Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Political Science Book Solutions Chapter 17 India and Her Neighbours-Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Bangladesh and Pakistan Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 17 India and Her Neighbours-Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Bangladesh and Pakistan
Long Answer Type Questions
Make a survey of Indo-Pak relations.
Explain the relationship between India and Pakistan.
India attained freedom on 15th Aug., 1947 but it was partitioned at the same time and so Pakistan came into existence. Pakistan was the result of a policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ of British rulers. Pakistan is India’s neighbouring country and that is why Indo-Pak relations are significant.
Relations between India and Pakistan remained tense because of persistent clashes on the issues of Displaced Property, constitutional place of Indian States, determination of boundary line and disputes over Junagarh, Hyderabad, Kashmir. All the other disputes except Kashmir problem have been solved. Two wars took place between both the countries on Kashmir issue first in 1948, and then in 1965. In 1971, India and Pakistan fought another war on Bangladesh issue.
America supported Pakistan whereas Russia favoured India and used Veto. Mrs. Gandhi announced the origin of the Republic of Bangladesh in Parliament on 6th December. General Niazi signed the documents of surrender on 16th December, 1971 and one lakh Pak-soldiers surrendered. Mrs. Gandhi announced unilateral Ceasefire on 17th December at 8 a.m. and requested Yahya Khan to accept the appeal for ceasefire. India’s victory in war heightened its prestige and badly discouraged Pakistan.
Mrs. Gandhi, without exploiting the defeat of Pakistan, held a summit conference at Shimla in June, 1972 to discuss the problems of both the countries. Pak President Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi participated in this conference. The agreement was reached between Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Mr. Z.A. Bhutto on 3rd July and it is known as Shimla Agreement.
The Principles of bilateral talks were encouraged after Shimla Agreement.
After the formation of Janata Government in March, 1977, Indo-Pak relations all the more improved.
India’s External Affairs Minister visited Pakistan on 6th Feb., 1978. Shri Vajpayee, then External Affairs Minister coming back from Pakistan said, “It was foggy when we took off but there was sunshine when we landed in Islamabad.”
No War Pact:
On 15th Sept., 1981 Pakistan offered a No War Pact between the two countries. India suggested seven points for a No War Pact between the two countries. Mrs. Gandhi categorically assured Pakistan that India would never attack it, irrespective of whether the two countries signed a non-aggression pact or not.
Joint Commission. On March 10, 1983 foreign ministers of both the countries signed an agreement to set up a Joint Commission. The first meeting of the Joint Commission took place at Islamabad on June 1, 1983. The Joint Commission agreed to reduce the postal rates, provide easier travel facilities to passengers both ways and promote trade, commercial and cultural contacts.
Pact on Drug Trafficking:
On Sept. 10,1993 India and Pakistan signed a Charter of agreements to combat the ever-increasing trafficking in drugs across the border.
Pakistan’s Support to Terrorists:
For almost a decade Pakistan has been fighting a proxy war on India’s blood-shattered border states. Pakistan is giving all sorts of help to Punjab militants and Kashmir terrorists. On February 22, 1994 the Indian Parliament unanimously condemned Pakistan’s abetment of and encouragement to terrorist activities in Kashmir.
India conducted three underground nuclear tests on May 11, 1998 and two tests were conducted on May 13, 1998. On 28th May, 1998 Pakistan conducted five nuclear tests to equalise the five tests conducted by India.
Indo-Pak Pact on Bus Service:
On Feb. 17, 1999 India and Pakistan signed a formal agreement for launching the Delhi-Lahore bus service. On Feb. 20, 1999 heralding a new ‘Chapter’ in Indo-Pakistan relations the Prime Minister Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee, rode on the bus to Lahore.
After showing limitless patience, India gave a moderate answer on 26th May, 1999 to Pakistan sponsored aggression in the Kargil-Dras sector. Indian government made it very clear that they will continue the operation till ‘our defence forces reoccupy our territory.’ The External Affairs Minister of India, Mr. Jaswant Singh, made it clear to the External Affairs Minister of Pakistan that ‘Aggression has to be undone’. On June 20, 1999, G-8 leaders condemned violation of the line of control and called for an immediate end to fighting in the region and termed as ‘irresponsible’ any military action to change the status quo of the LOC. G-8 leaders asked Pakistan to end infiltration.
Summit between Prime Minister and President, 2001:
In July 2001, the summit between Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Pakistan’s President Pervez Musharraf crashed down because the two sides failed to reconcile their differences on the critical Kashmir issue and cross-border terrorism.
Terrorist Attack on Indian Parliament:
On December 13, 2001 terrorists attacked Indian Parliament and 12 persons were killed. Terrorist outfits based in Pakistan-Lashkar-e-Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad were responsible for the attack on Parliament.
India Recalls High Commissioner:
On 21st December 2001, India recalled its High Commissioner from Islamabad and terminated the Delhi-Lahore bus service as well as the Samjhauta Express train running between the two countries for the last 25 years. On December 27, 2001 India banned the use of Indian airspace by the Pakistani planes and gave an ultimatum for reduction of its High Commission staff by 50 per cent.
Ban on LeT, Jaish-e-Mohammad:
On January 12, 2002 Pakistan’s President Pervez Musharraf banned the Jaish-e-Mohammad and the Lashkar-e-Toiba but ruled out handing over their leaders to India.
Indian Prime Minister’s Visit to Islamabad:
In January, 2004 the Indian Prime Minister Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited Islamabad to attend 12th SAARC summit. Mr. Vajpayee met Pakistani President and Prime Minister during his visit. The conflict between the two countries has reduced during this SAARC summit and both the countries agreed to solve their conflicts with peaceful means and mutual talks.
Indo-Pak Relations in 2004:
After the Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s visit to Islamabad in 2004 both the countries have decided to improve their relations. The bus service, train services and air services have been resumed between India and Pakistan.
Pakistani Prime Minister’s Visit to New Delhi (Nov. 24, 2004):
Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz visited New Delhi in Nov. 2004. India and Pakistan stuck to their respective state position on Kashmir. But both the countries agreed to set up banks in each other’s country on reciprocal basis.
Bus to Muzaffarabad:
On 16th February, 2005 India and Pakistan agreed to start a bus service between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad from April 7, 2005. Travel will be by entry permit system for all nationals of both countries once identities are verified. Both countries agreed to start a bus service between Amritsar and Lahore and also to religious places such as Nankana Sahib. On April 7, 2005 bus service started between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad.
General Musharraf s Visit (2005):
In April 2005 General Musharraf visited India. The two leaders decided to revive the Indo-Pak Joint Commission. India and Pakistan decided to enlarge economic and commercial ties.
Pact on Ballistic Missiles:
On August 6, 2005 India and Pakistan reached an understanding on the proposed agreement on Pre-Notification of Flight Testing of Ballistic Missiles.
Release of Fishermen and Civilian Prisoners:
On September 12, 2005 India and Pakistan released fishermen and civilian prisoners.
India, Pak exchange relief material:
In November 2005 Indian and Pakistani officials from both sides of the LOC supervised the exchange of relief material for the quake affected population.
Recent relations between India and Pakistan:
Pakistani President General Musharraf declared emergency rule on November 3, 2007.
Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf was sworn in as a Civilian President on November 27, 2007.
Terrorists Attack on Mumbai:
Terrorists attacked Mumbai on November 26, 2007. Nine terrorists were killed and one terrorist Amir Kasab was arrested. These terrorists were supported by Pakistan. Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh stated clearly involvement of Pakistan official agencies in the Mumbai attacks and asked Pakistan to take actions against the perpetrators of the attack so that such strikes do not take place in the future. Pakistan rejected India’s demand for extradition of the perpetrators of the Mumbai terrorist attack, saying there was no extradition treaty between the two countries.
Indian External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee asked Pakistani government to take tangible action against the perpetrators of the Mumbai attack. “All that we want is action and not words from Pakistan. But so far there is no evidence of it.”
Foreign Secretary Shiv Shankar Menon said so far India has not seen any action at all’ from Pakistan.
If Pakistan allows its territory to be used for attacks on India on the unacceptable plea that those involved in the attacks are the so labelled non-state actors, it does not absolve it from the responsibility of allowing its territory to be used by the Jihadis.
In Feb, 2010, India and Pakistan resumed their Foreign Secretary Level Talks. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh met the Pakistani P.M. Gilani at Addu on Nov- 2011. Both the leaders described the relationship as moving in a positive direction. Like Pakistani P.M. Gilani, Indian P.M. also referred to “opening a new chapter in the history of the relationship between the two countries.” Both leaders had a hope that the second round of talks will be more productive.
In May 2014, Pakistani Prime Minister Sh. Nawaz Sharif visited India to attend oath ceremony of Sh. Narender Modi as Prime Minister of India. During this visit both leaders discussed bilateral issues. In Dec, 2015, Sh. Nareder Modi, Prime Minister of India, visited Pakistan. In Nov. 2018, India-Pakistan agreed to open the Kartarpur Sahib Corridor for the Sikh Community.
Terrorists, supported by Pakistan, attacked on military base areas of Uri. It resulted in the martyrdom of 21 Indian soldiers. India on 29 Sept. 2016, in reply to this attack, made surgical strike in P.O.K. and killed about 40 to 50 terrorists. Again on Feb. 14, 2019, Pak supported terrorists made a terrorist attack in Pulwama. It resulted in the deaths of 40 Central Reserve Police Force personnel. In response to this Pulwama attack, Balakot airstrike was conducted by India in the early morning hours of February 26, 2019. The Indian warplanes crossed the border and dropped bombs in the vicinity of the town of Balakot. Due to this air stike more than 250-300 Jaish-e-Mohammad terrorists were killed in Balakot.
We can conclude that given the political will and a spirit of give and take, most problems can be solved through bilateral negotiations. Pakistan should stop helping terrorists immediately and should realise that Kashmir is an integral part of India.
Describe reasons of hostile and suspicious relations between India and Pakistan.
Following are the major areas of conflict between India and Pakistan:
1. Kashmir Problem:
Kashmir is a major issue of dispute between India and Pakistan. Before Independence Jammu and Kashmir was one of the 565 princely states, ruled by Maharaja Hari Singh. On October 20, 1947 several thousand tribesmen armed with machine guns, mortars, etc., attacked the frontiers of the state. These tribesmen were aided by Pakistan. On 26 October, Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession and Indian troops dashed to Kashmir. Pakistan refused to recognise this accession and the war continued for 14 months. On
January 1, 1949 India lodged a complaint with U.N. Security Council and on January 5, 1949 ceasefire was announced by both the countries.
In September 1965, Pakistani forces attacked India. Indian forces gave them a crushing defeat. A U.N. Security Council resolution adopted on Sept. 20, 1965 called for a ceasefire. Pakistan again attacked India on 3rd Dec. 1971 and after the war, the Shimla Agreement was signed between the two countries. On 5-6 August, 2019, Article 370 was abrogated in Jammu and Kashmir and nowadays India’s stand is that P.O.K. will be the centre point of India-Pakistan dialogue.
2. Terrorists activities by Pakistan in India. Another important conflict is the terrorists activities, which Pakistani government encourages. It trains and helps the militants by arms training and money to carry out terrorist strikes in India. Its spy agency ISI is alleged to be involved in India’s north-east operating secretly through Bangladesh and Nepal. Terrorists activities on India’s sea-shore, Pathankot attack, 26/11 Bombay Taj attack, attack in Uri and Pulwama attack are the few examples of it.
3. Violation of Shimla Pact and Lahore Pact:
Pakistan, often violates the terms and conditions of Shimla Pact and Lahore Samjotha and thus increases the tension between two nations.
Explain in detail the relationship between India and Bangladesh.
Examine the phases of cordial and strained relations between India and Bangladesh.
Bangladesh, which was a part of Pakistan and was known as East Pakistan, emerged as an independent state in 1971. East Bengal was not given fair treatment by the rulers of Pakistan and it was made virtually a colony. In an election held early in 1971, Sheikh Mujib’s Awami League got majority in Pakistani Parliament. But Sheikh Mujib was not called to form a government and he was arrested. East Bengal declared independence and the liberation war started. India helped Awami League in the war. War took place between India and Pakistan in Dec. 1971 and Pakistan was defeated in the war. India was the first country to grant recognition to the People’s Republic Bangladesh.
India got Sheikh Mujib Rehman, the first President of Bangladesh, released from detention in Pakistan. India signed a treaty with Bangladesh for friendship, peace and co-operation for twenty five years in 1972. A trade agreement was reached in March 1972 for the economic reconstruction of Bangladesh. There was mutual agreement on Farakka barrage and sharing of Ganga waters. But the assassination of Sheikh Mujib followed by military dictatorship in Bangladesh created tension between India and Bangladesh.
Dispute started between them over Ganga waters. This dispute was settled by an agreement in Oct. 1977. Chief Martial Law Administrator H.M. Ershad visited India on October 6, 1982. India and Bangladesh decided to terminate the 1977 Farakka agreement to undertake feasibility studies. Both agreed on an interim arrangement on the question of Sharing the Ganga water and augmenting its flow. The Summit decided to set up an Indo- Bangladesh joint Economic Commission.
The summit talks between Mrs. Gandhi and General Ershad covered a wide area of understanding and mutual accommodation which augured well for future relations between India and Bangladesh. The joint communique issued at the end of General Ershad’s visit to Delhi conveyed much more than an interim accord on Farakka and a settlement of the Tin Bigha lease issue.
Tin Bigha Corridor:
A major irritant in Indo-Bangladesh relations was removed when the Tin Bigha Corridor was opened on June 26, 1992 amidst heavy security by central paramilitary forces and the state Armed Police. According to the modalities of the agreement formalised by the governments of the two countries on March 26, 1992 the movement of Bangladesh nationals along the corridor would be regulated to avoid intermingling with Indian nationals.
The repatriation of Chakma refugees, which was to have begun on June 8, 1993 on the basis of an understanding reached between India and Bangladesh during Bangladesh Communication Minister’s visit to New Delhi and Tripura, remained a non-starter. The repatriation of Chakma refugees started on 15th Feb., 1994. The 12 years old Chakma problem came to an end on Feb. 27, 1998 with all remaining refugees being repatriated to their ancestral homeland in Bangladesh.
Ganga Water Pact:
On Dec. 11,1996 Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wajed visited India. On Dec. 12, India and Bangladesh signed the Ganga Water sharing treaty leaving behind a long period of mutual distrust and suspicion. Prime Ministers of both the countries almost in the same words said that the treaty was tribute to the special quality of Indo-Bangladesh relations. India and Bangladesh formally started sharing Ganga waters on Jan. 1st, 1997.
The first ever trilateral business summit, which brought together the Prime Ministers of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh in Dhaka on 15th Jan., 1998, pledged their commitment to consolidate and strengthen the ongoing efforts for achieving sustainable development. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh reaffirmed their goal of achieving a free trade area in South Asia by the year 2001 and reiterated their commitment to liberalisation of commerce within the region.
Visit of Bangladeshi Prime Minister to India:
Bangladeshi Prime Minister, Mrs. Sheikh Hasina visited India on 16th June, 1998. India and Bangladesh stressed that bilateral problems should be resolved within a bilateral framework. Bangladesh reiterated its commitment that its territory would not be allowed to be used for anti- Indian activities.
India and Bangladesh entered a new era of bilateral relationship with the launch of bus service linking Kolkata with Dhaka on June 19,1999. India also agreed to provide Bangladesh a credit of? 200 crore. India and Bangladesh agreed to start a new bus link between Agartala and Dhaka on April 9, 2000.
India and Bangladesh signed an agreement to run goods train which revived an old route through the Benapole- Petrapde border points on July 4, 2000.
Indian troops die in Border Clashes:
In April 2001, suddenly the border with Bangladesh had exploded into shooting, killing and high voltage tension. India lodged a strong protest with Bangladesh. India asked the Bangladeshi government to act against the perpetrators of crimes against the Border Security Force personnel saying that acts of criminal adventurism should not be permitted to affect ties between the two countries.
Joint Boundary Working Groups Meeting
In July 2001, a three day meeting between India and Bangladesh ended on a positive note as both sides reiterated their commitment towards expeditious resolution of all pending matters.
Visit of Indian External Affairs Minister:
In August 2002, long standing bilateral issues were discussed at the official talks between visiting Indian External Affairs Minister and Foreign Minister of Bangladesh. But they failed to make any breakthrough in settling any of the bilateral irritants.
On August 6, 2005 India and Bangladesh decided to intensify border patrolling and work out ways to enhance trade and economic co-operation.
India’s Relations with Bangladesh:
Foreign Minister Pranab Mukherjee’s Visit to Bangladesh (2008):
Indian external affairs minister Pranab Mukherjee visited Bangladesh in Feb. 2008. He visited areas affected by Cyclon Sidr and India provided $ 1 million aid to Bangladesh. Mr. Mukherjee assured he would look into Bangladesh’s concern about the bilateral trade imbalance, river management and non-tariff barriers. He also announced ‘unconditional duty’ free access for two million ready-made garments from Bangladesh to India.
Maitree Express and Refurbishing India-Bangladesh Relations:
A new chapter was opened in Indo-Bangladesh relationship on April 14, 2008 when the Maitree Express rolled out of the Kolkata station on its inaugral journey to Dhaka. Railway Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav said, “This historic day will be written in golden letters in the histories of India and Bangladesh.”
In Jan. 2010 Bangladesi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina visited India. Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina favours strong ties with India and vowed not to allow Bangladesh’s territory to be used for terrorism against its neighbours. Her proposal of forming a South Asian task force to fight terrorism in the region merits to be taken up earnestly by all countries because today the scourge threatens almost every country—including those which promoted it in the past. India and Bangladesh on August 20, 2011 signed joint border maps, finalising the 4156 km. long frontier between the neighbours. The long standing border related discord between the two bodies was settled through the signing of the map.
In Sept. 2011, Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh paid a two day visit to Bangladesh. During this visit India lifted tariffs oh 46 textile items from its sensitive list.
In Oct. 2016, Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina visited India to attend ‘BIMSTEC’ Summit. During this, both countries discussed bilateral issues.
In April 2017, Bangladesh Prime Minister visited India. During this visit, both countries signed 22 agreements.
In May 2018, Bangladesi Prime Minister visited India. During this visit, both countries discussed bilateral issues including Rohingya issue.
In Oct. 2019, Bangladeshi Prime Minister visited India. During this, visit both countries signed 7 important Agreements.
No doubt both Bangladesh and India have their grievances against each other, but these can be redressed in an amicable atmosphere. Both countries will gain immensely by promoting a relationship of goodwill and trust. Given goodwill and understanding between New Delhi and Dhaka, most bilateral problems can be solved without any difficulty.
Explain in detail the Indo-China relations.
Write a critical note on the changing relationship between India and China.
India and China had cordial relations earlier, but China attacked India in 1962 and became hostile to India. China still occupies some territory of India. India is inclined to improve relations with China but Chinese attitude is still inimical.
Indo-China Relations During Nehru Era (1949 to May 1964):
Policy of friendship towards China:
India, since the beginning, adopted the policy of friendship towards Communist China. India first recognised China, and then supported its induction in U.N.O. In 1951, India opposed the resolution of declaring China, an invader in Korea, in U.N.O. India didn’t attend San Francisco conference at the time of Japanese Peace Treaty in 1950 as China was not invited.
India’s Policy of Contentment crossed limits when India gave its extra-territorial rights enjoyed in Tibet, to China by signing a trade-agreement on 29th April, 1954. Both the countries at the time of agreement expressed their faith in the Principles of Panchsheel. These Principles were elaborated in 1953 at Bandung Conference. The Chinese Prime Minister Chou-En-Lai visited India in 1954 and Pt. Nehru also went to China. China attacked India on 20th Oct., 1962 and ‘avenged’ India’s friendly attitude. It badly affected Pt. Nehru’s policies.
Chinese invasion over India:
China attacked both the Western and Eastern sectors of the Indian Border on 20th Oct., 1962. The Chinese soldiers overpowered the military posts till Indian forces balanced themselves after this sudden attack. Britain and America immediately sent military equipment on India’s request. China declared unilateral ceasefire on 21st Nov. By waging a war, China was able to capture thousands of miles of Indian area which is still in its possession.
Colombo Resolution and attitude of China:
Ceylon, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Egypt organised Colombo conference in December, 1962 to facilitate Indo¬China talks. Mrs. Bhandarnaike brought this resolution to Delhi and Peking. This resolution was passed on 19th January 1963.
Sino-Indian relations during Shastri Period:
(May 1964 to January 1966). After the death of Pt. Nehru, Shri Lai Bahadur Shastri remained the Prime Minister of India till 10th January, 1966. Sino-Indian relations didn’t improve during this period. China adopted hostile attitude during Indo-Pak war in 1965. China fully supported Pakistan and declared India an invader.
Problems of Bangladesh and Chinese attitude towards Indo-Pak war:
The year 1971 was replete with problems for India. China disliked India’s co-operation in Bangladesh movement and it fully supported the dictators of Pakistan. China favoured Pakistan in the meetings of Security Council during Indo-Pak war and held India responsible for invasion. China again threatened India but these threats proved hollow.
Indo-China relations remained tense till April, 1976
Indo-China relations from May 1976 to 1979:
With the deaths of Chou-En- Lai, Chu Teh and of Mao in 1976, Indo-China relations slightly improved. On 15 April, 1976 Shri K.R. Narayanan was sent to Peking as an ambassador to China. China, too, sent its ambassador to India.
The external affairs minister, Mr. A.B. Vajpayee reached Peking on February 12, 1979. India raised the border question at the first ever ministerial dialogue with China since 1960. India arid China agreed to maintain the existing tranquillity along their common borders. But Mr. Vajpayee cut short his China visit by a day due to Chinese attack on Vietnam. .On September, 5, 1979 New Delhi strongly protested to Peking against the violation of Bhutan’s borders.
Indo-China Relations from January, 1980 to 1991:
The Chinese Prime Minister Mr. Hua Kuofeng told Prime Minister Indira Gandhi at Belgrade (Yugoslavia) on May 9, 1980 that his country was more than ready to improve its relations with India.
The three rounds of talks with China-First in Beijing in December, 1981, second in Delhi in May, 1982 and third in January 1983-on the border dispute failed to make any progress. Two more rounds of talks took place between India and China between 1983 and 1985.
Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited China in 1988 and many misunderstandings were removed. A joint working group was formed.
The Joint working groups have held six rounds of talk:
The latest round of talks at the Joint working groups was held in Beijing in early November, 1992. India and China agreed to establish high level contacts in order to maintain peace and tranquillity along the line of actual control. Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao visited China in Sept. 1993 and signed four agreements that would respect the Line of Actual Control (LAC) along the border and renounce the use of force against each other.
Visit of the Chinese President to India:
On 28th Nov., 1996 Chinese President, Mr. Jiang Zemin visited India on a four day State visit. Mr. Jiang was the first Chinese head of the State who has visited India. Chinese President, Mr. Jiang Zemin said, “My visit will further promote friendship between the two countries.” On 29th Nov. ,1996 India and China signed a historic agreement pledging themselves not to attack each other or cross the Line of Control and reduce troops and armaments along the common border. The agreement contained a series of confidence building measures in the military field to ensure a peaceful border.
Post-Pokhran Sino-Indian Relation:
India conducted underground nuclear test, at Pokhran on May 11, 1998—after 24 years of its maiden nuclear test. On 14th June, 1999 Indian External Affairs Minister Mr. Jaswant Singh visited China. India and China decided to establish a security dialogue mechanism and decided to give new impetus to the decisions of the Joint Working Group. It was also decided to celebrate the 50th anniversary of establishment of Indo-China diplomatic relations in an appropriate manner.
Visit of the Indian President to China:
Indian President K.R. Naryanan visited China on May 28,2000 (May 28 to June 3). India and China favoured a ‘fair and reasonable boundary dispute’ and decided to set up an Eminent Persons Group (EPG) to enhance over-all bilateral ties. The President invited China to work with India to eliminate the threat of international terrorism. Chinese President Jiang Jemin also condemned international terrorism.
Chinese Leader Li Peng’s Visit to India (Jan. 2001):
Chinese Leader Li Peng said, “The purpose of my visit is to enhance trust, boost friendship and strengthen co-operation.”
Visit of the Chinese Prime Minister to India:
Chinese Premier Zhu Ronglji visited India in January 2002. The two countries discussed a number of confidence building measures.
Visit of the Indian Prime Minister to China:
In June, 2003, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited .China. During his visit India and China signed the Cross Border Trade Agreement.
China’s stand on Sikkim:
Sikkim has been an issue of conflict between India and China. But in May, 2004 China put a step towards friendship and mutual trust. Beijing for the first time officially stopped showing Sikkim as a separate country in Asia. China’s this step has raised Indo-China relations to a qualitatively new plane.
Improvement in Indo-China Relations:
During these years of Indo-China relations the level of mutual trust between the two countries has been raised. Chinese Vice-Foreign Minister Wang Yi has said during an interview that “China-India relations are developing very well. Especially we have improved our mutual trust, which is important for bilateral relations.”
Recent Relations Between India and China:
India and China Sign 13 Agreements. Chinese:
President Mr. Hu Jintao visited India in November 2006. India and China signed 13 agreements in New Delhi on November 21, 2006.
Joint Indo-China Military Exercise:
The first Indo-Chinese Joint Military exercise began on December 21, 2007 and came to a conclusion on December 25, 2007 in Kunming (China). The focus of the exercise was on the anti-terrorism drill.
Visit of Indian Prime Minister to China:
Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh visited China on January 13, 2008. Indian Prime Minister and Chinese Premier signed a joint statement titled ‘A Shared Vision for the 21st Century’ on 14th Jan. 2008. The shared vision contains some new issues such as bilateral co-operation in civil nuclear energy. Chinese support for India’s desire to play a greater role in the United Nation Security Council, etc. Moreover, both the countries signed 11 agreements for co-operation in rail, housing, geo-sciences, land resources management and other sectors.
China’s stand on Arunachal Pradesh:
Arunachal Pradesh is an integral part of India. But on November 11, 2008 Qin Gang, Foreign Ministry spokesman rejected India’s assertion that Arunachal Pradesh is its an integral part and insisted that China never recognised the illegal Mac Mohan line and that the status of the border state was never officially demarcated. But Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh rejected China’s claim and stated Arunachal is ‘our land of rising sun’.
Improvement in Indo-China Relations:
During these years of Indo-China relations the level of mutual trust between the two countries has been raised.
Visit of Vice-foreign Minister:
Chinese Vice-foreign minister He Yafei visited India in January 2009, India shared evidence with China about involvement of Pakistan-based elements in the Mumbai terror attacks and urged Beijing to use its influence with its alley Islamabad to co-operate on the issue.
Visit of Chinese Prime Minister of India:
Chinese Prime Minister Mr. Wen Jiabao visited India in Dec, 2010. During his visit both countries signed 6 pact. India and China agreed to raise the bilaternal trade to 100 billion dollar by 2015.
Leaving aside their bilateral problems like boundary issue, at present both have entered into an intensive phase of trade and economic co-operation. Since India has not changed its stand on Tibet, the March 2008 uprising in Tibet is not likely to influence their bilateral relationship.
P.M. Manmohan Singh’s visit to China:
On 23rd October, 2013 India and China took a leap towards reducing tension across the border and promised to strengthen cooperation on trans-border rivers, even as New Delhi delayed pact for a liberalised visa regime. The Border Defence Cooperation Agreement was among the nine pacts that the two countries signed at Beijing.
Chinese President’s visit to India:
In September 2014, Chinese President Xi Jinping visited India. During this visit, both countries signed 12 Agreements.
In Oct, 2016, Chinese President Xi Jinping visited India to attend ‘BRICS’ Summit. During this visit, both countires discussed bilateral issues.
In September 2017 and June 2018 Indian Prime Minister Sh. Narendra Modi visited China. During this visit, both countries discussed bilateral issues.
In Oct., 2019 Chinese President visited India. During this visit, both countries discussed on Trade, Regional Security and Terrorism.
The relations between the two countries should be based on complete equality and mutual respect in the spirit of the U.N. Charter. Both could learn from each other’s experience since the two countries were in need of rapid development.
Assess relationship between India and Nepal.
Discuss the main issues of conflicts and co-operation in the relationship between India and Nepal.
India and Nepal are not only neighbours but they have also had long cultural, political and religious links. In language and religion, gods and goddesses, food and clothing the two countries, India and Nepal, have more in common with each other than with any third country of the world. Both have been living as good and friendly neighbours.
Issues of Conflicts in Indo-Nepal Relations. The following factors can be described as the factors which negatively influenced to course of Indo-Nepal relations.
1. Nepal’s Fears:
Being a small state, Nepal feared India. Nepal feared that India could attempt an intervention in Nepal for securing its interests vis-a-vis China. Nepal lived with fear of the Indian interference in its internal affairs.
2. India’s Initial Lack of Interest in Nepal:
During the initial years of her independence, the Indian Foreign Policy did not give much importance to relations with Nepal.
3. The Thesis of ‘Special Relation with Nepal’:
Indian thesis of ‘special relation with Nepal’ gave the impression that India regarded Nepal as an area of India’s influence.
4. The China Factor in Indo-Nepal Relations:
In China, Nepal saw an opportunity of finding a counterpoise to India. India as such viewed with concern any attempt that was being made by Nepal for cultivating friendship and co-operation with China.
5. The Issue of Zone of Peace:
Since 1975, Nepal has been trying to get recognition as a zone of Peace. But India felt that Nepal did not really need such a status, Nepal, however, regarded this proposal as a vital necessity for securing its national interests and world peace.
6. Hijacking of Indian Airlines Plane:
The hijacking of Indian Airlines plane on the Kathmandu-Delhi route in December 2000 created tension and security concern.
7. ISI Activities:
Nepal has been used by the ISI in a big way for carrying out acts of sabotage in India.
8. Eight Thorny Issues:
According to Nepalese experts there are at least eight thorny issues—(i) India’s illegal construction of the Laxmanpur barrage in Bharauch district within 300 metres of the border ; (ii) the silent demographic aggression by Indians taking advantage of the open border ; (iii) Indian occupation of Kalapani ; (iv) Denial of market access to Nepalese businessmen ; (v) Four per cent special additional tax levied on Nepalese goods ; (vi) Lack of provisions in the Mahakali Project agreement to sell hydel power to other countries ; (vii) India’s unwillingness to get involved in the Bhutanese refugees problem and (viii) the murder of Nepalese citizens by ULFA militants in Assam.
9. 1950 Friendship Treaty:
Nepal believes that this treaty places it on an unequal footing with India. Nepal has desired a review of the treaty.
Areas of Co-operation between India and Nepal:
A large number of Nepalese youth received higher education in the Indian Universities. Under the Colombo Plan Agreement 1954, the Indian Govt, undertook to contribute towards the development of communications, irrigation and water supplies projects in Nepal. Indian Public Works Department has constructed several roads in Nepal. India has given a lot of economic aid to Nepal in its development.
The king of Nepal visited India many times and leaders of India went to Nepal. In 1977, the Prime Minister of India, Mr. Morarji Desai visited Nepal. The Prime Minister of Nepal, Mr. Surya Bahadur Thapa, visited Delhi in February, 1983. India and Nepal agreed to take up three major river projects of benefit to both countries by harnessing their common water resources. Both countries agreed to set up a Joint Commission at the ministerial level to promote economic co-operation. On March 2, 1983 India agreed to provide Nepal with an assistance of? 8.7 crores for the expansion of Bir Hospital.
Nepal’s first-elected government in 32 years was sworn on May 29, 1991. Mr. Girija Prasad Koirala became the Prime Minister of Nepal. In his first policy announcement Mr. Koirala said that his Nepali Congress Government would maintain very close and cordial relationship with India.
On 21st Oct. 1992 India and Nepal decided to expand bilateral co-operation. In April, 1995, India agreed to provide additional transit facilities for Nepalese goods at Kandha and Mumbai. Successful Indo-Nepal talks on water services were held.
In 1996 India and Nepal signed a treaty on exploiting the Mahakali river basin for electricity and irrigation.
On 5th June, 1997 the Prime Minister of India Mr. I.K. Gujral visited Kathmandu on three day official visit.
India accepted Nepal’s request for an additional transit route to Bangladesh via Phulbari (India).
Visit of Nepalese Prime Minister:
On 31st July, 2000 the Prime Minister of Nepal Mr. Girija Prasad Koirala came to India for a week long visit. Both the countries agreed on a wide-ranging package of confidence building measures to remove irritants and give a new dimension to bilateral ties.
On 1st February, 2005 King Gyanendra removed popular prime minister and also put all other political party leaders under house arrest and suspended fundamental freedoms. India decided not to intervene in Nepal internal affairs but advised King to restore democracy in Nepal.
Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic:
With the passage of the Constitution amendment bill by the Parliament, Nepal on December 28,2007 turned into a Federal Democratic Republic.
First President of Nepal:
The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal gets its first President on July 21, 2008 when the Constituent Assembly elected Nepali Congress Leader Dr. Ram Baran Yadav as President of Nepal.
Nepalese President Visits India:
Nepal President Ram Baran Yadav visited New Delhi on Feb. 16,2010. India went out of the way to make Nepalese President visit to New Delhi a truly sucessful event by offering a 250 million Dollar soft loan through EXIM Bank and signing four major accords with Nepal. India also agreed to supply 50,000 tonne of wheat, 2000 tonne of rice and 10,000 tonne of yellow peas to Nepal.
Indian Prime Minister’s Visit to Nepal:
In August 2014, Indian Prime Minister Mr. Narender Modi visited Nepal. During this visit, he announced $1 billion credit to Nepal. In Oct, 2016, Nepali Prime Minister visited India to attend ‘BIMSTEC’ Summit. During this visit both countries discussed bilateral issues.
In August 2017, Nepal’s Prime Minister visited India. During this visit, both countries signed 8 agreement.
In August 2018, Indian Prime Minister visited Nepal to attend to BIMSTEC Summit. During this, both countries discuss bilateral issues.
These days relations between the two countries are very cordial. The bases of friendship between the two countries are : non-interference in each other’s international affairs, frequent consultations on matters of common interest and financial and technical aid by India for Nepal’s economic development.
Evaluate Indo-Sri Lanka relations.
Give a brief account of India’s relations with Sri Lanka.
India-Sri Lanka relations stretch over a period of more than two thousand years. At the Asian Relations Conference in Delhi 1947, both India and Sri Lanka declared to fight against colonialism, imperialism and racialism. Both are active members of the Non-Aligned Movement. India in co-operation with Ceylon, held a conference at Colombo in 1950. Both the countries participated in Sanding Conference in 1951. The Government of India assisted Ceylon, in its revolution in 1971.
The dispute over Kachcha their island was solved in June 1974 and this land was handed over to Sri Lanka, Despite cordial relations there has been occasional tension between India and Sri Lanka and the cause of tension was the problem of nearly one million people of origin in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka was not prepared to grant full citizenship rights to all the Indian immigrants in Sri Lanka. The government of Sri Lanka passed the India and Pakistan Residents (Citizenship) Act in 1949. About 8 lakhs people of Indian origin applied for citizenship but only one lakh 34 thousands were able to secure citizenship (upto Oct., 1964). The rest were asked to go back to India.
But India’s stand was that those who were living in Sri Lanka for generations or had been born there, are the citizens of Sri Lanka and not of India. Ultimately, Lai Bahadur Shastri and Smt. Bandarnaike of Sri Lanka reached an agreement on the question of citizenship of Indian people there. In Feb.,1979 Prime Minister Morarji Desai visited Sri Lanka and he advised Indian immigrants to regard Sri Lanka as their own land. The President, N. Sanjiva Reddy, visited Sri Lanka in February, 1982. Mr. Reddy’s visit symbolised friendship between two neighbouring and friendly countries.
Due to Tamil problems tension was there between Sri Lanka and India. In June, 1985, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and the Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayewardene held discussions to find a political solution to the ethnic problem in the island nation. The most significant achievement of the summit meeting between Mr. Rajiv Gandhi and Mr. Jayewardene has been the latter’s belated admission of the fact that a political solution of Sri Lanka’s ethnic crisis is impossible without India’s co-operation.
On July 29, 1987 India and Sri Lanka entered into an unprecedented accord aimed at national reconciliation in the island-nation to end the five year old ethnic conflict and opening up a new era in their bilateral relations.
The agreement signed by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J. R. Jayewardene envisaged cessation of hostilities between the Tamil Militants and the security forces within the next 24 hours, surrender of arms within 72 hours, return of the army to barracks and merger of Tamil majority northern and eastern provinces. It provides general amnesty for all political prisoners now in jails and also facilitates the rehabilitation of militants who would surrender arms and return to normal civilian life. Mr. Jayewardene on his part promised to meet India’s concern over the possible use of Trincomalee as a foreign military base.
Indian Peace Keeping Force. In accordance with the accord, the government of Sri Lanka requested the Indian government to send Indian Peace Keeping Force to oversee the surrender by the Tamil militants, and the IPKF was sent to Sri Lanka. President Jayewardene was succeeded by Mr. Premadasa. In response to the wishes of Sri Lankan new President, India agreed to withdraw the IPKF and by March, 1990 the process of withdrawal was completed.
Joint Commission. On April, 10, 1991, both the countries agreed for setting up a joint commission by the year-end and agreed to take a series of initiatives in the field of trade, culture and consultancy projects. The two countries also decided to take immediate steps to conclude a cultural exchange programme for 1991-93. The new Sri Lankan Prime Minister Mr. Ranil Wickremesinghe in June, 1993 had set the tour for the economic relations between two countries. The new Sri Lankan Prime Minister’s talks in New Delhi could mark the beginning of a genuine reconciliation between the two neighbours. The bitterness caused in Sri Lanka by the involvement of the Indian Peace Keeping Force in its ethnic strife began to dissolve after its complete withdrawal.
Indian External Affairs Minister’s visit to Sri Lanka. In Jan, 1997 Indian External Affairs Minister I.K. Gujral visited Sri Lanka. On 22nd Jan., 1997 India and Sri Lanka signed a landmark investment promotion and protection agreement to boost bilateral economic ties and decided to bury their political differences. An External Affairs Minister, Mr. Kadirgamar, of Sri Lanka described the agreement as a “Confidence Building Measure”. Indian External Affairs Minister reiterated that New Delhi would not interfere in the internal affairs of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan President’s Visit to India. The close friendship between the two nations had been further boosted by the visit of Sri Lankan President, Chandrika Kumaratunga on Dec. 27, 1998. The visit was of paramount significance as it heralded a new era in
bilateral economic relations through the signing of the first-ever landmark Free Trade Area pact between the two countries.
Tamils of Indian Origin to get Lankan Citizenship. On July 21, 2000 Sri Lankan President Mrs. Chandrika Kumaratunga agreed to give Sri Lankan citizenship to those Indian Origin Tamils who were forced to take Indian citizenship in 1964 as a result of the India-Sri Lanka pact on the stateless people of Indian origin in Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan President’s Visit to Indiai. In 2002 Mrs. Chandrika Kumaratunga, the Sri Lankan President visited India. The Indian Prime Minister Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee reaffirmed India’s support for the peace process in Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan President’s Visit to India. Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapakse visited New Delhi in December 2005 and urged New Delhi to take a more upfront role in the peace process : An acknowledgment that no solution to the Tamil-Sinhala ethnic conflict would be implementable without India’s support.
Action Against LTTE. Sri Lanka’s war on the terrorist outfit LTTE entered its last phase. The Sri Lankan government has described ts successes against the LTTE as its major victory on terrorism.
In 2009 Tamil Nadu Assembly passed a resolution calling upon the central government to do something to stop war in Sri Lanka as it was compromising the future and safity of the Tamil population there. But Indian government has rightly decided not to involved in the controversial scenario.
During the SAARC conference held in nepal in 2014, Indian Prime Minister Mr. Narender Modi and Sri Lankan President Mr. Mahindera Rajapakshe met in Nepal. During this meeting both leaders discussed bilateral issues.
In Oct. 2016, Sri Lankan President visited India to attend ‘BIMSTEC’ Summit. During this visit both countries discussed bilateral issues.
In May 2017, Indian Prime Minister Sh. Narendra Modi visited Sri Lanka. During this visit, both countries discussed bilateral issues.
In Oct. 2018, Sri Lankan Prime Minister visited India. During this visit both countries agreed to speed up infrastructure projects.
In June, 2019, Indian Prime Minister Sh. Narendra Modi visited Sri Lanka. During this visit, both countries discussed the progress of various programmes supported by India.
Short Answer Type Questions
What is Kashmir Problem?
Write a note on ‘Kashmir Problem’.
Answer: Kashmir is a major issue of dispute between India and Pakistan. Before Independence Jammu and Kashmir was one of the 565 princely states, ruled by Maharaja Hari Singh. On October 20 1947 several thousand tribesmen armed with machine guns, mortars etc. attacked the frontiers of State. Tribesmen were aided by Pakistan. On 26th October Maharaja Hari Singh sent a letter to Lord Mountabatten, then Governor-General of India about his decision to join India. Indian troops were dashed to Kashmir. Pakistan refused to recognize this accession and war continued for 14 months. On January 1, 1948 India lodged a complaint with U.N.
Security Council and on January 5, 1949 Ceasefire line was accepted by both the countries. In September 1965, Pakistan forces attacked India. Indian forces gave them a crushing defeat. A U.N. Security Council resolution adopted on Sept. 20, 1965 called upon India and Pakistan for a ceasefire. Pakistan attacked India again on 3rd Dec. 1971 and after War Shimla Agreement took place between the two countries. On 5-6 August 2019, Article 370 was abrogated from Indian Constitution, and nowadays India is stand is that P.O.K. will be the centre point of India-Pakistan dialogue.
Write a short note on Shimla Agreement.
On 3rd December, 1971 Pakistan attacked India. India faced it bravely and defeated Pakistan very badly. One lakh Pak-Soldiers surrendered and General Niazi signed the document of surrender. But Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Gandhi, without exploiting the defeat of Pakistan, held a summit conference at Shimla in June, 1972 to discuss the problems of both the countries. Pak President Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Gandhi participated in this conference. The agreement was reached between Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Mr. Bhutto on 3rd July and it is known as Shimla Agreement. Important points of this agreement are given below:
- Both the countries are resolved to solve their conflicts and confrontations through bilateral peaceful talks.
- Both the countries would respect each other’s national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality.
- Both countries won’t use force against each other’s territorial integrity.
Write a short note on India-China border dispute.
The relations between India and China are very ancient. Till 1962, the relations between the two countries were very cordial and friendly. China attacked both the Western and Eastern sectors of the Indian border on 20th Oct. 1962. China declared unilateral ceasefire on 2lst November 1962. By waging a war, China was able to capture thousands of miles of Indian territory which is still under China’s possession. On July 9, 1979 the External Affairs Minister Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee said that the possibility of a satisfactory settlement with China is not seen unless China agreed to settle the boundary question.
During the last 25 years the leaders of both the countries have emphasised many times that better relations between the two countries are Very necessary in the cause of peace in Asia and the world. The need is to solve the boundary dispute. The relations between the two countries should be based on complete equality and mutual respect in the spirit of the U.N. Charter.
Explain relationship between India and China.
In 1962, China attacked India and avenged India’s friendly attitude. Again in 1965, China adopted hostile attitude during Indo-Pak War. But India again in 1966 during Indira era tried to resolve Indo-China boundary dispute. However in 1976 Indo-China relations slightly improved. In 1976, Mr. K.R. Narayanan and in 1978 and 1979, Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited China as Ambassadors of peace and friendship. In 1988, Prime Minister Mr. Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to China started a new era in Indo-China relations and the diplomatic visits made by both the countries further improved the relations of the two countries. During these years of Indo¬China relations the levels of mutual trust between the two countries have been increased.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Discuss India’s policy towards her neighbour countries.
India’s policy towards her neighbour is based on the principles of Panchsheel. India respects the sovereignty and territoral integrity of neighbouring states. India is always ready to have friendly relations with neighbouring states. India not only improved its friendly ties with Asian countries but also with other countries of the world.
Shimla Samjhauta (Agreement) was signed when and between which two countries?
Shimla Agreement was signed in 1972 between India and Pakistan.
List any two areas of conflict between India and Pakistan.
- Pakistan considers Kashmir a disupted area whereas India considers Kashmir a part of India.
- Pakistan is helping the terrorists of Kashmir with arms and other materials. Even training is given to terrorists on Pakistan’s soil.
Write down two features responsible for tension between India and China Relations.
- Major disputes are regarding the border issue and the demarcation of the 4,200 km long border at the foot of the Himalayas.
- Chinese aggression on Indian border on October 20, 1962 and the continuing violations of Indian border.
Mention .any one area each of Co-operation and Disagreement between India and Bangladesh.
- Area of Co-operation. Bus service, Train service and Commerce and Trade between the two countries.
- Area of Disagreement. Chakma Refugees is an area of disagreement between the two countries.
Name two countries which attacked India.
One Line Answer Type Questions
Write the names of two countries which are neighbours of India.
Pakistan and Nepal.
Write one cause of tension between India and Pakistan.
An important cause for strained relations between India and Pakistan is the issue of cross border Terrorism by Pakistan.
What is the importance of the treaty between India and Nepal formalised in February, 1996?
In February, 1996, India and Nepal signed an important treaty for the harmonious development of Mahakali Valley. It paved way for development.
Mention any one important point of the treaty signed between India and China in November, 1996.
According to this Agreement, both the countries will not commit any aggression on each other. Both the countries will reduce their military power on the actual line of control. They will also stop military exercises.
In which year China attacked India?
China attacked India in 1962.
When was Bangladesh established?
Bangladesh was established in 1971.
Between which two countries Tashkent Pact took place?
India and Pakistan.
What is the future of Indo-Pak Relations?
The future of Indo-Pak relations is not good.
In which year Mac Mahan line boundry line was determined between India and China?
In 1914 Mac Mahan line was determined.
Who proposed partition of Kashmir?
In which year Shimla Agreement took place?
When Shimla Agreement took place?
Shimla Agreement was signed on 3rd July, 1972.
Who signed Shimla Agreement?
Shimla Agreement was signed by Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Mr. Z.A. Bhutto.
Write one major issue of dispute between India and Pakistan.
Kashmir is a major issue of dispute between India and Pakistan.
Mention one basic principle of India’s foreign policy.
The most important basic principle of India’s foreign policy is Non-alignment.
When was ‘Panchsheel Agreement’ signed between India and China?
Write one provision of Shimla Agreement.
Both the countries had resolved to solve their conflicts and confrontations through bilateral peaceful talks.
Write one major point of dispute with China.
Major dispute is border dispute. Main issue is demarcation of the 4200 km. long border at the foot of Himalayas.
When was Pakistan established?
Pakistan was established on 14 August, 1947.
Which two countries signed Shimla Agreement.
‘Shimla Pact’ took place between which two countries?
India and Pakistan.
Fill In The Blanks
1. People’s Republic of China was established in ……………. .
2. Farakka Treaty was signed between India and ……………. .
3. India became an independent state on ……………. .
August 15, 1947
4. Shimla Agreement was signed on ……………. .
3rd July, 1972.
True Or False Statement
1. In 1924 Mac Mahan line was determined.
2. Bangladesh was established in 1965.
3. China attacked India in 1962.
4. Shimla agreement was signed by Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Mr. Bhutto.
5. India and Pakistan signed Farakka Treaty.
Choose The Correct Answer
Bangladesh was established in:
When India and Pakistan became independent states?
(a) 26 Jan. 1950
(b) 15 August 1947
(c) 26 Jan. 1947
(d) 14 August 1947.
(b) 15 August 1947
Which countries entered into Free Trade Agreement in Dec. 1998?
(a) India and Sri Lanka
(b) Pakistan and Bangladesh
(c) India and Pakistan
(d) India and China.
(a) India and Sri Lanka
Mac Mahan Rekha (Line) demarcates the Border between which two countries?
In which year India sent peace-keeping force in Sri Lanka?
Shimla Agreement was signed on:
(a) 3rd July 1972
(b) 3rd July 1971
(c) 3rd July 1966
(d) 3rd July 1975.
(a) 3rd July 1972