PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Poverty: Challenge Facing India Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
More than _________ of the world’s poor people live in India.
Answer:
one fifth

Question 2.
Poverty creates a feeling of _________ in the poor people.
Answer:
insecurity

Question 3.
_________ people require more calories than _________ people.
Answer:
Rural urban

Question 4.
Punjab state has succeeded in reducing poverty with the help of high _________ growth rates.
Answer:
Agricultural

Question 5.
_________ is the method to measure the minimum income required to satisfy the basic needs of life.
Answer:
Poverty line

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 6.
_________ is a measurement of poverty.
Answer:
Relative poverty.

II. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What is the number of people living in poverty in India?
(a) 20 crores
(b) 26 crores
(c) 25 crores
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(d) None of these.

Question 2.
Poverty ratio in _________ countries is less.
(а) Developed countries
(b) Developing countries
(c) Less developed countries
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(а) Developed countries

Question 3.
In India which state is the poorest state?
(a) Punjab
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Odisha
(d) Rajasthan.
Answer:
(c) Odisha

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 4.
National income is the indicator of
(a) Poverty line
(b) Population
(c) Relative poverty
(d) Absolute poverty.
Answer:
(c) Relative poverty

III. True/False:

Question 1.
There is a rapid decrease in global poverty.
Answer:
True.

Question 2.
Disguised unemployment prevails in agriculture.
Answer:
True.

Question 3.
Educated unemployment prevails more in villages.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) estimates the increase in populations.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 5.
Bihar and Odisha states are the most poor states.
Answer:
True.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions :

Question 1.
What is the meaning of relative poverty?
Answer:
Relative poverty refers to the distribution of national income across different individuals and households in the country.

Question 2.
What is the meaning of absolute poverty?
Answer:
Absolute poverty refers to the measure of poverty, keeping in view the per capita intake of calories and minimum level of consumption.

Question 3.
Name two indicators of relative poverty.
Answer:
Per capita income and national income are the two indicators of relative poverty.

Question 4.
What is the meaning of poverty line?
Answer:
Poverty line is the method to measure the minimum income required to satisfy the basic needs of life.

Question 5.
Name the criteria adopted by the Planning Commission of India to determine the poverty line.
Answer:
In India the Planning Commission of India determines the poverty line by his or her income or consumption level.

Question 6.
Name two indicators of poverty.
Answer:
Income and consumption are two indicators of poverty.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 7.
In poor families who suffers the most?
Answer:
In poor families childern suffer the most.

Question 8.
Name two poorest states of India.
Answer:
Odisha and Bihar are two poorest states of India.

Question 9.
How Kerala has reduced poverty in the state?
Answer:
Kerala has focused more on human resources development.

Question 10.
What has helped West Bengal in reducing poverty?
Answer:
Land reform measures have helped in reducing poverty in West Bengal.

Question 11.
Name two- states which reduced poverty with the help of high agricultural growth rates.
Answer:
Punjab and Haryana are the states which reduced poverty with the help of high agricultural growth rate.

Question 12.
How China and South-East-Asian countries are able to reduce poverty?
Answer:
In China and South-East-Asian countries poverty ratio declines as a result of rapid economic growth and investment in human resource development.

Question 13.
Give two causes of poverty.
Answer:

  1. Low economic growth.
  2. Heavy population pressure.

Question 14.
Name two poverty alleviation programmes.
Answer:

  1. Mahatama Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
  2. Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yozana (SGRY).

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 15.
Name the programme that provides free food to the Govt, school children.
Answer:
Minimum Needs Programme.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by poverty? Explain it.
Answer:
Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life, like food, clothing, shelter, education and health facilities. Man struggles to fulfil these minimum basic needs. If the minimum basic needs are not fulfilled then there is less of health and efficiency among those living in poverty and the country. In other words, poverty is a state of being extremely poor.

Question 2.
Differentiate between Relative Poverty and Absolute Poverty.
Answer:
Relative poverty refers to the distribution of national income acr oss different individuals and households in the country. The economic conditions of different regions or countries is compared under relative poverty. On the other hand absolute poverty refers to the measure of poverty, keeping in view the per capita intake of calories and minimum level of consumption. It refers to income and consumption levels in a country.

Question 3.
What are the problems faced by the poor people?
Answer:
Some of the most important problems faced by the poor people are as follows :

  1. Social discrimination
  2. Housing
  3. Subculture of poverty.

After 67 years of planning India is still one of the poorest countries in the world. Some of the variables on which the poor differ for others are degree of participation in the labour force, kind of employment, characteristics of family, degree of knowledge of the larger society, awareness of political, social and economic rights.

Question 4.
Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.
Answer:
The poverty line is estimated based on consumption levels in India. If a person has basic needs fulfilled which include minimum level of food, clothing, educational and medical needs, etc. These minimum consumptions are then calculated in rupees and total becomes the minimum income required to fulfil basic needs. A person is considered poor if his income level falls below the minimum level necessary to fulfil basic needs.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 5.
Describe the major indicators of poverty.
Answer:
Keeping in view the different aspects of poverty, social scientists are trying to use a variety of indicators to measure poverty. Usually the indicator used to measure poverty are related to the level of income and consumption. But social scientists have also included social indicators like illiteracy level, malnutrition, lack of access to health care, lack of job opportunities and lack of safe drinking water. Social exclusion is another common indicator on which the analysis of poverty is based.

Question 6.
Describe the poverty trends in India since 1993-94.
Answer:
Percentage of people living below the poverty line has decreased in the last two decades. Though there is a decline in both rural and urban poverty but decline in rural poverty is less compared to decline in urban poverty.

In 1993-94, 403.7 million of people or 44.3% of population was living below the poverty line. The proportion of people below poverty line came down to 37.2% in 2004-05 and further to 21.7% in 2011-12.

Question 7.
Briefly describe the inter-state disparities in poverty in India.
Answer:
There is difference among the proportion of poor people in states. Estimates show that average Indian HCR was 21.7% in 2011-12 but states like Odisha and Bihar are the two poorest states with poverty ratio 32.6 and 33.7 respectively. In comparsion there has been a significant decline in poverty in Kerala, J&K, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana. These states have used agricultural growth and human capital growth to reduce poverty.

Question 8.
What are the three main causes of poverty in India?
Answer:
There are a number of causes for widespread poverty in India :
1. Low economic growth. India was under British rule for more than 100 years. British politics discouraged the traditional textile industries and small and cottage industries which were flourishing in India. This resulted in less job opportunities and low growth rate of incomes. Due to this overall poverty rate could not be reduced.

2. High Prices. Continuously rising prices have badly affected the poor. Rising prices take away a major portion of their income and thus make them more poor.

3. Low Productivity in Agriculture. Agricultural production is very low due to sub-divided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. It is the main cause of poverty in India.

Question 9.
Promotion of economic growth helps in reducing poverty. Explain.
Answer:
Stepping up the pace of growth is an ultimate solution to the problem of poverty in India. When the pace of growth increases, employment both in farms and industries increases. Greater employment lesser the poverty. Since the eighties India’s economic growth has been one of the fastest in the world. Economic growth provides opportunities and the resources needed to reduce poverty and help in economic development.

Question 10.
What are the main features of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005?
Answer:
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005 aims to provide 100 days of wage employment to every household. This ensures a regular, wage in rural areas and promotes sustainable development. l/3rd of proposed jobs have been reserved for women. The control of the state govt, will establish employment guarantee funds for the implementation of the scheme.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 11.
Explain any three poverty alleviation programmes undertaken by the Government of India.
Answer:

  1. Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY). It was launched with an objective to provide employment opportunity to the surplus workers and to develop regional, social and economic conditions.
  2. Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY). It was started in 2000 aimed at improving the health, primary education, drinking water, housing and roads of the rural areas with additional central assistance.
  3. Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY). It was launched in the year 2000. Under this scheme poor families were identified and twenty five kilograms of foodgrains were made available to each family at a very subsidised rate of ₹ 2 per kg for wheat and ₹ 3 per kg for rice.

VI. Intext Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Discuss under what conditions the poor families of your village or city are living?
Answer:
In my village the poor families are living with irregular jobs, lack of good health, unhygienic living conditions and unable to send children to schools.

Question 2.
After reading the cases of rural and urban poverty, discuss the below-mentioned reasons of poverty and find out whether these are the reasons of poverty in both mentioned cases or not.
1. Landless family
Answer:
Landless family. In both the cases of rural and urban areas families have no land to cultivate.

2. Unemployment
Answer:
Unemployment. Unemployment forced them to do household chores at a very meagerable rates.

3. Big family
Answer:
Big family. Big size of the family is also the cause of poverty in both the cases.

4. Illiteracy.
Answer:
Illiteracy. Families are illiterate and even they are not sending their wards to school.

5. Poor health and undernourished
Answer:
Poor health and undernourished. They are sick people and cannot afford treatment. Their children are undernourished and items like shoes, soap and oil are luxury items for their families.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 3.
Graph Poverty ratio in selected states
im-1
(i) Looking at the graph name the five states with the highest percentage of poor people.
Answer:
Five states with the highest percentage of poor people are Bihar, Odisha, Assam, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

(ii) Name the states where estimates of poverty are less than 22% but more than 15%.
Answer:
They are West Bengal, Maharastra and Gujarat.

(iii) Name the states with the highest poverty percentage and with lowest poverty percentage.
Answer:
The state with the highest percentage of poverty is Bihar and with the lowest poverty percentage is Kerala.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Poverty: Challenge Facing India Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
In 1993-94 the percentage of poor in India was :
(a) 44.3%
(b) 32%
(c) 19.3%
(d) 38.3%.
Answer:
(a) 44.3%.

Question 2.
Which is the poverty determination measure?
(a) Headcount ratio
(b) Sen’s Index
(c) Poverty Gap Index
(d) All of these.
Answer;
(d) All of these.

Question 3.
Which country of the world has the highest per capita income in dollars term?
(a) U.S.A.
(b) Switzerland
(c) Norway
(d) Japan.
Answer:
(c) Norway.

Question 4.
What type of poverty can make the comparison of two countries possible?
(a) Absolute Poverty
(b) Relative Poverty
(c) Both of them
(d) None of them.
Answer:
(b) Relative Poverty.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 5.
In which State there is the highest poverty in India?
(a) Odisha
(b) Bihar
(c) Madhya Pradesh
(d) West Bengal.
Answer:
(a) Odisha.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
_________ is the inability to get the minimum consumption requirements for life, health and efficiency.
Answer:
Poverty

Question 2.
_________ poverty is that poverty in which minimum physical quantities of national requirement are determined for a subsistence level.
Answer:
Absolute

Question 3.
In _________ poverty we compare the relative level of income of the population. It refers to poverty in relation to different classes, regions and other countries.
Answer:
Relative

Question 4.
There are _________ types of poverty.
Answer:
two

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 5.
_________ refers to that amount of purchasing power by which people can satisfy their minimum basic needs.
Answer:
Poverty.

True/False:

Question 1.
There are two types of poverty, absolute and relative poverty.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Poverty is the main problem of India.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Head count ratio refers to the percentage of population below poverty line.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Rising population implies rising incidence of poverty in India.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Head count ratio and poverty incidence ratio are identical terms.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the proportion of world’s poor which live in India?
Answer:
One fifth of the world’s poor live in India.

Question 2.
How many children under the age of five die annually in India according to UNICEF?
Answer:
About 2.3 million children.

Question 3.
What was the percentage of population below poverty line in 2011-12 in India?
Answer:
21.7 per cent.s

Question 4.
Write the types of poverty.
Answer:
Types are:

  1. Absolute poverty
  2. Relative Poverty.

Question 5.
What is Calorie?
Answer:
Calorie is the energy given to a person by a full day’s food.

Question 6.
State the full form of NSSO.
Answer:
National Sample Survey Organisation.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why do different countries use a different poverty line?
Answer:
Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms. For example, a person not having a car in the United States may be considered poor. In India, owning of a car is still considered a luxury.

Question 2.
What is ‘National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005’?
Answer:
The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts. Later, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts. Now this scheme is implemente. in all the districts of the country.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 3.
Give an account of Inter-state disparities of poverty in India.
Answer:
This proportion of poverty is not the same in every state. Although state level poverty has witnessed a secular decline from the level of early seventies, the success rate of reducing poverty varies from state to state.

In India, Odisha and Bihar continue to be the two poorest states with poverty ratios of 47% and 43% respectively, while poverty ratios of Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab is 3.5% and 6.2% respectively.

Question 4.
What is ‘National Food-for-Work Programme’ (NFWP)?
Answer:
National Food-for-Work Programme was launched in 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country. The programme is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual unskilled work. It is implemented as a 100 per cent centrally sponsored scheme and foodgrains are provided free of cost to those districts.

Question 5.
What is ‘Rural Employment Generation Programme’?
Answer:
Rural Employment Generation Programme was launched in 1995. The aim of the programme is to create self-employment opportunities in rural areas and in small towns. A target for creating 25 lakh new jobs has been set for the programme under the Tenth Five Year Plan.

Question 6.
Write a short note on ‘Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana-(SGSY) and ‘Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY).
Answer:
1. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY). It was launched in 1999. The programme aims at bringing the assisted poor families above the poverty line by organising them into self-help groups through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.

2. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY). It was implemented in 2000. Additional central assistance is given to states for basic service such as primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural-electrification.

Question 7.
Write any two main features of the NREGA which help in alleviating poverty.
Answer:
Following are the main features of NREGA :

  1. This Act Provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in all districts. One third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women.
  2. Under the programme, if an applicant is not provided employment within fifteen days he will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 8.
Name two social and two economic groups that are most vulnerable to poverty. When does the situation for such a group become more acute?
Answer:
Two social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty are Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe households. Similarly, among the economic groups, the most vulnerable groups are the rural agricultural labour households and the urban casual labour households.

The situation of such a group becomes more acute when women, elderly people and female infants are systematically denied equal access to resources available to the family.

Question 9.
Describe global poverty trends.
Answer:
The proportion of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty defined by the World Bank as living on less than $1 per day has fallen from 28 per cent in 1990 to 21 per cent in 2001. Although there has been a substantial reduction substantially in China and South-East Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investments in human resources development.

Question 10.
What poverty really means to people?
Answer:
The official definition of poverty however captures only a limited part of what poverty really means to people. It is about a “minimum” subsistence level of living rather than a “reasonable” level of living. Many scholars advocate that we must broaden the concept into human poverty. Worldwide experience shows that with the increase in development, the definition of poverty also changes.

Question 11.
Explain any three features of Public Distribution System.
Answer:
Following are the features of PDS.

  1. It is used as an important activity of the state to ensure food security to the people, particularly the poor ones.
  2. The prices of the goods sold through PDS in fair prices shops will be less than that of the market price. The cost of this price difference will be borne by the government. This amount is known as subsidy.
  3. This system controls unscrupulous rise in prices for essential goods in the markets.

Question 12.
How is poverty line fixed in India?
Answer:
While fixing the poverty line in India, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, foot-wear, educational and medical requirements are determined for subsistence. These physical quantities are multiplied by their prices in rupees. The present formula for food requirement while estimating the poverty line is based on the desired calories requirement. The calories vary depending on age, sex and the type of work that a person does. The accepted average calories requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas. On the basis of these calculations, for the year 2000, the poverty line for a person was fixed at ₹ 328 per month for the rural areas and ₹ 454 for the urban areas.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 13.
Explain the following issues on the basis of textbook :
(a) Landless
Answer:
Landless: Landless is that person who does not own any land. Lakha Singh is treated as landless.

(b) Unemployment
Answer:
Unemployment: Unemployment is a situation in which those people who are able and willing to work at existing wage rate cannot get work. Ram Saran and Lakha Singh’s families are unemployed or under-employed.

(c) Size of families
Answer:
Size of Families: By the size of families we mean the number of persons in a family. Generally the size of poor families like Ram Saran and Lakha Singh are very large.

(d) Illiteracy
Answer:
Illiteracy: Person who cannot read and write is treated as illiterate poor person.

(e) Poor health/Malnutrition.
Answer:
Poor health/Malnutrition: Poor health means who have no access to health care and remain ill. Malnutrition means undernourishment.

Question 14.
Examine the concept of social exclusion of poverty.
Answer:
According to this concept, poverty must be seen in terms of the poor having to live only in poor surroundings with other people, excluded from enjoying social equality of better-off people in better surroundings. Social exclusion can be both a cause as well as a consequence of poverty in the usual sense. Broadly, it is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that other (their ‘betters’) enjoy. A typical example is the working of the caste system in India in which people belonging to certain castes are excluded from equal opportunities. Social exclusion thus may lead to, but can cause more damage than, having a very low income.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 15.
Examine the ‘Vulnerability’ to poverty.
Answer:
Vulnerability to poverty is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities (say, members of a backward caste) or individuals (such as a widow or a physically handicapped person) of becoming or remaining poor in the coming years. Vulnerability is determined by the option available to different communities for finding alternative living in terms of asset’s, education, health and job opportunities. Further, it is analysed on the basis of the greater risks these groups face at the time of natural disasters, terrorism, etc. Additional analysis is made of their social and economic ability to handle these risks. In fact, vulnerability describes the greater probability of being more adversely affected than other people when bad time comes for everybody, whether a flood or an earthquake or simply a fall in the availability of jobs.

Question 16.
What are the main causes of poverty in India?
Or
Explain any three causes for the widespread of poverty in India.
Answer:
The main causes of poverty in India are the following :

  1. Underdeveloped Nature of the Economy. India’a economy is an underdeveloped economy. Its per capita income is low. Thus, its underdeveloped nature is closely associated with poverty.
  2. Rapid Growth of Population. Rapid growth of population in overpopulated countries like India is the main cause of poverty. In these countries, the national income increases but the per capita income remains more or less the same due to the increase in population.
  3. Casual Nature of Employment. Most of the Indian population lives in rural area. The nature of employment in rural, as well as urban areas, is casual and intermittent which is closely related to poverty.
  4. Predominance of Agriculture. Agriculture is the principal means of livelihood. It is the primary asset to rural people. Productivity of land is an important determinant of material well being, but the productivity of land in India is very low. Thus, people remain struck in poverty.

Question 17.
Explain any five measures to reduce poverty in India.
Or
How poverty can be removed in India?
Answer:
Following are the measures by which poverty can be reduced in India :
1. Population Control. Growing population is a major cause of poverty in India. So, it ig necessary to control it. Family planning programme should be implemented effectively to control population explosion.

2. Creation of More Employment Opportunities. Though it has been stated in our constitution that the government would provide employment opportunities to all, but unemployment is still a big problem in India. It is also responsible for poverty. Hence, it is essential to promote employment through intensive development technology.

3. Check on Price Rise. Price rise is also, responsible for poverty in India. It decidedly goes against the interests of the poor. So, price rise must be checked through proper, fiscal and monetary policies and other measures.

4. More Emphasis on Small, Rural and Cottage Industries. Small scale and cottage industries have not developed fully in India, It is essential to develop such industries as their development will help the poor. So, government should adopt effective methods to expand small scale and cottage industries which will increase the self-employment opportunities.

5. Stepping up Capital Formation. Low rate of capital formation is a major hindrance in the way of fast economic development. The rate of capital formation, therefore, must be increased. As it basically depends on the saving rate, ever possible effort should be made to increase savings and their mobilisation.

Question 18.
Explain five important anti-poverty measures undertaken by the Government of India.
Answer:

  1. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005. The act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts.
  2. National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) 2004. It was launched in 150 most backward districts of the country. It was open to all rural poor who were in need of wage employment.
  3. Prime Minister Rozgar Yogana (PMRY) 1993. The aim is to create self-employment opportunities for educated youth in rural areas and small towns.
  4. Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) 1995. The aim is to create self-employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns.
  5. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) 1999. It aims at bringing assisted poor families above the poverty line, by organising them into self-help groups through bank credit and government subsidy.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How is poverty line Fixed in India?
Answer:
Following are the important method to fix the poverty line in India :

  1. In order to estimate the consumption cut-off, the private consumption expenditure is taken into consideration.
  2. In case of private consumption expenditure, both food and non-food items of rural and urban areas are taken into consideration.
  3. The per capita consumption of calories is considered for the food items. In case of non-food items, only socio-economic factors such as literacy level health, life expectancy, birth rate, death rate, etc., are shown. For this purpose, a Frequency distribution is constructed and class interval range denotes the level of calorie consumption. The lower class indicates lower level of calorie consumption whereas the higher class show higher range of calorie consumption.
  4. Every frequency counts the number of calories belonging to the respective consumption class.
  5. The Head Count Ratio is calculated to find out the percentage of poor and non-poor population for the rural and urban areas, particularly the Below Poverty Line population.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India

Question 2.
Suggest measures to remove poverty in India.
Answer:
Measures to Remove Poverty. Removal of poverty is a big problem before India. This problem should be solved as soon as possible. Unless we are able to provide the public all the necessities of life, our political freedom is useless and any development is also meaningless. The problem of poverty is a big danger to the unity of India. As we have seen, not only one reason but many like economic, social and political reasons are responsible for it. So, we have to adopt many programmes, covering different aspects together, in order to remove poverty.

The following suggestions can be made to remove poverty :
1. Population Control. Growing population is a major cause of poverty in India. So, it is necessary to control it. Family planning programme should be implemented effectively.

2. Creation of More Employment Opportunities. Though it has been stated in our Constitution that, the government would provide employment opportunities to all, but unemployment is still a big problem in India. It is also responsible for poverty. Hence, it is essential to promote employment through intensive development technology.

3. Increase in Production. Industrial and agricultural production should be increased to remove poverty. Present capacity should be utilised fully and new techniques should be adopted. Proper coordination should be there between large scale and small scale industries. Superior seeds, manures, fertilizers, and modern methods of production should be adopted for agricultural development. Necessary irrigation facilities should be made available and social structure in rural areas should also be modified. Land reforms should be implemented sincerely. All these suggestions can be helpful in increasing agricultural and industrial production.

4. Check on Price Rise. Price rise is also responsible for poverty in India. It decidedly goes against the interests of the poor. So, price rise must be checked through proper fiscal and monetary policies and other measures.
5. More Emphasis on Small, Rural and Cottage Industries. Small scale and cottage industries have not developed fully in India. It is essential to develop such industries as their development will help the poor. So, Govt. should adopt effective methods to expand small and cottage industries which will increase the self¬employment opportunities for the poor.

Poverty: Challenge Facing India PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Poverty: Poverty has been defined as a situation in which a person fails to earn sufficient income to buy bare means of subsistence.
  • Social Exclusion: The poor have to live only in poor surroundings with other poor people.
  • Vulnerability: Poverty is a measure that describes the greater probability of certain communities of becoming or remaining poor in the coming years.
  • Measurement of Poverty
    (i) Relative Poverty
    (ii) Absolute Poverty.
  • Relative Poverty: It refers to the distribution of national income across different individuals and households in the country.
  • Absolute Poverty: It refers to the measure of poverty, keeping in view the per capita intake of calories and minimum level of consumption.
  • Poverty line: It is the method to measure the minimum income required to satisfy the basic needs of life.
  • Calorie: It is the energy given to a person by a full day’s food.
  • Causes of poverty:
    (i) Low economic growth
    (ii) Heavy population pressure
    (iii) Rural Economy.
  • Anti-poverty measures:
    (i) Promotion of economic growth
    (ii) Poverty alleviation programmes.
  • World-wide estimates of poverty: More than one-fifth of the world’s poor people live in India.
  • Calories measure: The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas.
  • Daily wages labourers: A worker who is paid for work on a daily basis.
  • Consumption: Destruction of utility is called consumption.
  • Income: Money is received, especially on a regular basis, for work or through investment.
  • Investment: Expenditure for further production is called investment.
  • Inequalities: An instance of being unequal.
  • Gender Discrimination: Discrimination in terms of Gender, caste or any other respect.
  • Poorest: States of India Odisha and Bihar.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty: Challenge Facing India Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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