PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Social, Political and Economic justice is promised in __________
Answer:
Preamble

Question 2.
The preamble promises justice to the Indian citizen.
Answer:
Social

Question 3.
Freedom has been given from Article __________ to __________ of the Constitution of India.
Answer:
25, 28

Question 4.
There are more than __________ castes in India.
Answer:
3000

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 5.
The were massacred in Delhi in 1984.
Answer:
Sikhs

Question 6.
__________ languages are recognised by the constitution of India.
Answer:
22

Question 7.
The Mandal Commission was set up in __________
Answer:
1978

Question 8.
The Mandal Commission has identified __________ Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribes.
Answer:
3743.

II. Put a tick against the Right (✓) and a cross against the wrong (✗) :

Question 1.
The social inequalities do not affect the government.
Answer:
(✗)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 2.
54% of the Indian population is illiterate today.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 3.
Hindi is the National language of the India.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 4.
Seats are reserved for Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribes even today.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 5.
The 73 and 74 Amendment of the constitution govern the Local self government in the villages and the cities.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 6.
Reservation has been given to the schedule caste and schedule tribes in local self government.
Answer:
(✓)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 7.
Social inequalities are coming to an end in the Indian society.
Answer:
(✗)

III. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Who said, caste is the most important party in India?
(A) Mahatma Gandhi
(B) Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru
(C) Shri Jai Parkash Narain
(D) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.
Answer:
(C) Shri Jai Parkash Narain.

Question 2.
Which Fundamental Right has been added to the Constitution of India to ensure social justice to the Indian people?
(A) Right to Liberty
(B) Right against exploitation
(C) Right to Equality
(D) None of the Above.
Answer:
(C) Right to Equality.

Question 3.
Whose Motto fs ‘Read All, develop all’?
(A) RMSA
(B) SSA
(C) National Education Commission
(D) PSEB.
Answer:
(D) PSEB.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 4.
For whom is reservation of seats permissible in government jobs?
(A) Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribes
(B) Only for Backward Classes
(C) Schedule caste, Schedule Tribes and Backward Classes.
(D) Only for poor people.
Answer:
(C) Schedule Caste, Schedule Tribes and Backward Classes.

IV. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words:

Question 1.
What do you mean by social inequality?
Answer:
Many types of inequalities exist in our society on the basis of Caste, Community, Language etc. It is known as social inequality.

Question 2.
What do you understand by casteism and untouchability?
Answer:
Casteism. The Indian society is divided in many classes on the name of caste. Sense of higher and lower exists in these classes. It is known as casteism.

Untouchability. People of lower castes in India were hated by people of higher castes. Some people even considered it as a sin if they would be touched by any person of lower caste. This custom was known as Untouchability.

Question 3.
What is illiteracy?
Answer:
The meaning of illiteracy is that people are unable to read and write. These types of people are easily deviated by our politicians. According to one survey, around 34.62% of total population of India is illiterate.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 4.
What is meant by Linguism?
Answer:
Hundreds of languages are spoken in India. Some people consider their language as better language than the others. They even hate those people who speak other language. This custom is known as Linguism.

Question 5.
What is meant by reservation?
Answer:
Many castes in India are backward because they are being exploited by other castes. They are given the names of Scheduled Castes. Some seats are reserved for them in Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies and in government jobs. It is known as reservation.

Question 6.
Has Scanaging been discontinued?
Answer:
Yes, Scavaging been discontinued by passing certain laws.

Question 7.
How does illiteracy affect Democracy?
Answer:
If any one is unable to read and write, then he can be called as illiterate. According to Census survey of 2011, around 25% of total population is illiterate. Illiteracy is one of the biggest curse because it is the root cause of many social evils. Many evils occur due to this like unemployment, religious fundamentalism, regionalism, casteism, superstitions, poverty, etc. Illiterate, person cannot become a good citizen. Illiterate persons are easily deviated by political leaders.

Impact of Illiteracy:

  • Illiteracy is the root cause of the social inequalities.
  • It creates obstacles in the way of success of democracy.
  • It is an obstacle in the formation of public opinion.
  • Illiterate persons can easily deviate on a wrong path.
  • Illiterate persons are unable to properly use their right to vote.
  • Illiteracy is the black spot on the face of society.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which of the following is a Marginal group?
(a) Muslims
(b) Dalits
(c) Adivasis
(d) All the above.
Answer:
(d) All the above.

Question 2.
Untouchability is abolished under which article of the constitution?
(a) Article 17
(b) Article 15
(c) Article 19
(d) Article 14.
Answer:
(a) Article 17.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 3.
Reservation Policy is adopted by the government for the benefits of :
(a) Scheduled castes
(b) Backward classes
(c) Scheduled tribes
(d) All the above.
Answer:
(d) All the above.

Question 4.
Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act was passed in :
(a) 1989
(b) 1983
(c) 1993
(d) 2003
Answer:
(c) 1993.

Question 5.
When Safai Karamchari Andolan and 13 other organizations Died a PIL in the Supreme Court?
(a) 1989
(b) 2002
(c) 2003
(d) 2000.
Answer:
(c) 2003.

Question 6.
What is the Literacy rates among the tribal people. According to 2001 census?
(o) 50%
(b) 40%
(c) 31%
(d) 29.5%.
Answer:
(d) 29.5%.

Question 7.
How much of India’s population is illiterate?
(a) 25.96%
(b) 20.64%
(c) 30.86%
(d) 24.64%.
Answer:
(a) 25.96%.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 8.
How many approximately castes are there in India?
(o) 2000
(b) 3000
(c) 4000
(d) 5000.
Answer:
(b) 3000.

Question 9.
Which of these is a type of inequality is there in India?
(a) Commvmalism
(b) Untouchability
(e) Illiteracy
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 10.
In the year 2002, this right was given by the 86th Amendment in the Constitution to implement it, an ACT was passed in 2009. In April 2010, it was implement in all over India. (P.S.E.B. 2020)
(a) Right to information
(b) Right to Education
(c) Right to live
(d) Right to Equality.
Answer:
(b) Right to Education.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
It is promised in the __________ to provide Social, Political and Economic justice.
Answer:
Preamble

Question 2.
Articles __________ to __________ provide as right to freedom of religion.
Answer:
25, 28

Question 3.
More than castes are there in India.
Answer:
3000

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 4.
__________ languages are sanctioned in the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
22

Question 5.
Mandal Commission was established in __________
Answer:
1978

Question 6.
Mandal Commission identified __________ Scheduled Castes and Tribes in India.
Answer:
3743.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
Social inequalities do not influence democratic government.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 2.
Around 54% population in India is illiterate.
Answer:
(✗)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 3.
Hindi is the official language in India.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 4.
Reservation policy exists for scheduled castes and tribes.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 5.
73rd and 74th amendment provides local self government in villages and eities.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 6.
Presently social inequalities are reducing in India.
Answer:
(✓)

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Untouchability Offence Act (i) 1978
2. Formation of Mandal Commission (ii) 1955
3. Right to Equality (iii) Article 25-28
4. Right to Freedom of Religion (iv) Article 14-18

Answer:

A B
1. Untouchability Offence Act (ii) 1955
2. Formation of Mandal Commission (i) 1978
3. Right to Equality (iv) Article 14-18
4. Right to Freedom of Religion (iii) Article 25-28

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the three most important elements included in the Indian Constitution which determine the social equality.
Answer:
Equality, Liberty and Secularism.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 2.
According to the Preamble of the Indian Constitution, which three types of justice shall be given to all the citizens?
Answer:
Social, economic and political.

Question 3.
Give any four types of social inequalities.
Answer:

  1. Communalism
  2. Casteism and Untouchability
  3. Linguism
  4. Illiteracy.

Question 4.
Why untouchability has been declared as a legal offence?
Answer:
Untouchability is an inhuman custom. It is the largest obstacle in the successful functioning of democracy. That’s why, untouchability has been declared as a legal offence.

Question 5.
What efforts are being done by government to eradicate Illiteracy?
Answer:
Our government is taking many steps to eradicate illiteracy from the society. ‘Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan’ is being run in whole of the country. Free and compulsory education has been started upto class VIII. Educational institutions have been increased. Right of education has been included in Fundamental Rights.

Question 6.
How many languages are legally sanctioned in the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
22 languages are legally sanctioned by the Constitution and Hindi language has been given the legal sanction of National Language.

Question 7.
What do you mean by communal inequality?
Answer:
People of many religions and communities live over here in India. Religious fundamentalism exists in some persons of these Communities which gives rise to Communalism. It is known as Communal inequality.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 8.
What were the people called who use to pick human waste from the households?
Answer:
Some people were forced to pick human waste on their heads to throw it outside. These people were known as untouchables.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on Communal Inequality in India.
Answer:
Communalism is the first form of social inequality. Many religions exist over here in India. Some people of different religions are fundamentalists and they give birth to communalism. As a result, communalism has become one of the part of social and political life. Due to this religious intolerance, India was divided in two parts in 1947 A.D. Communal riots in the country is the result of this religious intolerance. This intolerance also exists in Indian politics. Leaders call for vote on the name of religions and religious sentiments of the people are encouraged. As a result the atmosphere of religious tension occurs from time to time in the country.

People are given religious freedom by Articles 25-28 of the Indian Constitution. According to it, all religions are equal in front of law. People are given freedom to adopt and propagate any religion.

Question 2.
What is meant by Custom of picking human waste from households? Why it has been stopped?
Answer:
Custom of picking human waste from households is a custom of hatredness. This custom was going on from centuries. According to it, few people were forced to pick human waste, of others on their heads to throw it outside.

These people were considered as untouchables. They were hated by everyone. It was necessary to eradicate this evil from society in modern age: Governments tried to eradicate this custom from time to time. Now this custom has been legally eradicated. If any one tries to use this custom, then he is being punished by law.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 3.
Give brief description of marginal groups of India.
Answer:
Marginal groups are those groups of our society, which remained backward for a long-long time due to social and economic reasons.

Brief description of these groups is given ahead :

  1. Scheduled Castes: There is no clear constitutional definition of Scheduled Castes. But we can only say that these castes are related to those people who were behaved like untouchables. According to Census of 2011, their population in India was 15% of the total population of the country.
  2. Scheduled Tribes: There is no clear constitutional definition of Scheduled Tribes as well. These are exploited tribes of society. They were remained away from our society due to their backwardness. According to Census of 2011, their population in India was 7.5% of the total population of the country.
  3. Backward Classes: They are not defined by the Constitution as well. Actually this is the weakest class of our society. According to Mandal Commission, their population in India was 41% of the total population of the country.
  4. Minorities: Minorities are those people from religious or linguistic point of view, whose numbers are less in the country. According to Census Survey of 2011 they are around 18.42% of the total population of the country.

Question 4.
Write in detail the effects of communal inequality.
Answer:
Following are the impacts of communal inequality :

  1. Political parties are organised on the basis of religion.
  2. Many religion based pressure groups affect the Indian democracy.
  3. Inequality encourages violence in communal Indian social life.
  4. Specific religion is given importance in formation of Council of Ministers.
  5. Communalism stops the people to do impartial voting.

Question 5.
What do you mean by Linguism? Write its effects also.
Answer:
Meaning of Linguism is division of society on the basis of language. Hundreds of languages are spoken in India. People are being divided on the basis of language. They dislike those persons who speak other languages. Many states are formed, in India, on the basis of language. Even today, demand of forming new states on the basis of language is being raised. Classes are formed among people on the basis of language. People give preference to their regional language and culture instead of national interests.

Impacts:

  • Demand of new states, on the basis of language, is being raised.
  • Political parties are being organized on the basis of religion.
  • Movements are going on, on the basis of religion.
  • Language gives encouragement to regionalism and communalism.
  • Discrimination and violence occur among the people on the basis of language.
  • Linguism also affects the election process.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 6.
What is reservation? Explain in detail.
Answer:
One of the largest group of Indian society isrbackward because they were being exploited from the ages. They were given the name of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. According to Articles 330 and 332 of the Constitution, there is a provision of keeping reserved seats for them in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies according to their proportion in population. It is known as reservation. In the beginning, this system was kept for 10 years but due to different constitutional amendments this systems has been raised till 2020 A.D.

In the same way, according to 72nd and 73rd amendment of the Constitution, now seats are reserved for Scheduled castes and Women in rural and local self-bodies. Even seats for Scheduled Castes are reserved in government jobs. In 1978 A.D, Mandal Commission recommended to reserve seats for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward classes but this report has not been implemented till today. May be it will be implemented in the near future. Demand of keeping one third seats reserved for women is being raised from time to time. Actually Indian political system is being affected by politics of caste. It has been rightly said by Shri Jai Prakash Narayan that, “Caste in India is the most important political party.”

Question 7.
Write the effects and explain in detail about casteism.
Answer:
Casteism. People of more than 3000 castes live over here in India. Sense of higher or lower, based on caste, exists among them. It is known as caste inequality. Because of this inequality, people of some castes are unable to use public wells. They are even not allowed to enter temples or any other public places. Politics is going on in the name of the caste and different political parties motivates the people to work against people of other castes.

Impacts:

  • Political parties are being formed on the basis of caste.
  • Leaders call for the vote on the name of caste during elections.
  • System of giving special facilities to certain castes has divided our society.
  • Inhuman practice of untouchability has been encouraged due to casteism.
  • Many a times caste becomes one of the result of conflict and violence.
  • Caste-based pressure groups are being formed and they have a very bad impact on democracy.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice

Question 8.
Do you think untouchability is inhuman? Explain why?
Answer:
There is no denying the fact that untouchability is an inhuman practice. One of the largest classes of our society was exploited from the ages due to this practice. They were being hated by higher castes. They were even not allowed to touch the people of higher castes. From the impacts of untouchability, it becomes clear that it is an inhuman practice.

Impacts:

  • The customs of untouchability give rise to social inequality.
  • This custom gives -birth to an inferiority complex among people.
  • This custom gives rise to violence.
  • People are unable to get political education.
  • Many people were not allowed to enter politics due to untouchability. So that is why untouchability has been declared as illegal.

Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Indian Constitution and Equality: Many elements are included in the Indian Constitution. Equality, Liberty and Secularism are some of the main elements. These elements determine the Social Equality.
  • The Preamble of the Constitution: The Preamble of the Indian Constitution is given in the start of the Constitution. It is written clearly in it that-‘We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic and to secure to all its citizens Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
  • Social Inequality: Indian Society is divided into different classes and on many basis. It is known as Social Inequality.
  • Types of Social Inequality: Many types of Social Inequalities exist in our country. Some of them are—Casteism, Untouchability, Communalism, Linguism and Illiteracy.
  • Reservation: In India, seats in different political institutions are reserved for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and for Women. Seats are also reserved for them in government jobs.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 29 Effects of Social Inequalities and Social Justice Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.