PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment – Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Human Environment – Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB Human Environment – Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Write down the answers to the following questions in approximately 1-15 words.

Question 1.
How does agriculture affect human settlement?
Answer:
Man was a nomad in the beginning. He used to look for his food in jungles. But when agriculture developed, he stayed at one place and thus settlements developed.

Question 2.
Where did people live, first of all?
Answer:
In the earlier times man would stay at the places, where water was easily available. Water fulfils many domestic and agricultural needs. So the early civilization developed near river valleys.

Question 3.
How does a topography of a place affect the development of human settlement of a place?
Answer:
It is easy to develop settlement on level surfaces. Here there are facilities of agriculture, means of transportation and communication. That is why most of the cities are in the northern plains of India. But on the uneven surfaces of the mountains there are limitations of rail, road transport, agriculture and as a result business is at a low level.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 4.
How are roadways important?
Answer:
Road transport is the earliest mode of transport. It gives us door-to-door service. Roads can also be constructed in mountainous regions. Construction of roads is also cheaper than building of railway tracks.

II. Write down the answers to the following questions in approximately 50-60 words.

Question 1.
Write down the importance of railways while explaining them.
Answer:
Railways are an important means of transportation. The travellers can travel in great numbers over long distances in a comfortable way with the help of railways. The materials can also be transported easily. Initially the rail engines were coal-driven, but now diesel engines and electric engines have come into existence.

Metro Railways: It is the underground railway network. Because of increasing population the road transportation becomes jam-packed. So underground railway network solves this problem. In Delhi Metro railway has become very important.

Main Railways of the World: In Europe and North America there is a great railway network. Now alongside the coastal areas of all continents, railways has been built. The railways of Russia (C.J.S.) joins St. Petersberg with Valadivastak. This railway line is known as Trans-Siberian Railway. It is the longest railway in the world. Similarly in Japan mainly the travellers travel by railways. Japan and France have almost the fastest running rails in the world. The bullet train of Japan runs with a speed of 500 km. per hr.

Importance of Railways: Railway is a major medium of land transport in modern times. Railways are important from economic, social and political point of view.

  • These help in the development of minerals of an area.
  • Railways carry raw materials to industrial areas and distribute manufactured goods to the market.
  • Railways promote trade.
  • It is convenient for long distances.

Question 2.
Write about the important waterways/ocean routes of the world.
Answer:
The waterways are the cheapest source of transportation.

The main waterways are as follows :

  1. North Atlantic Ocean ways
  2. Pacific Ocean ways
  3. Cape ways
  4. Sueze Canal ways
  5. Panama Canal ways.

Question 3.
Write about the internal waterways?
Answer:
The rivers and lakes are the internal waterways of the world.

Their names are as follows :

  1. In India the Ganges way, the Brahmaputra way and lakes located in Kerala.
  2. The Denub river of Europe joins middle and south Europe with Black sea.
  3. In China Yangste Kiang river.
  4. Amazon river in South America.
  5. There are five lakes in North America which join Canada and U.S.A.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 4.
World has become a Global Village with the development of Airways, illustrate the fact with example.
Answer:
Air transport. Since ancient times, men have wanted to fly. The first successful flight by aeroplane was made by the American Wright Brothers in 1903. Many developments during the 20th century have revolutionized air transport.

Air transport is the quickest means of transport. It needs no expenditure on the construction of air routes. It can cross physical barriers like mountains, oceans and deserts. But it is a costly means of transport. It is useful for transporting passengers, mails, food supplies and commodities of high value.

Factors affecting air transport :

  • Air routes generally follow great circles to fly over the shortest distance.
  • Air transport needs clear weather. Low clouds, fog, dust storms and snow are big handicaps.
  • The construction of aerodromes need level land.
  • Air transport requires huge capital.
  • The air transport needs adequate equipment and machinery.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication 1

In many countries of the world like London, Paris, Moscow, Tokyo, Saudi Arab and Dubai, very big airports have been established.

Question 5.
Which are the means of communication, what is the advantage of their development?
Answer:
The means of communication increase mutual coordination of human race. The voice of one person can be sent to another person or many persons very easily in any part of the worlds e.g with internet we can join our heads with the whole world. These days it is the cheapest source of interacting with others. With the help of Internet we can get information from any part of the world and about anything in the world. Moreover, postal services, telegram, telephones, cellphones radio, magazines and newspapers are the chief means of communication.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 6.
Write in detail about Suez Canal.
Answer:
Suez canal water way joins the European countries with South Asian Countries as well as African and Australian Continents. This canal also joins Equatorial sea with Red sea.

III. Activities:
With the help of Atlas and your teacher.

Question 1.
Show the Suez Canal and Panama canal on the world map.
Answer:

Question 2.
Show important airways on the world map.
Answer:
Do it with the help of your teacher.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide Human Environment – Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which is not a means of communication?
(a) Telephone
(b) Books
(c) Newspaper
(d) Table.
Answer:
(d) Table.

Question 2.
Which mode of transport is most suitable to reach an island?
(a) Ship
(b) Train
(c) Car
(d) Aeroplane.
Answer:
(a) Ship.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 3.
Which type of road is constructed under the ground?
(a) Flyover
(b) Expressways
(c) Subways
(d) Roads.
Answer:
(c) Subways.

Question 4.
India ranks in development of railways in Asia :
(b) Second
(d) Fourth.
Answer:
(a) First.

Question 5.
Which is the fast means of communication?
(a) Telephone
(b) Telegraph
(c) Newspaper
(d) E-mail.
Answer:
(d) E-mail.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
________ sea and sea are the two seas joined by Suez canal.
Answer:
Red, Equatorial

Question 2.
Kolkata and Chennai are two ports on ________ coast of India.
Answer:
Eastern

Question 3.
Ganga is an ________waterway of India.
Answer:
Internal

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 4.
Subways is a type of ________ constructed under the ground.
Answer:
Road

Question 5.
________ transport is the main means of international trade.
Answer:
Water.

True/False :

Question 1.
The surroundings of human race are called the environment.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Delhi is a city where there is Metro railways.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Denube river is interval waterways of Russia.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Closely built area of houses are called compact settlements.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 5.
Internet is a means of communication.
Answer:
True

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by environment?
Answer:
The surroundings of human race are called environment.

Question 2.
Describe the revolutions in the life of early man.
Answer:
Fire, clothing and settlements were the great revolutions in the life of early man.

Question 3.
Why did agriculture develop in River valleys?
Answer:
Because of fertile soil.

Question 4.
What do you mean by skyscrapers?
Answer:
The sky-touching multi-storey buildings.

Question 5.
What is the meaning of ‘Global Village’?
Answer:
Because of the fast means of transportation and communication, tne big world has become a small place and is called ‘Global Village’ these days.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 6.
Give the name of a city where there is Metro railways.
Answer:
Delhi.

Question 7.
Give the name of one Inter-continental Railways of Russia.
Answer:
The Trans-Siberian Railways.

Question 8.
Which are the cities combined by Trans-Siberian Railways?
Answer:
Saint Petersberg in the West with Vladivostok in the East.

Question 9.
Tell the name and speed of the fast moving train of Japan.
Answer:
Bullet train with a speed of 500 km per hour.

Question 10.
Where do we get waterways?
Answer:
In oceans, seas, rivers, canals, lakes, etc.

Question 11.
Name the biggest Railway in the world.
Answer:
Trans-Siberian Railway.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 12.
Name one internal waterways of Europe.
Answer:
Denube River.

Question 13.
Name one internal waterways of North America.
Answer:
Five Great Lakes.

Question 14.
Name two internal waterways of India.
Answer:
The Ganges and the Brahmaputra.

Question 15.
Which are the products sent through pipelines?
Answer:
Oil and gas.

Question 16.
How is electricity sent at different places?
Answer:
Through electric grid.

Question 17.
Who discovered aeroplane?
Answer:
Wright Brothers of America.

Question 18.
Write the names of two ports on the eastern coast of India.
Answer:
Kolkata and Chennai.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 19.
Name two brand new means of communication.
Answer:
Internet and mobile phones.

Question 20.
Which are the two seas joined by Suez Canal?
Answer:
Red sea and equatorial sea.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why did the old civilizations develop in River Valleys?
Answer:
There was easy availability of water. The soil was fertile, development of agriculture was possible. Residential settlements were easy to be built on even surfaces. That is why thOe best examples come from Indus Valley (India) and Nile river valley civilization (Egypt).

Question 2.
What type of changes have taken place in human settlements?
Answer:
The group of houses is called human settlements. Before that it was nomadic life for the man. Then the huts and houses were built. After that skyscrapers and multi-storey flats and buildings came into existence.

Question 3.
Why did the man settle? Give four reasons.
Answer:

  1. Increase in population.
  2. Development in industries.
  3. Development in agriculture.
  4. Industrial development.

Question 4.
The cities with the means of transportation become important commercial centres. Why?
Answer:

  • Easy availbility of products.
  • Increase in commercial profitability.
  • Existence of cultural and trading institutions.
  • Development of rails, roads and ports.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 5.
Why do we need metro railways?
Answer:

  • There is lack of land for railway lines so underground is the best possible way.
  • Increase in population leads to increase in the number of travellers.
  • To save the cities from traffic congestion.

Question 6.
What is the importance of Trans-Siberian Railways?
Answer:
It is the longest railways of the world. It opens inter-continental route, it joins St. Petersberg and Vladivostok cities. On this long railway the transportation of coal, iron, wood and grains takes place.

Question 7.
Explain the advantages of the waterways. Why it is the cheapest means of transportation?
Answer:

  • It is good means for sea voyages.
  • Main means of international trades.
  • Cheapest means of transport, because fuel consumption is less and carrying capacity is more.
  • No expenditure on making waterways.
  • The cargo can be sent on large scale at less cost.

Question 8.
Describe the air services in India.
Answer:
In India the air services have an important role to play. Because of Indian Airline and other private domestic Airlines have joined all the important cities in India. The international flights of Air India and Indian Airlines transport Indian travellers to different parts of the world. The main air-ports are in the cities of Amritsar, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 9.
Name the different types of means of transport.
Answer:
There are three main types of transport.

  1. Land transport includes roads, railways
  2. Ocean transport includes inland waterways and ocean routes
  3. Air transport includes airways.

Question 10.
Why is the road transport easier?
Answer:
Road is a major medium of land transport. It is the cheapest and the quikest means of transport for shorter distances. The roads link the fields and farms to factories, and the goods can be delivered right to the doorsteps of the consumers. Roads can be constructed in rough and undulating terrain. Dense network of roads has been the basis of development in European countries.

Question 11.
Describe the importance of Railways.
Answer:
Railway is a major medium of land transport in modern times. Railways are important from economic, social and political point of view.

  1. These help in the development of minerals of an area.
  2. Railways carry raw materials to industrial areas and distribute manufactured goods to the market.
  3. Railways promote trade.
  4. It is convenient for long distances.

Question 12.
Give an account of man’s progress to the stage of permanent settlements.
Answer:
Man has an extraordinary ability to survive even in difficult environment. First he used to do hunting and food gathering. He moved from place to place and led a nomadic life. Invention of farming as well as tools helped him to devise methods to grow food at one place. Agriculture needed constant attention from growing to harvesting stage. Gradually the concept of permanent settlements took shape.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 13.
Give information about waterways of the world: Also give the names of the main ports of India.
Answer:
Main waterways of the world
The waterways are the cheapest source of transportation. The main waterways areas ahead :

  1. North Atlantic Ocean ways
  2. Pacific Ocean ways
  3. Cape ways
  4. Suez Canal ways
  5. Panama Canal ways.

Main ports of India. Kolkata, Chennai, Cochin, Goa, Kandala and Vishakhapatnam are the main ports of India.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Examine the importance of Highways.
Answer:
Land transport includes paths, unmetalled and metalled roads and highways. Roads have been used by man since the earliest times. Land transport develops according to nature of the land. In modem times the use of cemented roads and automobiles has increased the importance of roads. Roads are tiie basis of civilization. Roads link the fields and farms to the factories, factories to markets, and the goods can be delivered right at the door steps of the consumer. Roads can be constructed in inaccessible areas where railways and waterways are not easy to construct.

Question 2.
“Transport and communications are necessary infrastructures for the economic advancement of a country.’ Explain.
Answer:
Transport and communications constitute the infrastructure for the growth and development of agriculture, industry and trade of a country.

  1. The production and exchange of agricultural products depend on means of transportation.
  2. Developed means of transport are essential for assembling raw material for different industries. The manufactured goods are sent to markets at a low cost of transportation.
  3. An efficient system of transport is essential for the growth of trade of country.

As a matter of fact, the developed means of transport are an index of a country’s
economic development. Transport and communications serve as ‘life lines’ of a country’s development. These can be compared to arteries and veins of a nation.

Question 3.
The expansion of the means of transport and communications is shrinking the world. Discuss.
Answer:
With the modern developments in transportation and communications, man has controlled time and distance. During the past 50 years, the world’s means of transport and communication have been revolutionised. These changes have been marked with more rapid movement from place to place.

The ocean transport has served as a global, unbroken link between distant lands. The development of air transport has reduced the element of time. The major countries of the world are connected by air routes. Air transport has conquered physical barriers. The inter-continental air routes over the oceans have linked different continents. These fast means of transport have brought different areas closer to each other. It appears as if the world is shrinking day by day and we are living in a’smaller world.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 4.
Describe the development of Air Transport.
Answer:
Air transport. Since ancient times, men have wanted to fly. The first successful flight by aeroplane was made by the American Wright Brothers in 1903.-Many developments during the 20th century have revolutionized air transport.

Air transport is the quickest means of transport. It needs- no expenditure on the construction of air routes. It can cross physical barriers like mountains, oceans and deserts. But it is a costly means of transport. It is useful for transporting passengers, mails, food supplies and commodities of high value.

Factors affecting air transport :

  • Air routes generally follow great circles to fly over the shortest distance.
  • Air transport needs clear wheater. Low clouds, fog, dust storm and snow are big handicaps.
  • The construction of aerodromes need level land.
  • Air transport requires huge capital.
  • The air transport needs adequate equipment and machinery.

Question 5.
What are the factors which affect the development of human settlement?
Answer:
A group of houses is called settlement. Men started moving from villages to cities. There are certain reasons like increase in population, development of business. Agriculture in river valley and industrial development are the main reasons responsible for development of human settlements.

The Main Factors:
1. Availability of water. People mostly love to live at those places where water is easily available. That is why river valleys became birth places of many civilizations
in the world, eg. Indus Valley Civilization. It developed in the valley of Indus river. Here we have got proofs of Kaccha/Pucca houses.

2. Even surfaces. The uneven surfaces do not attract human settlement because :
(a) Transportation is difficult.
(b) Agriculture is difficult.
(c) House construction is difficult.

But even surfaces have many facilities :
(a) It is easy to make roadways and railways.
(b) Agriculture is easy.
(c) The agriculture produced can be easily transported to other places.
(d) Many big cities and metros have developed in plains with even surfaces.

3. Natural beauty. Many cities have developed because of natural beauty. Here tourism is well developed. It is a source of employment for many people. The examples are Kashmir, Goa, Bangalore, etc.

4. Means of transport and communication. The improved means of transportation and communication help in the development of human settlement. It becomes easy to move people and products from one place to another. With communication we can sent messages to any part of the world. Thus, those places develop economically as well as socially.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Question 6.
Explain in detail about the waterways.
Answer:
1. North Atlantic waterway: It is the maximum used waterway. It combines western Europe, U.S.A. and Canada. The maximum trade in the world takes place through this way.
PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication 2
Suez Waterway

2. Pacific Ocean waterway: It combines North and South America with Asia and Australia.

3. Cape way: It was discovered by Vasco-De-Gama in 1498. This way joins western European countries and America with South Asia, Australia and Newzeeland. The importance of Cape way has decreased because of the construction of Sueze Canal waterway.

4. Suez Canal water- way: This canal joins equatorial sea with Red sea. It joins the European countries with South Asian countries as well as African and Australian continents.

5. Panama Canal way: This canal comes out of Panama Republic. It combines, Atlantic ocean with Pacific ocean. This lake also results in coming together of western Europe and eastern U.S.A. with Western U.S.A. and western Asia.

Question 7.
What contribution have the means of transportation towards the development of human settlement?
Answer:
Different means of transport have helped in evolution of settlements in ahead ways :

  1. Two neighbouring settlements or even those found far away from each other became attractive to each other.
  2. Trade led to growth of commercial activities and culture.
  3. It led to faster development of transport and communication from the stage of domestication of animals and invention of wheel.
  4. Roadways provided door-to-door service, railways helped to move large number of people and goods in bulk. Waterways provided the cheapest means of transport. Air transport being fast though costly also developed side by side.
  5. Apart from transport media and other communication networks became crucial links for exchanging knowledge and ideas.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Human Environment - Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication

Human Environment – Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Man: Man is a dynamic organ of environment.
  • Agriculture and Industrial Revolution: It has given man a permanent lifestyle.
  • Human life: It appeared on earth only a few million years ago.
  • Nomadic life: For major part of his life, man was hunter, gatherer and led nomadic life.
  • Technology: Man invented fire, progressed from stone age tools to building shelters, agriculture, clothing, etc.
  • Civilisation: It represented cultural development and a stage of life of living in cities.
  • Settlements: Development of permanent villages, towns and cities.
  • Sites for settlements: Preference-based on availability of water called Wet Point’ settlements.
    Other influencing factors : topography, availability of transport and communication, commercial activities.
  • Global village: As the distances have become shorter the world has become a global village.
  • Importance of Transport: Roads, Railway, Air, Shipping, Pipelines.
  • Roads: Offer ‘door-to-door’ service, can be constructed in mountainous regions.
  • Railways: Starting with steam engines, today use diesel or electricity – Metro rail (underground) in cities.
  • Shipping: Cheapest means today’s mechanised boats, trawlers and ships in use.
  • Air transport: Fast but costly.
  • Pipelines: Used for distribution of oil, gas or electricity.
  • Communication: Radio, telephone, television, newspapers, internet-global access even sitting in an}r corner of the earth-information and knowledge based communication today.
  • Mass communication: Radio, T.V. and newspapers are effective means of mass communication.
  • Temporary settlement: A type of settlement which is occupied for a short time is called temporary settlement.
  • Permanent settlement: A type of settlement in which people build homes to live permanently.
  • Transport: The means by which people and goods are being carried from one place to another.
  • Roadways: The widely used means of transport for short distance journey are roads. The roads can be metalled and unmetalled.
  • Railways: The railways are used to transport heavy and bulky goods for long distance.
  • Waterways: The use of rivers, canals, seas and oceans to cari-y goods and passengers through ships and vessels are called waterways.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Human Environment – Settlements, Means of Transport and Communication Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.