Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 4 Caste Inequalities Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 Caste Inequalities
Sociology Guide for Class 12 PSEB Caste Inequalities Textbook Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. Which is not the features of caste:
(a) Achieved status
(b) IJereditary occupation
(c) Profane sacred distinction
(a) Achieved status
2. Traditional theory of caste is based upon the idea.of:
(a) G.S. Ghurye
(b) D.N. Majumdar
(c) Louis Dumont
(d) J.H. Hutton
(b) D.N. Majumdar
3. Which caste is not considered as twice born:
4. According to Bottomore which one is not the feature of social stratification:
5. The Samskar that makes person twice born:
(b) Janam Samskar
(c) Upnayan Samskar
(c) Upnayan Samskar
6. The term ‘Antyaj’ refers to:
(a) Touchable Shudras
(b) Untouchable Shudras
(c) Landless agriculturist
(b) Untouchable Shudras
7. Which section of the society is linked with protective discrimination policy:
(a) Upper castes
(b) Middle Castes
(c) Scheduled castes
(d) Dominant castes
(c) Scheduled castes
Fill in the Blanks:
1. ……………… refers to deeper understanding of own caste identity.
2. Caste is an ……………. status.
3. In caste system there are ……………….. and ………………… types of marriage.
4. The term twice-born express ……………… birth.
5. Occupational theory is associated with the idea of ……………
1. In Varna system, individual could not have possibility of mobility.
2. The untouchable castes are also known as Antyaj.
3. Caste is a dominant social system of Indian society.
4. Caste is an endogamous group.
5. Civil and religious disabilities do not lead to untouchability.
Match the Columns:
|Column A||Column B|
|Vaishyas||Based upon a philosophical understanding of supernatural|
|Brahmins||Marrying outside the caste|
|Rakta Varna||Trade and business|
|Traditional Theory||Performance of religious rites, rituals.|
|Column A||Column B|
|Vaishyas||Trade and business|
|Brahmins||Performance of religious rites, rituals.|
|Exogamy||Marrying outside the caste|
|Rakta Varna||The Red|
|Traditional Theory||Based upon a philosophical understanding of supernatural|
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
A social division of labour based on achievement is called:
Who were associated with defence services?
The practice of marrying within one’s caste/group is known as:
Caste system is based upon which model of hierarchy?
Second birth of religio-cultural nature is based on which samskar?
What is Varna?
Varna is one of the groups of social hierarchy which means to select.
What is purity pollution principle?
In caste system, upper three castes were considered the pure one and the fourth caste was considered the polluted caste.
Identify that term from which caste has originated.
The term caste has originated from the Portugneese word ‘CASTA’.
Name that Varna which is considered outcaste.
Define varna model of hierarchy.
There were 4 varnas in varna model of hierarchy—Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra.
Short Answer Type Questions:
What is caste system?
According to Risley, “Caste is a collection of families or group of families bearing a common name, claiming a common descent from mythical ancestor, human or divine. Professing to follow the same hereditary calling and regarded by those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogeneous community.”
What is ascriptive status?
That status which one gets without any hard work and on the basis of his family, age, caste etc. is known as ascriptive status. In Caste system, upper three castes had higher status and lower caste was given the lower status.
Mention those occupations which are traditionally associated with varna.
Duties of Varna Brahmin.
- Brahmin Varna. Teaching and to complete religions customs.
- Kshatriya Varna. Fighting and to rule the state
- Vaishya Varna. Trade and agriculture
- Shudra Varna. To serve the upper three varnas.
What is caste mobility?
The meaning of caste mobility is to adopt other caste by abandoning parent caste. Traditionally it was not possible but in modern times, due to the processes of sanskritisation and westernization, lower caste people are adopting upper class people’s ways of living to help in caste mobility.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Describe the characteristics of caste mentioned by G.S. Ghurye.
- Segmental Division of Society
- Hierarchical division
- Restrictions on feeding and social intercourse.
- Civil and religious disabilities and privileges.
- Lack of unrestricted choice of occupation.
- Restriction on marriage.
What is traditional theory of caste origin?
Write the traditional theory of caste origin.
This theory is based on the writings of origin of caste in religious scriptures. According to the Purushsukta Shloka of Rigveda, Brahmins were born from the mouth of Brahma, Kshatriyas from arms, Vaishyas from legs and fourth varna was born from the feet of Brahma. The same thing also has been written in Vrihadayathak Upnishda. The same thing is written in Vrihadayathak Upnishda, Shantiparva of Mahabhartha and Manusmriti. In this way the origin of Varnas is considered as from Brahma. Critics of this view say in its opposition that Varna and caste are twb different concepts. Varna is based on Karma or function but the base of caste is birth. Actually Varna is the main base of caste which has taken the form of caste in its evolution. Question 3. What is Occupational theory of caste origin?
Explain the occupational theory of origin of caste.
Nesfield has given the occupational theory of caste system. According to him, occupation and only occupation is responsible for the origin of caste system. All the occupations are not the same. Persons with higher occupation got higher status in society and persons, who adopted lower occupations were considered as of lower castes.
Identify those factors which have led to dynamics of caste.
- Socio-religious movements brought great changes in caste system.
- Due to the efforts of Indian government and with the making of many laws, caste system is changing.
- The British started many processes in India which completely changed the caste system.
- With the spread of industries, people started working with each other which loosened the bonds of caste system.
- Caste system also weakened with development in the means of transport and communication.
Very Long Answer Type Questions:
What do you understand by caste? Explain the differences between Caste and Varna?
What do you mean by caste?
Describe caste as form of social stratification.
Explain caste as form of social stratification.
What do you understand by caste? Explain the difference between caste and varna.
Explain caste as a form of social stratification.
Caste System is one of the most important social institutions which is coming on from ancient times. It was one of the important bases of social stratification on the basis of which status and role of a person was determined in society. It has been believed that caste system was originated from Varna System. Person was free to adopt any one of the occupations in Varna system because he used to adopt that occupation which he had been able to do in a proper way. But later on rigidity of occupation came into being among humans and this rigidity was related to caste system.
Occupation of the person was related to his birth. Person had to adopt the occupation of that family in which he had taken birth. In this way Varna system was completely changed into caste system. Slowly and slowly caste system started to keep control over society in such a way that the life of the person was determined, right after his birth, that how he was to live his life. It has not only affected the social progress of our society but it also came into being as a social evil of the society. But if any one wants to get knowledge of Indian society then certainly he needs to take help of caste system.
Meaning of Caste System. The word ‘caste’ originated from the Portuguese word ‘Casta’ whose meaning is Race. It is also closely related with the Latin word ‘Castus’ which means Pure race. Actually, caste system is based upon birth. The caste in which the person takes birth, he needs to live with that caste only for the whole life. With the birth of the child, his ways of living life are determined. It keeps some restrictions on its members which are necessarily to be obeyed by the person.
This caste system was one of the main bases of Indian social system and all the aspects of Hindu social life were affected by this system. Its effect was so powerful that it affected every group and community living in India. Word caste has been taken from the Sanskrit word ‘Jana’ whose meaning is birth. Yet this system prevailed in other societies also but its developed form was available in India.
Definitions of Caste System:
To know the better meaning of Caste it is necessary for us to look at the definitions of Caste System given by different sociologists and psychologists.
- According to Risley, “Caste is a collection of families or group of families bearing a common name, claiming a common descent from mythical ancestor, human or divine. Professing to follow the same hereditary calling and regarded by those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogeneous community.”
- According to Robert Bierstdt, “When a class system is a closed group on one or more than one issue then it is known as caste system.”
- According to Blunt, “A caste is an endogamous group or collection of endogamous groups, bearing a common name, membership of which is hereditary, imposing on its members certain restrictions in the matter of social intercourse, either following a common traditional occupation or claiming a common origin and generally regarded as forming a single homogeneous community.”
- According to Ketkar, “Caste is a social group having two characteristics:
- Membership is confined to those who are born as members and includes all persons so bom.
- The members are forbidden by a social law to marry outside the group.”
- According to Martindale and Mona Chesi, “A caste is aggregate of persons whose share of obligations and privileges is fixed by birth, sanctioned and supported by magic and religion.
Difference Between Varna and Caste:
Generally Varna and Caste are considered as the same and their meaning is also taken as same. A layman consideres both of them as same. But if we look at them carefully then both of these are different concepts and a number of differences are their in them. These differences are given below:
|1. Functions in Varna system are given enough importance and person can change his Varna with his Karma or function.||1. Birth in Caste system has been given more importance. Person i8 not allowed to change his caste in which he is born.|
|2. There were only four Varnas in society in Varna system and society was divided only in four Varnas.||2. Society, in Caste system was not divided only in four castes but was divided in a number of castes and sub castes.|
|3. Varna system was not strict in sense but was a flexible system.||3. Caste system was not flexible but was a very rigid system.|
|4. No restrictions were there on person in Varna system. He was free to establish relations with any Varna.||4. There were strict restrictions on person in Caste system. Person was free to establish relations only with the persons of his caste but not with persons of other castes.|
|5. Varna system was based on equality and all the Varnas were given equal importance.||5. Caste system was not based upon equality but was based upon the stratification of higher-lower castes.|
|6. There was no restriction on person in Varna system. He was free to marry in any of the four Varnas.||6. There were strict restrictions in keeping marital relations in Caste system and person was free to marry only in his own caste.|
Traditional and Occuptional theories of caste origin do not explain the total facts of its origin. How?
Actually there are many other theories about the origin of caste system except traditional and occupational theories. That’s why these both theories of caste origin do not explain the total picture of caste origin. The complete explanation of all these theories is given below:
- Traditional Theory
- Racial Theory
- Geographical Theory
- Occupational Theory
- Evolutionary Theory
- Religious Theory
- Mana Theory
The description of these theories is given below:
1. Traditional Theory. Traditional theory related to the origin of caste system is written in Hindu religious books. The most ancient explanation in Vedic literature about caste system is based upon one Mantra of‘Purush Sakta’ of ‘Rigveda’. According to this Mantra all the four Varna’s were originated from the different parts of the body of Brahma. Brahmins were originated from the mouth of Brahma, Kshatriyas ^.from arms, Vaishya’s from legs and lower castes were originated from the feet of Brahma. In Manu Smriti, Manu has also given the functions of all four Varnas. Brahmin will give education because he came from mouth, Kshatriya will use weapons and will protect the people because he came from arms. Vaishya will do the work of business, agriculture and rearing animals. In the end lower caste people will serve the higher three Varnas because they came from the feet of Brahma.
In ‘Mahabhartha’ it is also written that how different castes and sub castes were originated. In Vedic age there was no existence of Pratiloma marriage, only Anuloma marriages were there. Because Pratiloma marriage was not sanctioned by society that is why the children produced by this marriage were not given any Varna and they were differentiated from Hindu society. Later on they became lower castes and sub-castes.
But this traditional theory has been criticised because the explanation of Varna System is there in this theory but there is no name of caste system in it and caste and Varna both are different from each other. Critics also disagree upon the fact that all the castes and sub castes were originated due to Anuloma and Pratiloma type of marriage. While criticisng Manu, many scholars say that the division of castes was not originated due to Varna system. If it could have happened then the number of sub-castes would have been lesser than that of main castes but it is actually opposite to it.
2. Racial Theory. Many scholars have given the racial theory about the origin of caste system. According to Risley, Maclever, Weber, Crober etc. racial element is very important in the origin of caste system. Ghurye, Dutt and Majumdar also gave support to it. According to Risley three factors are responsible for the origin of caste system—(i) Racial exchange (ii) Interrelation due to exchange and (Hi) Sense of class difference.
Caste system in India was started after the arrival of Indo-Aryan people. The society of this race was’divided in 4 parts and they also applied this concept on India after their arrival to India First of all Aryans had defeated the original inhabitants of India and then they had established one sided marital relations with them because females in Aryans were less in number. From here the custom of Anuloma marriage was started. Pratiloma marriage was not given sanction because Aryans refused to marry their daughters with Indian people. When the’ needs of Aryans were fulfilled then they stopped the custom of Anuloma marriage. Racial mixture was increased due to Anuloma marriage and different castes ceyne into being.
According to Ghurye, Aryan people had given themselves higher status than original inhabitants of India. They started the policy of living away from original inhabitants to maintain racial purity. They kept themselves, in higher three varnas and had given the status of slave or shudra to the original people of India. With the passage of time society was divided in the groups of higher or lower status. That is why, according to Ghurye, caste system is the contribution of Brahmins and Aryan Culture.
Majumdar was of the view that cultural conflict and racial exchange has originated the groups of higher and lower status in India. Many reasons were there of racial mixture like less number of females in India, developed Dravidian culture, their matrilineal system, worship of gods and goddesses, wish to live life at one place, different customs etc. After the conquest of Aryan people over Dravidian people mutual exchange and cultural conflict was started among them. That is why many social groups came into being who became endogamous. From here the status of every group or caste was determined according to the racial purity and on the basis of living away from other groups.
Racial theory has been criticised because it has explained about the restrictions of marital relations but has not explained about the rules of feeding. Muslims and Christians are unable to take the form of a caste, even they have cultural differences. In this way caste system came into being because of many reasons, not because one reason.
3. Geographical Theory. Gilbart gave the geographical theory about the origin of caste system. According to him caste system came into being due to living of different groups in different parts of the country. This view is also given in Tamil Literature. This view can be explained on the basis of many examples. For example Brahmins living near to the bank of Sarswati river were known as ‘Sarswat Brahmins’ and people living in Kannouj were known as Kannoujias. In this way names of many other castes were kept on the basis of their living place. But this theory has been criticised by most of the scholars because many castes exist in one geographical area and the names of all these castes are not related with that geographical area.
4. Occupational Theory. Nesfield and Dahlman gave the occupational theory about the origin of caste system. According to Nesfield, different castes were originated on the basis of different occupations and he completely disagrees with racial factors. Racial mixture was at its advanced level even before the origin of caste system. According to him caste system has not been originated due to religion because religion cannot give that fundamentalist base which is necessary for caste system. In this way, according to Nesfield, only occupation is responsible for the origin of caste system.
According to Dahlman earlier Indian Society was divided in three parts-priests, King or ruler and Botirgouisee. Occupations of all the three classes were related with religious, political and economic activities. Then with the passage of time these groups were divided into small-small groups on the basis of occupation and relations. Earlier they had taken the form of business enterprises and then were changed into business federals. Later on these federals were developed into castes.
This theory has also been criticised. It is not correct to tell the direct relation between religion and caste. This theory is away from racial theory because there is some racial difference between higher and lower groups. With this if caste system was originated from business enterprises then why it originated only in India and not in any other country. This theory is unable to give answers of these questions.
5. Evolutionary Theory. This theory was given by Denzil Ibbetson. According to him, caste system was not originated on the basis of four varnas but was originated by the organizations which were formed on economic basis. According to him, earlier people lived like wanderers and there was no existence of caste system. Blood relations were there among people and there was no feeling of higher or lower among them. But slowly and slowly and by living with each other economic development was started and people started to do agricultural work. With the passage of time economic life became complex and a need was felt of divison of labour.
It became the duty of the king to make such a policy which could be based on division of labour and occupational differences. With this many new classes came into being. Community feeling was developed due to living with each other. With time these groups had made their unions to secure their interests. Every union had adopted the policy of endogamy to save its occupational secrets. In this way due to endogamy caste system came into being. Slowly and slowly these groups had made their place in social hierarchy.
This theory has also been criticised because unions on the basis of occupations are available in all the societies. Then why the caste system developed in India. Economic factor can be taken as one of the factors of origin but cannot be taken as the alone factor.
6. The Religious Theory. This theory was given by Hokart and Senart. According to Hokart, caste system’s origin and division of Indian society was happened due to religious customs and theories. In ancient Indian society religion was very important and any animal was also sacrificed to gods. In the custom of sacrifice, reading of mantras and worship was also involved in which many persons were required. Slowly and slowly people, who were doing religious work, were organized and it took the form of caste system. According to Hokart, occupation of every caste goes on from generation to generation. The main base of occupation is not economic but was religious.
According to Senart, restrictions related to feeding came due to religious factors and people were divided into castes and sub-castes. But some sociologists are of the view that caste system is a not a religious institution but is a social institution. That is why this theory is not correct. Caste system is very complex and this theory related to its origin is very simple which is not correct.
7. Mana Theory. Hutton was of the view that the elements of caste system were there in India even before the arrival of the Aryans in India. When Aryans came to India then they strengthened these elements to secure their interests. Social divison in India was not very much clear before them but the Aryans had differentiated it and kept themselves at the top of the system. According to Hutton, this was at an early stage. It had accepted the restrictions of Caste System and clarified it with the help of Taboo. In ancient times, Mana was considered as invisible divine force which exists in every person and can move from one person to another just by touching each other. Tribal people believe that difference among humans is because of Mana power. People stay away from foreigners because they are afraid of Mana. Even they never touch those people in their tribe, which are considered as evils. In this way tribe keeps some restrictions on its members on some things which are known as Taboo.
According to Hutton, even Hindu, Muslim, Parsis and Buddhist people also believe in Mana and Taboo. Discrimination related to Mana and Taboo were there even before the Aryans came to India. That is why restrictions among different groups related to marriage, feeding, occupation etc. were there: When caste system was started then it kept many restrictions over its members.
This theory has also been criticised by scholars. They say that yet Mana and Taboo also exist in tribes of other countries of the world but we cannot find caste system anywhere else. With this the culture of tribes never represents the whole Indian culture. Hutton has also not given any proof on the basis of which one can accept that Mana and Taboo were there in pre-Aryans period.
Identify those changes which raise the possibility of India as casteless society.
1. End to the Discrimination and Untouchability. In 1955, Indian government passed a law ‘Untouchability Offence Act’ and tried to eradicate untouchability. Now if any one says ‘Untouchable’ to any person of lower caste then he will be considered as criminal. Government adopted the policy of reservation in government institutions to uplift the lower castes. On the basis of this policy, special provision is kept to give jobs to lower caste people. In modern times person of every caste is doing every type of work. Government gave scholarships to the people of backward classes so that they should be able to get any status in society with some hard work. In this way the discrimination of untouchability has been reduced to a great extent.
2. Change in Caste Hierarchy. The hierarchy which was determind by the caste system in Indian society, has been changed completely. Lower castes have been uplifted in society by a number of processes like urbanization, industrialization, sanskritization etc. In modern times, no caste considers inferior itself than the other castes. Even people of higher castes are ready to marry in the lower castes. Some want to obtain the facilities given to lower castes by the government and some want to marry in them after looking at their richness. In this way social mobility came into being in Indian society and now we cannot find the hierarchy of castes anywhere.
3. Changes in Restrictions of Food and Drink. In ancient times, feeding of the caste was determined by the caste. Food was divided into two parts and feeding relations of a caste were pre-determined. But in modern times it was very difficult to adopt these restrictions. When people of different c&stes came in contact with each other in cities then these restrictions slowly and slowly came to an end. Cooks in hotels belong to different castes and people eat jp hotels by sitting with each other and without asking each other’s caste. In cities people work with each other and that is why they started to eat with each other. In this way a number of changes came in the feeding restrictions of a caste. ,
4. Decline in the Status of Brahmins. Changes in caste system were started even under the rule of Britishers on Indian society. First of all British government started to behave equally with all .the people of different castes. According to them all of them are IndiAnswer: They started to give western education to Indian people instead of religious education. Every one was free to get education in these educational institutions. In this way there was no question of superiority of brahmins because humans started to attain social status according to their ability and not on the basis of their caste.
Lower castes have taken their status upwards by doing progress in economic sector. After Independence, Indian government tried to remove the superiority of upper castes by making some laws. Now every one can get higher status in society by getting higher education. In this way the importance of the birth of the person has come to an end. Importance of money has reduced the superiority of upper castes. Now one rich person gets more respect and prestige in society.
5. Freedom in Selection of Occupation. In ancient Indian society, occupation of person was determined right after his birth and it was according to his caste. Person had to adopt the occupation of his caste, even against his wish. He was not allowed to adopt any other occupation except his pre-determined occupation. But because of many reasons, society started to give importance to personal ability. Now humans are free to adopt occupation of their choice. It means that person can select the occupation according to his ability. Even the concept of profit has been tied with this. No occupation is higher or lower in their eyes. Now they adopt that occupation in which they see more profit. In this way the freedom, which person has got in selection of occupation, has brought changes in caste system.
6. Change in Status of Woman. Status of woman was not good under the influence of caste system. She used to spend her life only by living in the four walls of the house. She was neither free to get education nor she was free to speak on any subject. In this way she had to spend her life in a suppressed way. But in modern times, she has got freedom in all sectors of life and she is now no more under the control of males. Now she is economically self-dependent. Status of females has been completely changed. Now people feel happy in case of birth of a baby child. Now there is no difference in boy or girl child. Even government has given reservation to females for their upliftment. Now every female is free to marry anywhere she wants. Even her parents are not interfering in her decisions.
7. Change in the Marriage System. During the ancient times, caste system has made many tough rules related to marriage. No one was free to marry out of his sub-caste. But in modern times people have started to work with each other with which they come closer to each other. Inter caste marriage got sanctions of society. Now person can marry anywhere with his wish.
Second change which came in the sector of marriage is that earlier child marriage was very popular. Widow had to live as a widow for the whole life and she was not allowed to remarry. But government has banned child marriage and has set the age for mariage i.e. 18 years for girl and 21 years for boy. Widow -remarriage was also given sanction by society and governments.
Mention those examples which reveal that caste is still a dominant system of Indian society.
Caste system is an integral part of Indian society from ancient times. Even in today’s modern age, caste system exists in Indian rural society. But when we are talking about the interface of caste then two things generally come in front of us.
- Caste system is changing
- Caste is restrengthening
Now we will see them one by one.
1. Is caste system being replaced by class system? Many scholars are of the view that after looking at the changes coming in caste system we can say that caste is changing in class. According to them, because of modernization, urbanization, westernization, industrialization etc. many changes have taken place in the structure of the caste. Importance of birth has been decreased and the feature of caste related to occupation has been changed. Now one caste has been changed into many classes and persons of different castes are taking form of one class. Caste is adopting the features of class. For example many trade unions have been made in factories which protect the interests of labourers.
Members of these trade unions belong to different castes. They come together because their occupation is same, class consciousness comes in them and they fight collectively to meet their demands. People from lower castes collectively are making their organization. At one time caste system was a closed group but now it is opening up like class. This situation comes in industries as well as in agricultural sector. Because of industrialization household rural industries and traditional occupations have been destroyed because of which people are doing agriculture. Farmers who don’t have land are doing labour. Indian government has passed a number of laws. They have been given a number of economic, political and social rights.
Reservation is given to the people of lower castes in every section. They have been given political rights and all the castes are collectively forming a class. Many changes are coming in castes. That’s why caste is getting features of class. In this way on the basis of given description we can say that caste is getting features of class and is taking the form of class. In this way caste is changing.
2. Caste is restrengthening. Yet many scholars are of the view that caste is changing into class and reasons are given above. But many scholars are also of the view that caste is not changing but is restrengthening. We cannot say that really the caste is changing. Base of caste is social and the base of class is economic. These scholars are of the view that because of number of changes are there in their nature and form, that is why they are strengthening. They are giving following reasons for that:
- Members of one caste are using modern means of communication, press to spread their message to the other members of caste.
- Educational institutions based upon caste have been opened up which are
propagating in the favour of their own caste and which give support to their candidates in elections.
- During elections, selection of the candidate is being done on the basis of population of any particular caste. Candidate is generally selected from the most populated caste that city.
- Different castes are joining hands with each other, while keeping in mind their interests, so that their interests could be secured.
- Many political parties based on caste came into existence.
- Even today people are choosing boy or girl of their own caste to marry. Number of intercaste marriages are very less.
- Government has given reservation to different castes in jobs and in educational institutions. That is why hatredness between different castes is increasing and caste consciousness is increasing day by day.
- Caste consciousness is increasing because of facilities given to different castes about jobs and education. After looking at this we can say that yet many changes are coming in caste and it is changing in caste but still it exists quite firmly in rural society. Our democratic system has also given strength to it due to reservations.