Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 8 Disaster Management Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 8 Disaster Management
SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Disaster Management Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions in 1-15 words:
What is meant by the disasters?
Any natural or man-made happening that causes loss of life and property in a region is called a disaster.
What are the main natural disasters?
Earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, floods, drought, cyclones, landslides, and icebergs slide.
What is included in the subject of Disaster Management?
Disaster Management includes steps to reduce the damage from disasters. It includes :
- Preparedness before disaster
- Protection at the time of disaster
- To maintain the social life after disaster.
What is an earthquake? How is it measured?
The sudden shaking of part of the earth is called an earthquake. Its intensity is measured on Richter Scale. This instrument is called Seismograph.
What is a volcano? Write its types.
The interior of earth consists of hot magma. It comes out of the earth through openings. It is called a volcano. It has three types:
- Extinct volcanoes.
How does the Tsunamis originate?
Tsunamis are high tidal waves. These are caused due to sub-marine earthquakes. These are very destructive.
What are the main causes of floods?
- Heavy rainfall
- Cloud burst
- Absence of proper drainage
- Dam burst
- Deposition on river beds,
- Settlements in the river course.
What is a cyclone? By what other names is it called?
Cyclones are violent wind system with a wind velocity of more than 63 km per hour. These are called hurricanes in North America, Typhoons in S.E. Asia and Depressions in India.
What can be the cause of Landslides?
Landslides are caused due to :
- Internal forces of earth
- Heavy rainfall
- Volcanic activity
What do you mean by human disasters?
Human disasters are related with human activities. Bomb-blasts and Terrorism are its examples.
What do you understand from the term ‘epidemic’?
When a disease breaks out on a large scale and attacks people, it is called an epidemic. Dysentery, Dengu, Yellow fever, Cholera are called epidemics.
II. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words :
How do the disasters affect man?
Disasters affect man in the following ways :
- There is a loss of life and property.
- The civic facilities are disrupted and disturbed.
- People get separated from their families.
- Crops and cattle are swept away.
- Epidemics break out due to decayed corpses.
- Progress made in years is destroyed in minutes.
Mention causes of earthquakes and the major earthquake regions of the world.
Earthquakes are caused due to internal movements. Tectonic plates drift and earthquake waves are caused. The earth shakes and an earthquake occurs.
- About 2/3 of earthquakes occurs in Ring of Fire along Pacific coast.
- Earthquakes occur in Himalayas and Alps.
- In India, Jammu & Kashmir, Western Himalayas, Central Himachal, N.E. India, Ganga- Sutlej plain, Rajasthan, Gujarat and group of islands are earthquake zones.
Which precautions should be taken into consideration at the time of the earthquake?
The suitable measures to be taken to protect oneself from the damage caused by earthquakes are :
- Earthquake-resistant buildings need to be constructed in both the highest and high-risk zone areas.
- The buildings should be flexible and strong.
- The building plan should have the building codes which have been prescribed.
- Existing buildings which are not earthquake resistant must be strengthened structurally.
- Even individuals should be taught how to protect themselves during an earthquake in schools and colleges by giving them daily drills about it.
- There should be no confusion and fear.
- People should nor rush out.
- People should help the victims.
What protective measures should be taken to save ourselves from Volcanoes and Tsunamis?
Safety from Volcanoes:
- There should be no building near volcanq.es.
- Move away from a volcanic area. Use fast means of transport.
- Govt, should be prepared for every help.
Safety from Tsunami:
- Do not go towards sea when you come to know about Tsunami.
- The boats and ships should return to coast.
- Fishermen should go into the ocean only when waves are subdued.
- If the Tsunami waves travel with a high velocity, people should leave the coastal area.
- All should help the victims.
- Govt should make prepared to meet any emergency.
Which (steps) should be taken for protection from droughts?
- Water resources should be properly used.
- Harvesting of rainwater must be popularised among the people.
- Small dams for collecting water should be built.
- Trees should be grown.
- Farmers should be encouraged to join crops and insurance schemes.
- Such crops should be grown which need small amount of water.
- Water from other areas be supplied.
- Water should be collected in tanks.
Which measures can save us from disasters like epidemics?
- The best way to save one self from epidemics is to save oneself from disasters; pure water and clear environment helps one in it.
- Proper medical help be provided. There should be treatment facilities in Hospitals.
- Slums should not develop near towns.
- Regular medical check up be done in schools, villages and towns.
III. Answer the following questions in about 125-130 words :
Which protective measures should we adopt to save ourselves from disasters like floods and cyclones? Write in detail.
- To avoid residing on river banks and slopes on riversides and the sides of gorges.
- To build at least 250 meters away from the sea coast/river banks.
- To provide a proper, drainage system in all flood prone areas, so that the water can be drained off quickly to prevent accumulation.
- To construct the building with a plinth level higher than the known high flood level.
- To construct the whole village or settlement on a raised platform higher than the high flood level.
- To construct buildings on stilts or columns with wall-free space at ground level.
- People should get weather forecasting from the meteorological deptt. from time to time.
- Huts and houses should not be built near coastal areas.
- People should be shifted to schools, buildings
- Fishermen, sailors, ships should not go into oceans.
- Strong wind-resistant houses be built.
- Flood control measures be taken.
- Trees should be planted to check winds.
- Govt, should provide information about the coming of cyclones.
What are human disasters? Explain the disaster management of any two human disasters in detail.
Human disasters are related to human activities and industries—man causes these unintentionally. Bomb explosion, terrorist attacks and dam burst are examples.
1. Bomb explosion and Terrorist attack. Bombs are made to be used during war. But some people cause confusion and fear among people by bomb explosion. Many innocent people die and mostly hurt. These hinder the development of a country. On 11 September, 2001 Bomb attacks were made in New York on World Trade Tower buildings.
Precautions during a Bomb Scare
- Do not touch any doubtful packet.
- Beware of the objects that are left on their own in public areas: suitcases, boxes, packages, etc.
- Do not approach the objects yourself.
- Do not allow people to touch doubtful articles.
- Inform the police and after their arrival leave the area.
- Avoid panic.
2. Dam Burst: Dams are used to store water. When a dam bursts, serious damage is done. In case of a big dam, it becomes a disaster. Life is disrupted. Cattle and crops are swept away. Flood control measures be used. Special precautions be used to save life and property.
Prepare a report of 3-4 pages on natural disaster faced by India in Uttarakhand in June 2013.
The recent flash floods in Uttarakhand have caused huge damages.
Torrential Rainfall. The torrential rainfall in the Uttarakhand Himalayas of June, 2013 resulted into huge death and destruction. It left hundreds dead; thousand marooned and washed away scores of villages, inundated the eight century Kedarnath temple. The famous Manikarinika tfemple on the banks of Bhagirathi was swept away by swirling waters of the river. Houses and small apartment blocks on the banks of Bhagirathi, Alaknanda and Mandakini have been toppled into the rushing, swollen waters and been swept away along with cars and trucks.
The extent of damage due to flash floods in many parts of the seven districts of Uttarakhand is mind-numbing. Single-story houses simply disappeared, many double-storey houses crumbled due to the weakening of its foundation. The disaster stuck when the Chardham Yatra was going on with congregation of around 75,000 pilgrims from all over the country. The Central Government, along with Indian Army, Indian Air Force (IAF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) and Border Road Organisation (BRO) rescued around 33,000 stranded pilgrims, The flooding was so fierce and disastrous that people named it Himalayan Tsunami.
A Man-Made Disaster. Many environmentalists termed this event as a man-made disaster. According to them human action leading to environmental altercations aggravated the problem and reduced the natural defense system. In the last three decades the region has witnessed demographic changes, deforestation, rapid urbanisation and expansion of roads. The environmentalists emphasised that mountains have a certain carrying capacity that should never be exceeded at any cost. Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh are the two Himalayan states that were worst hit by monsoonal flash floods in June 2013. Man-made factors compounded the scale of the disaster.
Unabated expansion of hydroelectricity power projects and construction of roads to accommodate ever increasing tourism, specially religious tourism, are the main reasons of unprecedented devastation. Mindless illegal construction of resorts, guest house, roads has taken place in this ecoSgically fragile region to accommodate tourists. Buildings have been constructed over flood ways, old drains and streams blocking the natural pathway of the water. On June 15-16, 2013, the Alaknanda River and its tributary Mandakini occupied their flood ways and started flowing along the old courses where human habitation has come up with the passage of time.
The Mandakini changed its course to the west. The sediment-loaded river washed away shops, guest houses/lodges etc., killing people who were present at the time.
Kedarnath Dham, a place of serenity and devotion, which was dotted by only few huts in 1882 was mushroomed by haphazard illegal constructions of buildings, shops, hotels/ lodges etc,, blocking the natural flow of the Alaknanda river.
Ganga and its tributaries like Alaknanda, Mandakini, Bhagirathi, Kali Ganga, Gauri Ganga, were swept away or excessively damaged due to flash floods.
Due to increased anthropogenic activities and terrain instability, Uttarakhand had always remained prone to landslides. Even during August and September 2010, Uttarakhand. Himalayas witnessed large scale slope destabilisation.
The June, 2013 Uttarakhand disaster, also known as Himalayan Tsunami was actually triggered by very heavy rainfall during June 16-18 and unusual behaviour of monsoon this year in India.
Rainfall measurement for June 16 and 17, 2013, at the Dehradun station was 220 millimeters and 370 millimeters respectively. It Indicates the severity of the rainfall. Haridwar received 107 mm and 218 mm of rainfall in two days. Uttarkashi received 122 mm and 207 mm. While Mukteshwar (at the altitude of 2000 m) received 237 mm and 183 mm respectively on June 17 and 18, Nainital, on the very same day, received 170 mm rainfall.
It was the army personnel who worked tirelessly and put their lives in danger to help and rescue stranded lbcals and pilgrims affected by flash floods. They provided people essential materials such as food, blankets and medicines. The Indian Air Force (IAF) put to use some of the best military skills to help people in flood ravaged zones of Uttarakhand and rescued hundreds of fatigued and exhausted, stranded pilgrims and locals. Operation ‘Rahat’ was the biggest ever helicopter based rescue operation in history. 45 choppers made sorties day in and day out despite bad weather and hazardous conditions. It mobilized the resources, evacuated people to relief and base camps and carried out extensive search and rescue operations creating a world record. The unusual advance of summer monsoon, combined with cloudbursts (still not confirmed) and geophysical dynamics (loose soil, landslides and lake bursts) had channeled huge devastation through massive flash flooding in Uttarakhand, which turned into a major disaster due to the combined impact of anthropogenic activities and breaching of the carrying capacity due to irresponsible tourism.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Disaster Management Important Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions :
Which one of the following is not a zone of high earthquake intensity?
(a) N.E. India
(c) the Himalayas
Which temple was affected by the Uttarakhand disaster?
(a) Kedarnath temple
(b) Sun temple
(c) Mandakani temple
(d) Vaishno Devi temple.
(a) Kedarnath temple.
On which scale shows damage done by earthquake?
(a) Richter scale
(b) Marcoli scale
(c) Ritcher scale
(d) None of the above.
(b) Marcoli scale.
When was World Trade Centre attacked?
(a) 12 ,Sept. 2011
(b) 11, Sept. 2001
(c) 12, Sept. 2001
(d) 13, Sept. 2001.
(b) 11, Sept. 2001.
Which one of the following Disaster Management Institute not in Delhi?
(a) Indira Gandhi Open University
(b) Central Board of Secondary Education
(c) Disaster Management National Centre
(d) Disaster Management Institute.
(d) Disaster Management Institute.
Look at the following picture and write the name of the disaster shown in the picture.
On 26th December, 2004 Maninder went to the seashore with his parents to enjoy. Suddenly high waves started appearing in the sea. What should they do in this situation?
(a) They shout loudly.
(b) They need to stand under a tree.
(c) Stay at the same place.
(d) Move away from the sea to a secure place.
(d) Move away from the sea to a secure place.
You are having a class test. Suddenly the fans and the doors of the room start shaking. Tell What type of natural disaster is it?
(d) None of these
Fill in the Blanks:
_________ hazard does not occur frequently.
Earthquake information centre, I.I.T. is in _________
_________ is the cause of road accidents.
Volcano is a _________ in the earth’s crust through which molten rocks out to the surface of the earth.
_________ are sliding mass of rocks down the slope.
Bomb explosions are natural resources.
Dams are used to store water.
Hits and houses should not be built near coastal areas.
On intensity Richter scale-7 earthquakes are considered dangerous.
Alaknanda and Mandakani are two river which are overflowed.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What are the ill-effects of a disaster?
Loss of life, property and cause damage to a large number of people.
Which intensity, earthquakes are considered dangerous?
On Richter Scale-8.
On which two buildings was a major Terrorist attack made in U.SA?
On 11 Sept., 2001 in New York-Tower buildings and Pentagon.
Define Focus and Epicentre.
Focus is the origin of Earthquake waves, Epicentre is the place on the surface of the earth directly above focus.
What damage is done due to earthquake?
- Cracks appear in buildings. Houses, roads, bridges, railways are disrupted. People die.
- Water, gas, electricity supply is closed.
On 26th December, 2004. How many countries were affected by Tsunamis? How many people were killed?
11 countries of Asia and Africa were affected by Tsunami. About 10 lakh people were killed
What is a flood?
When the river water spreads beyond its bank it is called a flood.
What are cyclones and tropical cyclones? How are these caused?
Cyclones are whirlwind of high speed winds. Their velocity is more than 63 km per hour. These are caused due to pressure. These mostly occur between 5°-206 latitudes
What is a drought?
- It is prolonged period of dry weather in a region, where some rain might be expected.
- Droughts last for years.
- They are caused because of changes in climate and human activities.
- It leads to acute shortage of water, food and fodder.
Which temple was affected by the Uttarakhand disaster?
Name the two rivers which overflowed.
Alaknanda and Mandakani.
Name a major chemical disaster which occurred in India.
Bhopal Gas tragedy.
According to the device that measures the intensity of earthquake, 12 means complete destruction. What is this device called?
Short Answer Type Questions
Distinguish between Richter scale and Marcoli scale.
Richter Scale. It is a scale used to measure intensity of earthquakes. It shows intensity of tremors on Richter scale, an earthquake with intensity of 8 is considered dangerous.
Marcoli scale shows damage done by earthquakes. It shows 0 to 12 as the damage increases.
Name the different type of volcanoes.
Types of volcanoes
1. Active volcanoes. The volcanoes that erupt frequently and are always emitting lava are called active volcanoes. Mauna Loa in Hawaii is islands the largest active volcano in the world. There are about 150 active volcanoes in the world.
2. Dormant volcanoes. Dormant volcanoes are also called sleeping volcanoes. These volcanoes have been active in the past; stopped ejecting lava now, but can erupt any time. The Vesuvius of Italy is such a dormant volcano.
3. Extinct volcanoes. The volcanoes which have never erupted in human history are called extinct or dead volcanoes, such as Kilimanjaro in Africa.
How do cyclones become a disaster? Describe the damage done by these.
In a cyclone, when winds move with a velocity of 100 kms per hour it becomes a disaster. These damage the adjoining areas.
- They are intense storms that develop over warm and tropical oceans between 5° and 20° North and South of Equator.
- The velocity of winds exceeds 10 km per hour which cause large-scale destruction in its path.
- The crops are damaged, trees are uprooted.
- They destroy telephone and electricity lines.
- They blow away weak structures like; roofs, etc.
- It also destroys houses and other settlements which effects human lives
Describe the disaster and precautions for Dam Burst.
Dams are used for reservoirs to store more water. Dam burst causes floods. When there is a big dam, it is a disaster. Whole life is disrupted. Govt, should take measures to save life and property.
What do you know about disaster caused by Industrial accidents?
Industries have big machines and plants. Many gases are used in these. Sometimes accidents occur due to leakage of gases like Bhopal Gas Tragedy. There ill-effects are :
- The fire causes huge loss of life and property
- Temperature increases
- Poisonous gases kill people
- Various respiratory diseases spread
- People become unemployed
- Environment is degraded.
What measures are taken for safety during industrial accidents?
The following precautions should be taken against fire:
- Do not keep flammable liquids in the house.
- In case of fire, the evacuation route should be used.
- Install a fire extinguisher on a wall in your house.
- All electrical and gas appliances should be shut when you are going out of the house.
- Do not create a panic.
Long Answer Type Question
Describe the disasters caused due to landslides and avalanches. Suggest measures to reduce the risk.
Landslides. Groundwater increases the weight of the rock or the soil which contains it. Sometimes a mass of earth saturated with water slides down a hill slope causing landslides.
Causes: One or more causes such as lubrication by rains or melting snow, steep slopes and unusual structures, earthquakes, removal of support, or gravity may produce landslides. Lubrication of rocks takes place by means of rains or melting snows as in many parts of the Himalayas. Rocks become slippery and slide down. Steep slopes may be caused by the sliding of rocks straight through faulting or by quarries made by man. The sides of these may collapse on accounts of other factors.
Effects of landslides. Landslides and rock slides are of frequent occurrence in many mountains. National highways are closed. Cattle and vehicles suffer a lot.
Measures to reduce the risk during the landslides :
- Cutting down of trees must be stopped on mountain slopes.
- Avoiding construction of buildings on steep slopes.
- Building codes have to be followed strictly.
- Drainage should be proper.
- Afforestation on slopes is done.
- Retaining walls along roads are built.
Avalanches: The. sliding of ice along the slope leads to avalanches downwards. These cause a lot of damage to roads, cattle, human beings, buildings, etc. When the pressure of ice increases, it slides down the slopes.
- Knowledge of avalanches is provided to people.
- Afforestation can check it.
- Barriers should be built to check the movement of avalanches.
- Ice-breaking machines are used to clear ice on roads.
- Relief is given to victims.