced when they started to work with each other. Impact of caste organisations was reduced. Westernization spread the values of equality and brotherhood. It reduced the discrimination on the basis of caste.
4. Impact on Untouchability. Untouchability was an indispensible part of Indian caste system. But caste discriminations were reduced due to spread of western values of equality, liberty and fraternity. Untouchability was reduced due to a number of reasons like permission to take admission in educational institutions, same educational system for every one, same job for similar capable persons etc. Britishers encouraged industrialization and urbanization. People of different castes started to use all the public places. So untouchability was reduced due to westernization.
5. Impact on Religious Life. Many religious beliefs, superstitions prevailed in Indian society before the advent of the British. But many religious and reform movements were started in India due to the impact of western education and Christian missionaries. That’s why many religious evils and superstitions came to an end. Many people changed their religion and became Christians.” Elements of equalitarianism and humanism were encouraged in Hindu religion. So many evils came to an end due to western impact. With this religious beliefs and impact were also decreased. Fundamentalism of Hindu religion was declined and Indianization of Christianity took place.
6. Change in Status of Women. The status of women was very low when Britishers came to India. Their status was very pitiable due to sati system, purdah system, child marriage, restriction on widow remarriage etc. The British declared sati system illegal and gave permission to widow remarriage. Purdah system also declined due to spread of western education. Westernized women started to wear pent-shirts. Lakhs of women became conscious about their rights and they started to work in offices by leaving their traditional work of taking care of the house.
7. Impact in the Field of Education. We can clearly see the impact of westernization on traditional educational system of India. Gurukul system of education prevailed in Indian society before the advent of the British. But they started western system of education over here. People with knowledge of English language were given preferences in governmental jobs and administrative system. All castes and classes were equally treated. Lord Macaulay started education in English medium over here in 1835. This education brought drastic changes in views, ideas and living style of IndiAnswer: Western education also developed the sense of equality and national unity. Modern education of agriculture, science, medicine, engineering, law etc. is the legacy of the British.
8. Impact on Social Norms and Values. Folk ways, mores, traditions, customs, rules, laws, ways of behaviour, beliefs, values, arts, literature etc. are cultural heritage of Indian society. But many changes came in these cultural elements when Indians came in direct contact with the British and when the British rule established over here. These cultural elements came under the impact of westernization. After that many customs of Indian society were given legal form and many customs were restricted and started. For example sati system was restricted and widow remarriages were started. Even people started to print invitation cards for many occasions of life instead of calling their relatives personally. For example invitation cards of marriages, birth of child, birthdays, anniversaries, etc.
9. Impact on Life Style of the People. Indian life style is very much influenced by westernization. We can see even people of all the castes speaking English in metropolitan cities. In earlier times males used to wear ‘Dhoti Kurta’. But now they wear coat, pants, shirt, tie, jeans etc. Western fashion has completely changed life style of India. Now women wear jeans, pants, sarees, skirts, suits etc. Educated people often follow western culture in every sphere of life. Females are using make up kits to look beautiful. Now things of pleasure like TV, Car, Scooter, DVD, Camera, Mobile etc. are just like necessities of life. People are following everything of western culture in their lives.
10. Impact on Languages. In 1835, Lord Macaulay started English as a medium of education. After this people started to use English language. Yet English language is not a sanctioned language by the Indian Constitution but it has been adopted as a link language. In modern times, most of the schools, colleges, universities, medical colleges, Engineering colleges, management colleges and other professional colleges are using English language as a medium of instruction. Modern democracy, Parliamentary system, modern bureaucracy and the fundamental rights given to citizens are the legacy of English language.
11. Introduction of New Technology. The British used new technology in India. When developed technology was used in India then many changes came in Indian economy and living style of the people. They developed railways, made new roads, developed and encouraged press, made utensils of steel. Many revolutionary changes came in Indian society due to buses, railways, ships, post and telegraph, printing press. People started to eat their food by sitting on dinning tables instead of sitting on the floor and they started to use utensils of steel.
12. Industrialization. When the British established their rule over India, they started to export Indian raw material to England. They started to make things in England and sell those things in India. Things made by machines of high technology were less expensive and of good quality. But Indian made goods were more expensive and were not of good quality because they were made with hands. That’s why Indian industries suffered a gi;eat setback. The British started Zamindari system and their rules of business with which Indian economy weakened to a great extent. Things in these industries were made by machines. Things were made more than the local needs which resulted in the development of International business. But the Indian wealth started to flow towards Britain.
13. Development of New Administrative System. Modern Bureaucracy was introduced in India during British rule. Thousands of new posts were created. Indian Civil Services were started in which higher officials ye re started to be selected through competitive exams. Large structure of bureaucracy wqs introduced.
14. Development of Economic Institutions. Many economic institutions were developed in India during the British rule. Banks were established. Division of labour and specialization were developed. Capitalism was started in India. Problems of agricultural labour and industrial labour were increased. Strikes, lock outs of factories were started. Indian economy was turned towards a new direction with the advent of these economic institutions,
Write a note on Sanskritisation.
What is Sanskritisation?
Write a note on Sanskritisation?
Famous Indian Sociologist M.N. Srinivas wrote a book called ‘Social Change in Modern India’ in which he elaborately explained the processes of social change. First of all he explained the process of Sanskritisation in which he said that, through this process, lower castes try to lift themselves up in the social hierarchy. In this book, he also wrote about changes which are coming among lower castes. Actually Srinivas used the word Sanskritisation to explain the process of mobility in traditional Indian social structure. He was of the view that only because of Sanskritisation, mobility started in caste system. According to him mobility was always possible in caste system and especially amo±.g lower and middle castes. Caste system was not so rigid to permanently fix the social status of a person. It could have been changed.
Meaning of Sanskritisation. First of all the word Sanskritisation was used by M.N. Srinivas in his book ‘Society Among the Coorgs’. He wrote this book after studying Coorgs of Mysore. He wrote that lower caste people have started to adopt the life style of upper castes to uplift their social status. Initially Srinivas used the word ‘Brahmanization’ for this process but later on he used the word Sanskritization. Srinivas was of the view that lower caste people have begun using life style of upper castes, with which social status of their children automatically goes upward after one or two generations. It means that when lower caste people start to adopt living style of higher castes then this process is known as the process of Sanskritization. Their status automatically goes upward with this process. In this process, first of all they used to leave their own customs, traditions, values and then they began to adopt the customs, values etc. of higher castes.
1. According to M.N. Srinivas, “Sanskritization is the process by which a low Hindu caste or tribaj or other group changes its customs, ideology and way of life in the direction of a higher and twice born caste.”
2. At another place Srinivas wrote, “Sanskritization means not only the adoption of new customs and habits, but also exposure to new ideas and values which have frequent express in the nest body of Sanskrit literature sacred as well as secular, Karma, dharma, pap, maya, sansar, moksha are examples of some of the most common Sanskrit theological ideas and when a person becomes Sanskritized, these words are used frequently.”
3. According to Dr. Yogendra Singh, “Sanskritization is the process of cultural and social mobility during these periods of relative closure of the Hindu social system. It is an endogamous source of social change. From a psychological point Sanskritization is the culture of higher group. The specific sense of Sanskritization is a unique historical expression of the general process of acculturation as a means of vertical mobility of groups.”
In this way Srinivas was of the view that it is right that people of lower caste adopted the living styles of upper castes but it doesn’t mean that it has changed the caste hierarchy. Yet they started to adopt life style of upper castes and even kept the subnames of higher castes but they could not become the upper castes. Srinivas was of the view that Sanskritization was not confined only among lower Hindu castes but it also took place among the tribes. Bhils, Gonds, Oraons tribes have also tried to adopt this process.
In this way the process of Sanskritization remains in caste system and through this process, people of lower castes try to adopt and imitate the life style, habits, ways of living of higher castes. After one or two generations they become mixed among the people of upper castes. So through this process, people of lower castes try to uplift their social status.
What do you understand by Sanskritisation? Explain its impact.
Give Sanskritisation’s impact on Society.
Explain impact of Sanskritisation.
The process of Sanskritization has greatly affected the caste system of the Indian society. This process has reduced the impact of caste system and lower castes tried to uplift their social status with this process. Sanskritization has greatly affected lower castes because of which many changes came in their status and this description is given below:
1. The process of Sanskritisation has increased mobility among lower castes. Census report of 1921 says that many people of North India put sacred thread and started to call themselves Kshatriyas.
2. This process improved the status of lower castes. People of lower castes adopted the traditions, rituals, ideals and life style of higher castes and started to call themselves as members of higher castes. When they were able to achieve wanted place in local caste hierarchy then their position changes automatically.
3. This process has brought changes in occupation status of lower castes. They started to leave those occupations which were considered as impure and started to adopt pure occupations. Yet they were not allowed to adopt pure occupations but due to increasing consciousness towards purity they started to adopt occupations of upper castes.
4. The process of Sanskritization also brought many changes in their culture – folk ways, traditions, customs, beliefs, values, behaviour and mannerism. They started to imitate life style of upper castes with which their life style also changed.
5. Sanskritization has also affected religious life of lower castes. They started to adopt religious rituals of upper castes. Even they started to do yajans, puja etc. They left the impure occupations and adopted pure occupations. They started to celebrate even Hindu festivals as well.
6. Their economic status was also affected by this. They entered the industrial sector and government jobs with which their income was improved. They started to get technical and occupational education and started to achieve higher posts. Their income increased with modern occupations with which their economic status was improved.
7. Social life of lower castes also changed with this. Members of lower castes started to get education to improve their status. They got jobs in industries, offices, administration etc. They started to interact with people of upper castes which resulted in reduction of caste differences.
8. Their ways of living also changed with improvement of economic status, education, use of means of transport, jobs etc. They started to make concrete houses. Even they started to use means of leisure like furniture, chairs, table, TV, Fridge, Fans, Kitchen Gas, A.C. etc.