PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 23 India after Independence

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB India after Independence Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
When Constituent Assembly was constituted and how many members it had?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly was constituted in 1946 A.D. It has 389 members.

Question 2.
When the Constitution of India was passed and implemented?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution was passed on 26th November, 1949 A.D. and implemented on 26th January, 1950.

Question 3.
Who is given the credit for the unification of the Indian princely states?
Answer:
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel was instrumental in unification of Princely States.

Question 4.
How Hyderabad state was merged with India?
Answer:
State of Hyderabad was included in India with the help of police. Indian police was sent over there on 13th September 1948 A.D. and this state was merged in Indian Union on 17th September, 1948 A.D.

Question 5.
How Junagarh state was merged with India?
Answer:
Nawab of the Junagarh state wanted to be included in Pakistan. But Plebiscite (Public survey) took place over there on 20th February 1948 A.D. in which people wished to be included in Indian Union. That’s why Junagarh state was included in Indian Union.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 6.
How many members were in state reorganization commission?
Answer:
This commission had three members.

Question 7.
Write down any two principles of Panchsheel.
Answer:

  1. Peaceful Co-existence
  2. Not to attack each other.

Question 8.
Where and when the first conference of Non-alignment was held?
Answer:
First conference of Non-Aligned movement was held at Belgrade in 1961 A.D.

Question 9.
Write down a note on Non-Aligned Movement.
Answer:
After the Second World War, the entire world was divided into two opposite alliances. America was the leader of one alliance which was known as Western Bloc. U.S.S.R. was the leader of second alliance which was known as Eastern Bloc. Serious Cold War started between them. Military treaties and pacts like Nato and Warsah Pact have made situation more tense. India wanted to keep its own sovereignty and didn’t become the member of any group. That’s why India started Non-Aligned Movement with the help of other countries. Founders of this movement were Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru, Tito of Ugoslavia and Nasir of Egypt.

Non-Aligned Movement started in 1961 A.D. It was based on principles of Panchsheel. All the members of this movement didn’t want to include themselves in any of the alliance. Its first conference held at Belgrade in 1961 A.D. It was started with 25 members but now it has more than 100 members.

Question 10.
Write down a note on the foreign policy.
Answer:
India, after independence, adopted the foreign policy based on the concept of peaceful co-existence. Its main features are given below:

  1. India respects the sovereignty and freedom of all the countries of the world.
  2. India believed that people of all the religions, nations and races are equal.
  3. India strongly oppose those countries which discriminate the people on the basis of colour, race or class. For example, India had opposed the racial policy of South African Government and its discriminational policy with Asian people and original inhabitants of Africa.
  4. India believes that all international disputes should be resolved through peaceful methods.

Question 11.
Write down a note on Communalism.
Answer:
India is a secular country. People of different religions live over in India whose religious beliefs are different. Communal riots broke out in country at many occasions due to religious fundamentalism. Incident occurred at Gujarat in 2002 A.D. was one of the serious incident of such type. Many people are of the view that government should give special care to the interests of minorities.

Question 12.
Explain in brief the relation between India and Pakistan.
Answer:
India likes to keep friendly relations with all the countries, especially our neighbouring countries. Pakistan and China are the most important neighbouring countries of India.

Brief description of India’s relations with them is given below :
India and Pakistan. India has always tried to keep friendly relations with Pakistan. Pakistan didn’t give its sanction to Kashmir’s inclusion with India. That’s why Kashmir became the main reason of conflict between India and Pakistan. India and Pakistan have fought three wars with each other due to Kashmir problem. Kargil war of 1999 A.D. was one of them.

After the Indo-Pak war of 1971 A.D. Shimla Agreement was signed between Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani Prime Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The main objective of this agreement was to peacefully resolve all the problems of Indo-Pak. That’s why Lahore Agreement was also signed between Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpai and Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. Bus service and Railway service was also started between both the countries. People of both the countries came closer to each other due to these services. Indian and Pakistani writers and social servers are free to move from one country to another. So the railway and bus services started between both the countries which could give strength to these friendly relations. We believe that the areas of disputes would be resolved in near future.

India and China. Indian relations with China remained friendly right from ancient times. Both countries were associated with each other due to trade and Buddhism. When Communist revolution came in China in 1949 A.D. then India was the first country to give sanction to new government of China. India also supported China as a member of U.N.O. An agreement took place between India and China in 1954 A.D. on the basis of Panchsheel. But both countries also fought war with each other due to border disputes. Very tense relations remained between both the countries for several years. These relations improved after 1980 A.D. Indian and Chinese Prime Ministers met each other on several occasions and discussed their areas of dispute. Today, both the countries are busy in solving their border disputes.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 13.
Write down details of the unification of the princely states.
Answer:
India had to face many problems after getting independence. One of these problems was of local kingdoms. They were 562 jp number and were ruled by Indian kings or rulers. According to Act of 1947 A.D., these kingdoms were free to keep their own freedom or were free to be included in the countries of either India or Pakistan. That’s why many local kingdoms liked to remain free. But first Home Minister of free India Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel handled the matter with great intelligence and asked the rulers of local kingdoms to become a part of Indian union. Small kingdoms were included into provinces.

Some kingdoms were sharing cultural values and even they were sharing common boundries. They were joined and made state. For example kingdoms of Kathiawar were included in Saurashtra and the kingdoms of Patiala, Nabha, Faridkot, Jind and Malerkotla were joined to make Pepsu state. Now only three kingdoms remained which were not ready to be included in India and these were Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir.

Hyderabad: Nizam of the kingdom of Hyderabad Usman Ah Khan refused to merge his kingdom into union of India. So Indian police was sent to Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 A.D. and on 17th September 1948 A.D. kingdom of Hyderabad was merged into union of India.

Junagarh. Nawab of Junagarh wanted to go with Pakistan. But plebiscite (Public Survey) took place in Junagarh on 20th February 1948 A.D. and public wished to be merged in Union of India. Therefore Junagarh was merged into union of India.

Kashmir. Ruler of Kashmir Maharaja Hari Singh also wanted to remain free. But Pakistan wanted to control kingdom of kashmir. So ruler of Kashmir called for Indian help and proposed to merge his state into Indian Union. Indian government accepted the request of ruler of Kashmir and send its army to Kashmir. War started between India and Pakistan but a large part of Kashmir was occupied by Pakistan.

Other Kingdoms. Except these kingdoms, there were certain other small kingdoms which were included in the nearby states. Baroda was included in the province of Bombay. Unified state was founded by joining few small states. For example one union was made in March, 1948 by joining Bharatpur, Dholpur, Alwar and Karavli. After this Rajasthan union was formed in which kingdoms of Boondi, Talwara, Pratapgarh, Shahpur, Banswara, Kota, Kishangarh, etc. were included in it.

Question 14.
Write down the development of India in economic and industrial fields after the independence.
Answer:
Many economic problems occurred in India due to division of the countries. Large part of wheat and rice producing areas of India went to Pakistan. Large part of irrigated land also went to Pakistan. So there was a shortfall of grains in India. In the same way large part of jute and cotton producing areas went over to India. There was a short fall of raw material for jute and textile industries. So Indian government started to find solution of these problems to improve economic condition of the country. That’s why Planning Commission was established in 1950 to achieve this objective. In this way the process of economic development started in the country which is still going on. This shadow can be seen in agricultural and industrial sectors as well.

Agriculture. India is a agriculture based country. Foodgrains are produced on 75% agricultural land of the country. Rice, wheat, peanut, sugarcane, maize, sunflower, etc. are important foodgrain crops. India made dams on all the important rivers for the development of country. These dams give water to agricultural land and stop floods to a great extent. These dams are helpful in producing electricity. These are known as river valleys. Nangal Dam, Damodar Valley Dam, Harikud Dam, Tungabhadra Dam and , Nagaijuna Sagar Dam are some of the important dams of the country.

Special steps were taken by the government to increase agricultural production. Farmers were told new methods of farming. Government gives good seeds and fertilizers to farmers. Poor farmers are given loans from Banks to improve agriculture. In this way government is trying to improve condition of agriculture.

Industry: Industrial development started in India even during British rule. Many Textile, Iron, Sugar, Matchstick, Cement industries were established in that age. But these industries were unable to develop fully because British hardly took care in development of Indian industry. But after independence, India started to spread industrial sector in the country. Engineering tools, Electrical goods, computers and related goods, medicine and industries of agricultural tools were established in the country. Many Multinational companies established their industries in the country. These industries have given employment to lakhs of skilled and semi-skilled labourers.

Indian government took special interest in Scientific and Industrial inventions. Many universities were set up to invent new tools, seeds, fertilizers, etc.

Question 15.
Explain the relationship of India and America.
Answer:
The United States of America is supreme among the great powers of the world. India’s relations with the USA never remained simple. These relations have been changed from time to time. After Indian independence, strained relations remained between both the countries over the issue of Kashmir and several other issues.

Following are the main reasons of strained relations between both the countries.

  1. the United States of America started to give more and more military help to Pakistan. India strongly opposed it but America hardly cared about it.
  2. Pakistan become the member of military alliances made by America but India refused to become member of these alliances.
  3. Bangladesh come into existence as a result of the Indo-Pakistan war in 1971 A.D. America tried to interfere in war in favour of Pakistan but India strongly opposed it.
  4. America established military bases in Pakistan. America has made military cantonments at Digo-Garcia island in Indian ocean. India also opposed it because c’ its security concerns.
  5. There are some basic differences among India and America on the issue of Nuclear Power. India is developing Nuclear power but America has strongly opposed it. Even America has stopped supply of nuclear fuel to India.
  6. India has not signed Nuclear Prolification Treaty (NPT) because it is not based on moral values. This treaty is partial. This treaty restricts those countries to make nuclear weapons who don’t have nuclear power. On the other side there is no such restrictions on Nuclear powers.

Actually Indian relations with America are strained due to these given reasons. But still they are not much strained. Both the countries are cooperating each other in economic, technological, scientific and cultural fields. In 1993 A.D. Bill Clinton become the President of USA and from then these relations are improving day by day. America helps India in economic sector as well. The USA and its economic institutions are playing a very important role in economic system of India in present age. We can expect better relations in near future as well.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
_______ was made the President of the Committee.
Answer:
Dr. Ambedkar

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 2.
Dr. Rajinder Prasad was the first _______ of India.
Answer:
President

Question 3.
In 1954 A.D _______ hand over Pondicherry, Chandernagar and Mahi Indian territories to India.
Answer:
French.

III. Write True or False in brackets given after each statement:

Question 1.
After getting independence, India constituted a committee of seven members for the drafting of Constitution.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
In the end of 1948 A.D. India occupied the French and Portugueses settlements which were situated in India.
Answer:
False

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 3.
After the independence, Indian government did not pay any attention towards her industrial development.
Answer:
False.

IV. Match the Words :

Question 1.

A B
1. The first Home Minister of India (i) Seven members
2. Members of Indian Constitution (ii) In 1999 A.D. Committee
3. Dispute of Kargil (iii) Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.

Answer:

A B
1. The first Home Minister of India (iii) Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.
2. Members of Indian Constitution (i) Seven members
3. Dispute of Kargil (ii) In 1999 A.D. Committee

V. Things To Do :

Question 1.
To know about the cultural similarities of India and her neighbour countries.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide India after Independence Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
The Constituent Assembly of India started preparing the new Constitution in
(a) July 1946
(b) Dec. 1946
(c) Aug. 1947
(d) Jan. 1950
Answer:
(b) Dec. 1946.

Question 2.
When did India become Republic?
(a) 26 Aug, 1947
(b) 26 Jan, 1950
(c) 15 Aug, 1947
(id) 26 Nov, 1949
Answer:
(b) 26 Jan, 1950.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 3.
When were the Indian states reorganised?
(a) 1950
(b) 1953
(c) 1956
(d) 1959.
Answer:
(c) 1956.

Question 4.
On what basis, Indian states were reorganised in 1956?
(a) Wealth
(b) Population
(c) Natural resources
(d) Linguistic.
Answer:
(d) Linguistic.

Question 5.
Till today, _______ five year plans have been made.
(a) Ten
(b) Eight
(c) Twelve
(d) Nine
Answer:
(c) Twelve

Question 6.
Franchise is people’s right to _______
(a) Property
(b) Vote.
(c) Freedom
(d) Religion.
Answer:
(b) Vote.

Question 7.
Which of these problems was faced by the newly independent India?
(a) Problem of refugees
(b) Problem of division of Society
(c) Problem of development
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 8.
Which of these subjects was kept in Union List?
(a) Taxes
(b) Defence
(c) Foreign affairs
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 9.
Which of these subjects was in the State List?
(a) Medical
(b) Police
(c) Local bodies
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 10.
At the time of independence, the majority of Indians lived in
(a) Villages
(b) Towns
(c) Cities
(d) Metropolitans.
Answer:
(a) Villages.

Question 11.
Who said that, “In politics we have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality.”
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Lai Bahadur Shastri.
Answer:
(b) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

Question 12.
_______ refugees come in India after independence?
(a) 5 million
(b) 6 million
(c) 8 million
(d) 10 million.
Answer:
(c) 8 million.

Question 13.
_______ princely states were there in India in 1947.
(a) 570
(b) 560
(c) 550
(d) 565.
Answer:
(d) 565.

Question 14.
India’s population in 1947 was _______
(a) 345
(b) 325
(c) 355
(d) 395.
Answer:
(a) 345.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 15.
Who was the permanent chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
(a) B.R. Ambedkar
(b) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Rajgopalchari.
Answer:
(b) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
_______ was made the Chairman of Drafting Committee.
Answer:
Dr. Ambedkar

Question 2.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first _______ of India.
Answer:
President

Question 3.
In 1954 A.D gave Pondicherry, Chandranagar and Mahi to India
Answer:
France.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
After Indian Independence, a drafting Committee was Constituted.
Answer:
(✓)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 2.
At the end of 1948 A.D. India took control of all the areas which were under the Portugueese and French occupation.
Answer:
(✗),

Question 3.
After independence, India did not care about its industrial development.
Answer:
(✓).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. First Home Minister of India (i) 1999
2. Members of Drafting Committee (ii) Sardar Patel
3. Kargil War (iii) Seven

Answer:

A B
1. First Home Minister of India (ii) Sardar Patel
2. Members of Drafting Committee (iii) Seven
3. Kargil War (i) 1999

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How many members were there of Drafting Committee of Indian Constitution? Who was its Chairman?
Answer:
There were seven members of Drafting Committee of Indian Constitution. The Chariman of this committee was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

Question 2.
Who was the first President of India?
Answer:
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first President of India.

Question 3.
Why small kingdoms were included in the nearby states in India?
Answer:
Indian government felt that small kingdoms would not be able to develop properly. That’s why they were included in the nearby states.

Question 4.
Which areas of India were under Portuguese possession at the time of Independence? When they were included in Union of India?
Answer:
Areas of Goa, Daman and Deu were under Portuguese possession at the time of Indian independence. On 20th December 1961 A.D. they were included in Union of India.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 5.
How many States and Union Territories are there in India?
Answer:
There are 28 States and 7 Union Territories in India.

Question 6.
When states were reorganized and how many States and Union Territories were formed?
Answer:
States were reorganized in November 1956 A.D. 14 States and 6 Union Territories were formed at that time.

Question 7.
Who were the first Governor-Generals of India and Pakistan?
Answer:
Lord Mountbetten and Mohammad Ali Jinnah respectively.

Question 8.
What was the impact of division of India on the people of Bengal and Punjab?
Answer:
Lakhs of people of Bengal and Punjab died due to division of India and lakhs had to leave their homes. Around 80 lakh people of eastern and western Punjab had to leave their lands, shops and other properties.

Question 9.
What is the main base of foreign policy of India?
Answer:
Peaceful co-operation.

Question 10.
Where Afro-Asian Conference of 1955 held in Indonesia? Name three Asian leaders participated in it.
Answer:
Afro-Asian Conference of 1955 was held at Bandug in Indonesia. Indian Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru, Chau-in-lai of China and Sukarno of Indonesia took part in it.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 11.
Who were the founders of Non-Aligned Movement?
Answer:
Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru of India, President of Ugoslavia Tito and President of Egypt Nasir were the founders of Non-Aligned Movement.

Question 12.
When Non-Aligned Movement was started? On which values it is based?
Answer:
Non-Aligned Movement started in 1961 A.D. It was based upon the principles of Panchsheel.

Question 13.
Give brief description of SAARC.
Answer:
‘SAARC was founded in 1985 A.D. Its full form is ‘SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION OF REGIONAL COOPERATION’. Its objective was to produce economic cooperatio’n and mutual peace among South Asian countries.

Question 14.
What are the main social and economic problems of India?
Answer:
Communalism, casteism, linguism, poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, population explosion, etc.

Question 15.
What is the problem of Linguism?
Answer:
Peopje speaking different languages live over here in India. Problem in this relation is that some people consider their language as superior than the other languages.

Question 16.
Give two evil consequences of increasing population.
Answer:

  1. Increasing population is the basic reason of poverty and unemployment.
  2. Development plans of government either fail or they move on a slow pace.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 17.
When and why war started between India and China?.
Answer:
War between India and China started in 1962 A.D. due to border dispute.

Question 18.
Between whom Lahore agreement took place? What was its objective?
Answer:
Lahore agreement took place between Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpai and Pakistani Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif. Its objective was to resolve mutual disputes of India and Pakistan peacefully.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How was the Indian Constitution framed?
Answer:
After independence, India made a committee of 7 members to frame the Constitution. It was assigned the work of drafting the Constitution. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was made its chairman. This committee made the draft and produced in front of constituent assembly on 21st February, 1948 A.D. Discussion on this draft was started from 4th Nov. 1948. Assembly had to go through 11 meetings for this. Around 2473 amendments were produced during this discussion age and some of them were accepted. This Constitution was passed on 26th November, 1949 A.D. and was implemented on 26th January 1950 A.D.

Question 2.
Write a note on ‘Panchsheel’.
Answer:
India made an agreement with the Chinese Prime Minister Chau-in-lai in 1954 A.D. This agreement was based on five principles. These principles are given below :

  1. To accept peaceful co-existence.
  2. Not to attack each other.
  3. Not to interfere in each other’s matter.
  4. To obey the concept of equality and cooperation for mutual interests.
  5. To respect mutual sovereignty and regional integrity.

Question 3.
How India made free its areas from the possession of French and Portuguese after independence?
Answer:
Indian areas of Goa, Daman and Diu were under Portuguese possession. In the same way Pondicherrey, Chandranagar and Mahi were under French rule. French gave back Indian areas to India in 1954 A.D. but Portuguese refused to do so. In the end Indian government was forced to use military to take -possession of its areas. On 20th December 1961 A.D., Portuguese establishments of Goa, Daman and Diu were included in the Union of India. Goa was made a state on 30th May, 1987 A.D. and Damap and Diu were made Union territories.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 4.
Why and how states were reorganized after independence?
Answer:
Indians started to demand reorganize states on the basis of language and culture even during British rule. After independence, one Telugu person Ramulu demanded to reorganize states on linguistic basis, kept indefinite fast as and was died. So constitutional amendment took place and Telugu spoken areas were separated from Madras and was given the name of Andhra Pradesh. One commission with three members was appointed to reorganize other states. States were reorganized in Nov. 1956 on the basis of recommendations of commission. 14 states and 6 union territories were formed.

Question 5.
Describe the role of India in U.N.O.
Answer:
India is an active member of the U.N.O. (United Nations Organisation). India has sent its forces with peace keeping forces of U.N.O. in many disturbed areas of the world.

India has also contributed a lot in many institutions and agencies of U.N.O. For example Vijay Laxmi Pandit became the member of General Assembly of U.N.O. in 1963 A.D. Shashi Tharoor is the Under Secretary of Communication and Public Information of U.N.O. India is also a member of Security Council. India gets aid of U.N.O. every year as well.

Question 6.
Write a note on problem of Casteism and Poverty.
Answer:
Problem of Casteism. Problem of casteism is one of the main obstacles in the way of our national unity. Some people always hate the people of other castes. Even politicians and political parties take the help of caste to get support of the people. But it is required from us that all the people should be equally treated. According to Article 17 of Constitution, untouchability is restricted in any form.

Problem of Poverty. The Problem of poverty is one of the largest obstacles in the way of progress of the country. Indian people are so poor that they are unable to get proper food of one day. Main reasons of poverty are increasing population, less agricultural production and unemployment. Government has tried a lot to reduce poverty.

Question 7.
Briefly describe the problem of unemployment in India.
Answer:
Problem of unemployment is increasing day by day because number of unemployed persons is increasing. Most of the unemployment exists among literate people. Government is trying a lot to resolve this problem. Retired servicemen, literate unemployed are given loans from government so that they could start their own business. Retirement age of job is reducing so that more and more people could get employment. Additional occupations like rearing of cattle, pigs, honey bees, etc. are being encouraged, Training and loan facilities are also provided to them.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

Question 8.
Write a note on problem of Inflation in India.
Answer:
Inflation is a world-wide problem in today’s age. But this problem has taken serious form in India. Today everything available in the market is expensive. Prices of goods are increasing day by day. As a result most number of people are unable to fulfil their basic needs of daily life. That’s why the government should take some concrete steps to control increasing inflation. Government should implement such plans in the country with which Inflation could be reduced.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Describe in detail about problems of illiteracy and increasing population.
Answer:
1. Illiteracy. More than 23 crore people of India are illiterate. Around 60 women out of 100 are illiterate. Illiteracy gives rise to unemployment which becomes a reason of poverty. Illiterate person hardly knows about the progress opportunities available in the country. Except this democratic system will become successful if people would be literate.

Illiterate person is unaware about his rights and duties as well.
Governmental Efforts: Indian Government is taking certain steps to remove illiteracy from the country :

  • There is a provision in our Constitution to give free and compulsory education to the children upto the age of 14 years.
  • Indian government gives scholarships to poor and intelligent students.
  • Indian government has also started adult education in the country. National Adult Education Programme was started on 2nd October, 1978 A.D. National Literacy Mission was started in 1988 A.D. Many Adult education centres were established under this mission.
  • Many educational programmes, related to illiterate adults, are being broadcasted on All India Radio and Doordarshan. Their main objective is to literate every person of the country.

2. Increasing Population. India is facing a problem of increasing population these days. Speed of increasing population in India is too much that it is very difficult to stop this speed by the government. According to census of 2011 A.D. India’s population was 121.02 crores. Our population is increasing by lakhs of every year.

Causes: There are certain reasons of increasing population in the country :

  • Death rate is decreasing due to improvement of medical facilities. About 25 years ago this death rate was 33 per thousand. But now it has been reduced to 9 per thousand. In earlier times, many diseases were there like plague, malaria, etc. because of which thousands of people used to die. But now these diseases has been controlled to a great extent.
  • Marriage in less age is one of the another reason of increasing population. Many rural families used to prefer child marriages which result in the growth of population.
  • People don’t like to use family planning due to ignorance and religious reasons.
  • Many poor people think that more number of children will help in increase in income of family. That’s why parents like to give birth to more number of children.

Losses and solution. Increasing population is the basic reason of many problems like poverty, unemployment, etc. All the developmental plans become useless with increasing population. These problems could be solved on government level. People could be told about the losses of increasing population and government can propagate in favour of small family.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 23 India after Independence

India after Independence PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Framing of the Constitution: The Constituent Assembly of India started to prepare the new Constitution in July 1946 A.D. which was completed on 26th November, 1949 A.D.
  • Unification of Indian Princely States: India became free on 15th August, 1947 but unification of Princely States was one of the biggest problem for India. This problem was solved by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel With great intelligence.
  • Reorganization of States: Indian states were reorganized in 1956 A.D. on the basis of language. • ‘
  • Development of Agriculture and Industries: Lot of development took place in India after independence in the fields of agriculture and industries.
  • Basis of Foreign Policy of India: Main base of foreign policy of India is Non-Alignment. It means that India remains away from military alliances of the world. Other basis of our foreign policy are co-operation with United Nation and keeping friendly relations with neighbouring countries.
  • Non-Aligned Movement: India, Yugoslavia and Egypt were primary and main members of Non-Aligned Movement. Indian Prime Minister, Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru, President of Yugoslavia Tito and Egyptian President Nasir supported the policy of Non-Alignment. But now number of countries adopting this policy has been increased to a great extent. This policy has taken the form of a powerful movement. That’s why group of Non-Aligned countries is known as ‘Third World Countries’.
  • India and its Neighbouring States: Pakistan, China, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are our main neighbouring countries. Our other neighbouring countries are Bhutan,
  • Nepal and Myanmar: India wanted to keep friendly relations with them but our relations with them have some negative aspects as well.
  • India and Pakistan: Mutual relations of India and Pakistan always remains tense. But India wants to keep friendly relations with its neighbouring countries so that peace could be maintained in Indian sub-continent. India has tried a lot from time to time to keep cordial relations with Pakistan.
  • Panchsheel: Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru gave 5 principles for world peace. These were given the name of Panchsheel. Its objective was to encourage feeling of co¬existence among neighbouring countries so that their sovereignty and integrity could be maintained.
  • India and United Nations Organisation: India is giving great contribution in world peace through United Nations Organisation. India has complete faith in the objectives of United Nations Organisation. That’s why one of the objective of Indian foreign policy is to cooperate United Nations in maintaining world peace and solve mutual disputes through mutual discussion.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 23 India after Independence Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.