Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Groups Important Questions and Answers.
PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Groups
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. Which of these is not the feature of Primary Groups?
(b) Formal relations
(c) Individual relations
(d) Small in size
(b) Formal relations
2. What is the social importance of Primary Groups?
(a) They play an important role in socialisation
(b) An individual gets security in primary groups
(c) They are the important means of social control
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
3. What does not exist in secondary groups?
(a) Primary control
(c) Formal control
(a) Primary control
4. Primary groups are ……………. in size.
5. Which of these is the feature of social groups?
(a) Own structure of the groups
(b) Group- an organisation of individuals
(c) Functional division of society
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
6. Family is a type of ………………
(b) Secondary group
(c) Primary group
(d) Conscious group
(c) Primary group
7. Which of these is large in size?
(a) Primary group
(b) Secondary group
(c) Conscious group
(d) Unconscious group
(b) Secondary group
8. Which of these is a primary group?
(a) Peer group
(b) Play group
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
9. Which of these is a secondary group?
(a) Trade union
(b) Political party
(c) Group of scientists
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
10. What is necessary among the members of a primary group?
(a) Physical proximity
(b) Formal relation
(c) Social system
(a) Physical proximity
11. Which of these groups is quite helpful in socialisation?
(a) Reference groups
(b) Horizontal groups
(c) Secondary groups
(d) Unconscious groups
(c) Secondary groups
Fill in the Blanks:
1. ……………. gave the classification of In group and Out group.
2. …………….. is an important example of In group.
3. The concept of reference group was given by ………………
4. Members of a group have ……………. feeling.
5. Groups that are quite close to an individual are known as ……………… groups.
6. Membership of …………….. group is taken when required.
7. …………… groups have a formal organisation.
1. Group of people, who have relations among them, is known as a social group.
2. There is no need for relations in groups.
3. The Classification of primary and secondary groups is given by cooley.
4. There is no physical proximity in primary groups.
5. Membership of secondary groups is taken to achieve certain goals.
6. Formal relations are there in secondary groups.
7. Close relations are there in primary groups.
One Word/Line Question Answers:
What do we call if 10 persons stand together at a place?
It will be just aggregate of people.
What is group?
Aggregate of individuals who have social relations among them is known as group.
What is necessary for a group?
Relations between humans are necessary to become a group.
What is the importance of group?
Group fulfills all the needs of individuals.
Give one definition of social group.
According to Maclver, “By group we mean any collection of human beings”.
Who used the term ‘Reference Group’?
H.H. Hyman was the first to use the term ‘Reference Group’.
Who gave the classification of primary and secondary groups?
This classification was given by Charles Herton Cooley.
What type of relations are there in primary groups?
Primary groups have close, intimate and informal relations.
Give any feature of primary groups.
People have physical proximity. They are small in size and permanent.
Give examples of primary groups.
Family, neighourhood, play groups are the examples of primary groups.
What are secondary groups?
Such groups whose membership is taken to achieve certain objective is known as secondary group.
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
In Sociology, a group is a collection of similar people who have relations among them based on action-reaction, common objectives, personal interests etc. They are very much connected with each other.
Definition of Social Group.
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “Whenever two or more individuals come together and influence one another, they may be said to constitute a social group.”
Meaning of we-feeling.
Members of a group have we-feeling among them and as a result, they help each other. That’s why a feeling of affinity develops among them and they protect each other’s interests.
Similarity of behaviour in group.
Members of a social group have similarity of behaviour among them because they have common ideals, habits, views etc. So, their behaviour is quite similar to each other and they never work against each other.
Cooley’s classification of Primary Groups.
Charles Herton Cooley gave three types of primary groups:
- Play Group
What are primary groups?
The groups which are quite close to us, in which we interact on daily basis and with which we have physical proximity are known as primary groups. These are small in size and have informal relations.
Give one feature of primary groups.
Primary groups are small in size so people know each other very well. People have regular contacts and they have close and informal relations among them. It greatly affects their relations.
What are secondary groups?
These groups are large in size. People do not have physical proximity. They hardly know each other personally and formal relations exist among them. These are known as secondary groups.
Short Answer Type Questions:
Meaning of Social group.
The meaning of Social group is the contact and relation of one person with other people. If some persons will stand at one place then they cannot be called as a group because there is one conscious condition in the group. In this only physical proximity is not there but mutual feeling and relations are also necessary and members should have commonness, common consciousness and common interests are necessary.
Name the book of Cooley and his classification of the group.
Charles Horton Cooley has written a book called ‘Social Organization’ and in this book, he has classified groups in two parts:
- Primary groups: Members have closed and informal relations in them.
- Secondary groups: Members have formal relations in them.
Classification of Sumner of Social group.
Sumner has written his book ‘Folk Ways’ and has given the classification of the group in this way.
- In group and we group: These are those groups of which person is the member and he thinks them as his group like my city, my home etc.
- Outgroup and the group: It is that group of which person is not the member and whom he thinks to be external like other’s house, other’s community, other’s country etc.
The elements of a social group.
- The similarity of aims. Members of these groups are tied with each other to attain the common aims of the group.
- Two or more than two individuals. In a group collection, two or more two groups exist. A person cannot make a group.
Classification of groups given by Dwight Sanderson.
- Voluntary group. Voluntary groups are those groups in which a person takes membership according to his wish and whenever he wants, he can leave membership of this group.
- Involuntary group. Involuntary groups are those groups in which a person cannot select himself. It means that this group is not according to the wish of men like family, caste, race etc.
- Delegate group. In these groups, a person takes part as the representative of the people.
According to Cooley, “By primary groups, I mean those characterized by intimate face to face association and cooperation. They are primary in several senses but chiefly in that they are fundamental in forming the social nature and ideals of the individual. The result of intimate association is a certain confusion of individualities in a common whole, so that one’s very self, for many purposes of least, is the common life and purpose of the group. Perhaps the simplest way of describing this wholeness is by saying that it is a ‘fae. It involves the sort of sympathy and mutual identification for which ‘we’ is the natural expression.
Importance of Primary groups.
- Primary groups play an important role in the process of socialization of man.
- A man comes to know about himself in the primary group.
- They are very important in the personality development of an individual.
- Individual gets protection only in these groups.
- Primary groups are the important base of social control.
- The psychological needs of an individual are also fulfilled in these groups.
- Members of these groups are freely related to each other.
In modern society, the needs of the persons have been increased up to the extent that man cannot fulfil his needs by becoming members of the primary groups alone. He has to take membership of other secondary groups. The aim of a person is to achieve his objective. Formal relations exist in them and they are large in size. These are known as secondary groups,
Characteristics of Secondary groups,
- The area of these groups is wide because the number of members of these groups is quite big.
- These groups have been made to achieve any specific purpose.
- Members have indirect relations in secondary groups.
- Formal organization is there in these groups and some specific rules have been made for these groups.
- Relations in these groups are formal and indirect.
- Membership is optional and a man can leave his membership at any time.
Importance of Secondary groups.
- Secondary groups satisfy different needs.
- These groups develop the personality of an individual.
- These groups contribute to social progress.
- Secondary groups make the outlook wider.
- They are helpful in cultural development.
People generally use the term ‘They group’ to denote out-group. These are the groups of which an individual is not the member and consider them unknown or out-group. Generally, while living in society, an individual is associated with many members and he considers them as in-groups. But the group with which he is not connected is out group for him. So we can say that the out-groups are other groups with which one is not directly attached. The organisation of such groups is quite loose and unorganised. In comparison to in groups, such groups are of no importance for him. These groups are versal and exist everywhere.
If we need to understand the meaning of the reference group, we need to understand the meaning of the membership group. An individual is a member of any group and he participates in its activities by considering it as his own group. This group is his membership group. Everyone is a member of any group and as a member of this group, he considers it as his own. He even grasps the group’s ideas, values etc. He even starts to consider himself as an indispensable part of this group. His every activity is according to the values of this group. Values, ideals of the group become a part of his identity and while evaluating others, he keeps such ideals in mind. In this way, he is a member of this group.
An individual is a member of any group and this group is a membership group for him. Sometimes it is observed that his behaviour is not according to the values of his membership group but is according to the ideals, values of any other group. Here the question arises that why is this so? As a result, the concept of a reference group came into being. Actually, most individuals are influenced by the ways, values, ideals of any other group. He tries to grasp the values, ideals of the other group and even starts behaving according to this group. He is not a member of this group but many parts of his behaviour are according to that group. Sociologists call it a reference group. That other group that influences our behavioural pattern is a reference group for us. An individual regulates every part of his life according to the ideals of his reference group.
Long Answer Type Questions:
What are Social groups? What are their features?
Meaning of Social Group: See Textual Question IV-(1).
Characteristics of a Group:
1. Feeling of Unity: A group can be maintained if the feeling of unity will exist among the members of a group. Because of this feeling, they understand each other. The feeling of cooperation is produced among them. If this feeling of unity will not be there among them then that will not be a group but will be just a collection of people.
2. We feeling: Members of a group help each other if any need arises and with this, we feeling increases. They also protect their own interests by helping each other. With this, the sense of unity also increases among them.
3. Social relations: The most important feature of a group is that its members have mutual social relations. These relations are permanent and come out of the result of their mutual interactions.
4. Membership: Group cannot be made with one person only but the group can be made with two or more than two people. In some groups, membership is limited like in a family where membership is limited only to wife, husband and their children. No other person can be included in this. That’s why the size of the group also depends upon the number of its members.
5. Division of status and role. Group status and roles have been generally divided because of which every member has its role and status in the group. For the functions of the group, some written and non-written rules are also there and the group works according to those rules. Yet some quarrels are also there among the members for their personal interests but they also have some quantity of cooperation which is a special characteristic of the group.
6. Social control. It is necessary for a group to control and regulate the behaviour of its members. Every group has its own traditions, rules which have to be obeyed by every person. If anyone tries to break them then he is punished by the group.
7. Closeness. The relations of members of a group are so close that they have interaction among them. It means that members of the group are closely related to each other. Because of this closeness, they have mutual interaction among them because of which relations increase among them. Members of the group are affected by these relations also.
8. Similar ideas. There is a feeling of closeness among the members of the group. They don’t have the feeling of personal welfare and they are doing joint efforts for the attainment of common objectives. With this, the organization of the group also exists. They have some equality in their outlook and thoughts and this equality of thoughts is also the base of their ideas.
Classification Of Groups:
What do you know about the Classification of Groups? Write in detail. Answer: Many sociologists have tried to classify the groups on the basis of their own points of view. According to Cuber, “Sociologists have developed a great deal of effort to the different problems of classifying groups into types. At first thought, it would seem easy to do but perhaps after further reflection, it will be found to represent numerous difficulties. These difficulties are so great, in fact, that at present we have no overall systematic classification of groups which is entire, acceptable to all sociological scholars.” Different sociologists classify groups on different bases. Some have been classified on the basis of religion, some on an economic base and some on the basis of entertainment.
Some of these types are given below.
A. Charles Horton Cooley, in his book “Social Organization”, has classified groups in two parts and these are:
- Primary Group
- Secondary Group
In the Primary group, close and direct relations are there and in Secondary groups, indirect and artificial relations are there.
B. Sapir has classified groups on the basis of physical closeness and common aims ‘and these are:
- Racial group
- Agricultural group
- Conflicting group
C. Sumner has classified groups in his book ‘Folk Ways’ and these are:
In,- In-group we feeling and community welfare feeling is there. Its size is also small. In the out-group feeling of individualism is there. Man is not a member of this group and their size is also big.
D. Sorokin has also classified it in two parts and these are:
- Horizontal group
- Vertical group
In Horizontal groups; groups of big size can be included like country, political party, cultural organization, religious organization etc. In the vertical group, man is related to his achieved status by the horizontal group. That’s why he is one part of the Horizontal group.
E. Maclver and Page have also classified it and their classification is:
- on the basis of size
- on the basis of intimacy
- on the basis of interest
- on the basis of organization
- on the basis of duration.
F. In his book ‘Cultural Sociology’, Gillin and Gillin has classified group and his classification is:
- on the basis of blood relations
- on the basis of physical features
- on the basis of area
- on the basis of duration
- cultural group
G. Classification given by George Dawson is given below:
- Unsocial groups
- Pseudo-social groups
- Anti-social group
- Pro-social group
H. Dwite Sanderson has divided the group into three parts:
- Voluntary group
- Involuntary group
- Delegate group
A voluntary group is a group in which a man includes himself voluntarily. It depends on him that of which group he should be a member of. An involuntary group is that in which a man’s wish is of no value and he cannot select these groups. For example; family, caste etc. In the delegate group, he includes himself as the representative of the people.
I. Charles A. Ellwood, in his book ‘Psychology of Human Society’ has classified the group into two parts:
- Voluntary and involuntary
- Institutional and non-institutional.
In the first type of group family, city, political party, a religious group generally come. In institutional groups, he has included permanent groups like schools, religious institutions etc. In non-institutional groups, he has taken crowds as this type of group.
J. Giddings has divided groups into two parts:
- Genetic group %
- Congregate group.
Membership of man in the genetic group is based on his birth and the membership of the congregate group is used on the will of the members. He can leave its membership according to his wish.
K. Miller has classified the groups into two parts:
- Horizontal group
- Vertical group.
Horizontal groups are big like country, political parties etc. In vertical groups, small groups are included like an economic group. This group is also a part of the horizontal group. That’s why man is a member of both groups.
L. Tonnies has classified Social groups into two parts:
M. Park and Burges have also given the classification of group:
- Territorial group
- Non-territorial group.
What do you mean by Primary Groups? Explain their features.
Meaning of Primary Groups: See Textual Questions IV-(2).
Characteristics of Primary Groups:
1. Physical proximity among members. It is necessary for any primary group that people should have physical proximity among them and that they should sit together. This physical proximity creates an exchange of thoughts among them and people start to understand each other. Cooperation and love increase with the daily meetings, sitting with each other and talking to each other. That’s why close relations are also there among them. If they are equal in position, occupation, gender, caste and age then more closeness can be established.
2. There is stability among these groups. Primary groups are stable in nature. For example, the family in which the child takes birth lives for the whole life. This life of relation also exists in the neighbourhood. That’s why these groups are more stable. These groups have not been made for any specification. When new friends are included in these groups then they become unstable.
3. They are limited in size. Primary groups are limited in size and that’s why their relationships are very close in nature. The less no. of people in the group will increase the understanding capacity of different members. For example when a teacher teaches to a class with less few students then he knows every child personally. In the same way, if more students are there in class then the closeness of teacher with students will be less. Except this we can take the example of joint family. In this type of family, closeness is very less but in the nuclear family, family members have personal and close relations because of less numbers. Limited size always increases closeness and feeling of cooperation. That’s why because of small size in primary groups members are closely related to each other.
4. They have limited self-interests. In primary groups aim of the welfare of group is always kept as primary base. It means that*the interest of the group is kept important. For example, there is no feeling of personal selfishness among the members of the family. If feelings of selfishness will be developed then the family will be disintegrated. Every member of the family works for the welfare of the family and its members. Sometimes in this type of group members have to sacrifice their individual interests because group is not established for a specific purpose. That’s why there are very limited self-interests in primary groups.
5. They have similarity of background. Because of similarity of background there exists some exchange of ideas among people. Members understand each other. If there will be any difference of culture and ideals then even on this base, relations will be at another level. More difference will decrease mutual relationships and less difference will lead to more understanding and strengthening of group.
6. They have mutual cooperation among them. Members of the primary group generally have feeling of mutual cooperation. That’s why if they are less in number even then they move forward with the community feeling. It is so because he thinks that welfare of the group is his welfare. For example every member of the family works for each other’s welfare. Sometimes even after a lot of sufferings a person cooperates with others. It means that a person never thinks about his personal profit but he thinks of collective profit.
Explain in brief the importance of Primary Groups.
(1) Primary groups play an important role in the process of socialization of man. First of all man comes in contact with society because of these groups as man depends upon these groups to fulfil his basic needs. According to Kingsley Davis, “The complex process of socialization is that it is handled in those concrete groups- notably the family and the play group-where an emphasis is placed on the conditions and the qualities of primary association.”
(2) Man comes to know about his self in primary group and he gets basic education with the help of members of primary group.
(3) These groups are also very important in the personality development of an individual. Behaviour of the members of these groups always affects an individual. In the friendship type atmosphere of primary groups personality of individual generally develops. In these groups only, man gets many qualities of love, cooperation, sympathy, toleration etc. These qualities help him to become a good citizen of society. In these groups only, man gets norms, values, ideals, traditions of group.
(4) An individual gets protection only in these groups. Members of these groups accept other members’ as a part of the group and help each other whenever any need arises. When child takes birth then he feels protected under the love and affection of family members. A child expresses his views crudely only in primary groups.
(5) Primary groups are the main base of social control. All humans are different by nature. If they will live without any control then the whole structure of the society will be destroyed. That’s why society controls its members. In primary groups an individual learns to live in control which is very helpful for the society. To accept the norms of family, respect of elders, to live under rules, to love everyone, to accept the culture of the family all these things he learns under the effect of these groups. When these qualities are developed in an individual then he contributes properly in the functions of society.
(6) Psychological needs of an individual are also fulfilled in these groups. Man learns to live with others only by living in the main primary groups like family, play group and neighbourhood.According to Maclver and Page, “It is the group through which, as playmates and comrades we first give creative expression to our social impulses. It is the breeding ground of our moves, the nurse of our loyalties. It is the first and generally remains the chief focus of our social satisfaction.”
(7) Members of primary groups are freely related with each other. They don’t have any type of formal pressure. The development of self in an individual is only because of these groups. Man gets mental satisfaction only in these groups. Because of the relations of these groups man is motivated to do many functions. Members of primary groups save its member to go in a wrong way. Man starts to feel that he is not alone and others are with him who will help him when any need arises. This feeling helps him to do more efforts. Co-operation is also an important feature of these groups.
What do you mean by Secondary Groups? Explain their features or characteristics.
Meaning of Secondary Groups: See Textual Questions-IV-(2).
Characteristics of Secondary Groups
(1) Humans have indirect relations. Members of secondary groups have indirect relations among them. The process of cooperation is developed indirectly. Members of these groups don’t know each other. Their function is to do the duty and to do their role; for example, thousands of persons work in a factory. The man just works for the pay and even sometimes he is hardly aware of the fact that who is the owner of the factory. They are indirectly related to each other by doing different functions. They play different roles for the attainment of any objective.
(2) They are large in size. Secondary groups are large in size. Membership of people is not definite. They are scattered everywhere. For example members of any political party are scattered everywhere in the country. Except this many other organizations are also there where members are scattered everywhere. Now the needs of a man have increased and he cannot fulfil these needs by living only in primary groups. That’s why he solves his problems by taking membership of these groups. He even uses letters, telephone, telegrams also for his objectives.
(3) They have a formal organization. Some specific rules are generally made for the formation of secondary groups and man has to obey these rules. That’s why the problems of these groups are generally solved by experts. It means that the work of a secondary group is done in an organized way. Man gets status and role according to his ability and qualification. If anyone wants to join these groups then he cannot work according to his wish. For example, if anyone does job in any office then he needs to obey the orders of his officers. He needs to obey rules of the government. In this way we can say that secondary groups have a formal organization.
(4) They have formal and impersonal relations. The mutual relations among individuals are generally formal. They don’t have any impact of primary groups. Man does his work, obeys the rules, gets his pay and still they don.’t know even other employees of their office; for example, when we go to any bank, meet the clerk, do our work and come back. We are not related with any part of the life of that clerk. We have impersonal relations in these groups.
(5) People have option of membership. Membership of secondary group depends upon the will of an individual because these groups have been developed to fulfil any special objective. It means that every person is not the member of every secondary group; for example there are many clubs in our society. When any person wants then only he becomes the member of that group. It is also not necessary that he should be the member of every club. In this way these groups are optional. Man can leave their membership after the achievement of his objectives.
(6) They have active and inactive members. Size of secondary groups is very big. Members of these groups don’t have personal relations because of which all members of the group do not take part in all the activities of the group. For example whenever any function is there then there are many members who take part in the function. Some members do a lot of work and some just become members of the group. This type of members just give fees for their membership.
What is the importance of Secondary Groups?
(1) These satisfy different needs. In modern times man cannot fulfil his basic needs by just depending upon primary groups. Man’s needs are increasing day by day. These needs are just not related with area but are related with many area. That’s why for the fulfilment of these needs secondary groups are developed. Every one wants to establish his relations in every sphere so that whenever any need arises his works should be done. That’s why he wants to become the member of these groups.
(2) These groups develop the personality of an individual. Secondary groups help in increasing capacity and personality of an individual. In the earlier societies man was limited to the four walls of the house. It was necessary for an individual to adopt his father’s occupation. Except in this children were under the control of the elder members of the society. They were unable to do any work of their own wish. But with the passage of time secondary groups were formed. Man came out of the four walls of his house and started to develop his personality and qualification. He got full freedom to show his qualities. He was unable to do progress in primary groups. That’s, why secondary groups have developed his personality and increased his level of living.
(3) These groups contribute in social progress. Social progress was done not only with technological and industrial revolution but was done when man started to join secondary groups: Man came out of his house and started to fulfil his needs. Man got that type of atmosphere in which he started to use his capabilities. Progress of man now depends upon his ability. Man wishes to move farward which is very helpful in social progress.
(4) With these outlook becomes wider. Man is connected with a special place because of his membership of a primary group. His membership of primary groups is permanent. That’s why they are small in size. Every one takes care of his interest. For example member of family, play group or neighbourhood only protects his interests. With this type of outlook, area of primary groups is very tight because members only think of their limited interests. On the other hand members of secondary groups think of everywhere. For example, members of secondary groups are related with different castes, religions, classes etc. Members of secondary group’are also affected by customs, traditions, rules etc. They are quite different from primary group. That’s why people have liberty to make relations any where with any one. Because of common interests they work without any discrimination and toleration is also there in the members of these groups.
(5) They are helpful in cultural development. In secondary groups individuals are related with different background but they have to work jointly at one place. For example when they are working in a factory or office then because of formal cooperation cultural exchange also takes place between them. Every one starts to accept each other’s cultural traits. With this cultural development is also there. Except this whenever any new invention comes in any country then other countries also accept that invention. With this cultural mixture also came into being.
Differentiate between Primary and Secondary groups.
(1) Difference on the basis of size. Primary groups are small in size and area is also limited. In this group membership is limited to some members. For example membership of a man in family, playground and neighbourhood is limited to a certain extent. Because of small size mutual relations are also close in nature. Small size also increases elements like love, cooperation, sympathy etc.
On contrary to this secondary groups are large in size. Its membership is very wide. They are connected with each other even if they are scattered everywhere. Because of the largeness of area, the relations among members are formal and non¬personal. They are large in size because they are related with the different needs of man. Anyone can become their member for his needs and can leave them after the attainment of his objective. In this way, we can say that primary groups are small in size and secondary groups are big in size.
(2) Difference on the basis of type of relationship. In primary groups, relationships between members are direct and personal. In these groups, members meet each other daily and because of this nothing is hidden between them. They talk to each other openly without any fear and exchange every type of idea. Even they share their sufferings. That’s why in these groups, the word ‘We’ is used instead of ‘My’. In this way in these groups, members have direct, personal and loveable relations among them and they overlook small things.
Mutual relations among members in Secondary groups are indirect. Members are scattered everywhere. They contact each other with the help of means of communication like Letters, Telephone, Press, Radio, T.V. etc. Members of this group don’t know each other in every aspect but they know only one aspect of another person with which they are related. They hardly know about each other’s sufferings and sorrows. In these, they know each other only for their interests.
(3) Difference on the basis of kind of cooperation. Members of primary groups are having collective cooperation. They directly cooperate with each other. They collectively take part in the processes like playing, working, sitting etc. For example, all members of the family cooperate with each other for the development of family. Sometimes even they sacrifice their own interest for the sake of the interests of the family. They don’t have any feeling of competition among them. Everyone contributes towards each other’s interests. In this way the feeling of cooperation connects each other.
In secondary groups members cooperate just for the sake of their own interests because these groups are formed for any specific purpose. In these formal cooperation exists. For example, if students, teachers, principals, peon etc. cooperate with each other then this cooperation is under certain written rules. Any officer orders his clerks under certain rules and clerks have to obey those rules. If they will not obey then they can be thrown out of their job. That’s why a formal type of cooperation exists in these groups.
(4) Difference on the basis of the status of individuals. In primary groups status of members depends upon their birth and family. It means that he gets the status of that family in which he is born. For example, man gets status of father, mother, grandfather, grandmother etc. only in the family. In this man gets ascribed status. In secondary groups, a person’s status is according to his work. It means that the way in which he does his work, he gets status of that kind. For example, man gets different status when he performs different roles of doctor, engineer, clerk, teacher etc. Man can get higher status from lower-status only by hard work. Status of man in this depends upon his abilities.
(5) Difference on the basis of duration. The duration of mutual relations in the members of primary groups is very lengthy. If you will live separate from any one then relations will be decreased and if you will live together for a long time then relations will be strengthened and proximity will increase. By meeting daily, sitting together and by exchanging of ideas mutual relations will definitely be increased. More togetherness, more proximity will be there. So long duration of relations is there in its members. In secondary groups there is no limit of their duration. It can be less and can be more. Man can become a member only for the duration of time until he achieves his objectives. It means that the duration of time is related with the achievement of objectives. With the achievement of objectives, man can cancel its membership.
(6) Difference on the basis of type of background. In primary groups, members have the same background. According to Maclver and Page, “There is thus a level on which every group must dwell, and the person who is too far above or below it, disturbs the process of group participation.” For example family, neighbourhood and playgroups are permanent because of the same background. They know everything about each other because of which love can be maintained.
In secondary groups, members are related with different backgrounds. These groups are formed for any specific motive. A person becomes a member of that group, which can fulfil his needs. That’s why members are coming from different backgrounds. So the difference is also there on the type of their background.