PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration Textbook Questions and Answers

I.. Write down the answer to the following questions :

Question 1.
When and which act was passed to check the working of the East India Company?
Answer:
The Regulating Act was passed in 1773 A.D. to check the working of the East India Company.

Question 2.
When and under which act the board of control was constituted?
Answer:
Board of Control was made in 1784 A.D. under Pitt’s India Act.

Question 3.
Who was the founder of Civil Services in India?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis was the founder of Civil Services in India.

Question 4.
Who was the first Indian to have passed the examination of the Indian Civil Services?
Answer:
The first Indian to pass the examination of Indian Civil Services was Satindra Nath Tagore. He passed this examination in 1863 A.D.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 5.
Which was the highest post given to Indian sepoy?
Answer:
Subedar was the highest post to be given to Indian soldiers in the military.

Question 6.
Which Governor-General made improvement in the police department and why?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis made improvement in the police department. His aim was to establish law, order and peace in the state.

Question 7.
When Indian Law Commission was constituted and why?
Answer:
Indian Law Commission was constituted in 1833 A.D. It was established for the compilation of laws.

Question 8.
What do you mean by Regulating Act?
Answer:
An Act was passed in 1773 A.D. to check the working of the English East India Company. It was known as the Regulating Act. According to this Act :

  1. The civil and military administration of the company came under the check of the British Parliament. The Parliament got control over its revenues too.
  2. The Governor of Bengal was made the Governor-General of British India. A council of members was appointed to help the Governor-General in discharging his duties.
  3. The Governor-General was empowered to control the two presidencies of Bombay and Madras.

Question 9.
Write a note on Pitt’s India Act.
Answer:
In order to remove the defects of the Regulating Act, the British Parliament passed the Pitt’s India Act in 1784. According to this act :

  1. Political and commercial functions of the company were separated. The Board of Directors was now to look after the commercial activities of the company only.
  2. A Board of Control consisting of six members was formed through which the British Governments could fully control the affairs of the company in India.
  3. The council of the Governor-General was to have three members instead of four, one of these members was to be the commander in chief of India.
  4. The Governor-General in council got full powers to direct and control Bombay and Madras presidencies.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 10.
Which changes were made in the Army after 1858 A.D.?
Answer:
It was necessary to reorganize the army after the great revolt of 1857 A.D. The British didn’t want that soldiers would again go for revolt. So the following changes were brought in Indian military while keeping in mind these things:

  1. The number of British soldiers were increased.
  2. Only Britishers started to be appointed in artillery.
  3. Indians and Europeans in the military of Madras and Bombay were kept in the ratio of 2: 1.
  4. European troops were kept at all the important places from geographical and military point of view.
  5. Now the British started recruiting people of different religions and castes in one regiment of soldiers so that the people of other religions should remain ready to kill people of one religion in case of any rebellion.
  6. Soldiers of Awadh, Bihar and Central India took part in the revolt of 1857 A.D. Now their members in the military was reduced and number of Gorkhas, Sikhs and Pathan soldiers was increased.

Question 11.
Write a note on the judicial system.
Answer:
The British established important judicial system in India. It’s main feature was the written laws.

  1. Warren Hastings established Revenue and Criminal Courts in each district.
  2. According to the Regulating Act of 1773, a Supreme Court was established in Calcutta. Lord Cornwallis prepared a book called Cornwallis code to give directions to judges.
  3. Lord William Bentick started jury system in Bengal in 1832 A.D.
  4. In 1833 A.D., the Indian Law Commission was appointed which completely reorganized the whole judicial system. Right of making laws was given to Governor-General through Charter Act.
  5. Common legal system was introduced in the entire country. According to this, all the Indians were considered as equal in front of law without any discrimination.

Even after this, discrimination with Indians was there and they were deprived of some specific rights. For example, Indian judges were not allowed to hear the cases of the Europeans. Lord Rippen, in 1883 A.D. tried to give this right to the Indian judges but remained unsuccessful.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
In 1886 A.D. Lord _________ appointed a Public Service Commission of 15 members.
Answer:
Rippon

Question 2.
The ratio of Europeans and Indians was 2: 1 in the army after the revolt of _________ A.D.
Answer:
1857

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 3.
In 1773 A.D. according to the Regulating Act, a Supreme Court was established in _________
Answer:
Calcutta.

III. Write True or False for each statement:

Question 1.
The objective of British Policies was to protect the British interests in India.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
During the reign of Carnwalis in India each thana was under a Daroga.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
In 1773 A.D. according to the Regulating Act Supreme Court was established in Calcutta.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
When was the Regulating Act passed?
(a) 1773 A.D.
(b) 1784 A.D.
(c) 1833 A.D.
(d) 1853 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1773 A.D.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 2.
With which Act, the Governor-General and his Council got the right to control Bombay and Madras presidencies?
(a) Pitt’s India Act
(6) Regulating Act
(c) Charter Act, 1833
(d) Charter Act, 1853.
Answer:
(b) Regulating Act.

Question 3.
When was Pitt’s India Act passed?
(a) 1773 A.D.
(b) 1784 A.D.
(c) 1833 A.D.
(d) 1853 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1784 A.D.

Question 4.
With which Act, the Governor-General of Bengal was made the Governor-General of India?
(a) Charter Act, 1853
(b) Pitt’s India Act
(c) Regulating Act
(d) Charter Act, 1833.
Answer:
(d) Charter Act, 1833.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 5.
Who started Civil Service in India?
(a) Lord Cornwallis
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Lord Welleslay.
(d) Lord Canning
Answer:
(a) Lord Cornwallis.

Question 6.
Lord Rippon appointed a Public ServiceCommission with members.
(a) 12
(b) 15
(c) 18
(d) 21.
Answer:
(b) 15.

Question 7.
_________ established Diwani and Criminal Courts in districts.
(a) Lord Wellesley
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Warren Hastings
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Warren-Hastings.

Question 8.
The given picture is of Robert Clive. He is believed to have started this service in India. Name the service.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration 1
(a) Civil Service
(b) Judicial Service
(c) Treasury Service
(d) Police Service.
Answer:
(a) Civil Service.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 9.
Who is the founder of Civil Services in India?
(a) Lord Wellesley
(b) Lord Cornwallis
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Lord William Bentinck.
Answer:
(b) Lord Cornwallis.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Lord _________ appointed 15 members Public Service Commission in 1886.
Answer:
Rippon

Question 2.
The ratio of Indian and British soldiers was made at 2 : 1 after the revolt of _________
Answer:
1857

Question 3.
According to Regulating Act of 1773, Supreme Court was established at _________
Answer:
Calcutta.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
The main aim of the British policies in India was to protect British interests.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 2.
During the times of Cornwallis, every police station was under the control of Daroga.
Answer:
(✓)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 3.
Supreme Court was established at Calcutta in 1773 A.D.
Answer:
(✓).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Central Public Service (i) 1935 A.D
2. Commission Union Public Service (ii) 1926 A.D
3. Commission Separate Legislature (iii) 1832 A.D
4. Jury System in Bengal (iv) 1853 A.D

Answer:

A B
1. Central Public Service (ii) 1926 A.D
2. Commission Union Public Service (i) 1935 A.D
3. Commission Separate Legislature (iv) 1853 A.D
4. Jury System in Bengal (iii) 1832 A.D

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What was the main aim of the administrative policies of the British?
Answer:
To protect their interests in India.

Question 2.
Which were the main parts (basis) of the British administration in India?
Answer:
Civil Service, Army, Police and Judicial System.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 3.
When were the Regulating Act and Pitt’s India Act passed?
Answer:
In 1773 A.D. and 1784 A.D. respectively.

Question 4.
Why was Board of Control established in England? How many members were there of Board of Control?
Answer:
Board of Control in England was established to keep control over the working of company. It had six members.

Question 5.
When, where and why Hellibery College was established? ‘
Answer:
Hellibery College was established in 1806 A.D. in England. It was started to give training to the officers of Civil Service in India.

Question 6.
When was Lee Commission appointed? What did it recommend?
Answer:
Lee Commission was established in 1923 A.D. It recommended to establish Union Public Service Commission and provincial public service commission.

Question 7.
The British policy toward Indians was full of discrimination. Give two reasons in its favour.
Answer:

  1. Indians were not given higher posts in civil services, military and police.
  2. Indians were given very less salary as compared to the British.

Question 8.
What was Illbert Bill?
Answer:
Illbert Bill was introduced by the Viceroy of India Lord Rippen in 1883 A.D. This bill was aimed at giving right of hearing cases of Europeans to the Indian judges. But this bill was not passed.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 9.
By which Act the Supreme Court in Calcutta was established?
Answer:
Supreme Court in Calcutta was established in 1773 A.D. by the Regulating Act.

Question 10.
When and by whom Jury system was started in Bengal?
Answer:
Jury system in Bengal was started by Lord William Bentick in 1832 A.D.

Question 11.
With which four institutions the Indian administration was run?
Answer:
The Indian administration was run by four institutions and these were

  1. Civil Services
  2. Army
  3. Police
  4. Judiciary.

Question 12.
Who were appointed on higher posts during the British rule?
Answer:
Mostly the English people were appointed on higher posts during the British rule.

Question 13.
Give the number of armymen in the British army in 1856 A.D.
Answer:
In 1856 A.D, there were 2,33,000 Indians and 45,322 Europeans in the British army.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the Civil Services before 1858 A.D.
Answer:
Most of the employees of the company were corrupt before 1858. They carried on private trade and earned a lot of money through bribes and gifts. Clive and Warren Hastings tried to end this corruption but they did not succeed in this mission. Cornwallis came to India after Warren Hastings. He banned private trade by the officials of the company. They were forbidden to accept bribes or gifts. He increased the salaries of the employees so that they were not tempted to accept bribes. Upto 1853, the Directors of the Company appointed the British as employees of the company. But after the passing of Charter Act of 1853, the appointments to civil services were made through a competitive examination to be held in London. The main feature of the civil services before the passing of this Act was that the Indians were debarred from these services.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 2.
Why is Lord Cornwallis called the founder of Civil Services in India?
Answer:
Before Lord Cornwallis, the administration of the company was controlled by the Directors of the Company. They appointed employees of .the company. But Cornwallis appointed civil officers for administrative work. They were paid very high salaries. Temptation of the people towards Civil Services increased to such an extent that people from very high families of England started joining such services. That’s why Lord Cornwallis is called the founder of Civil Services in India.

Question 3.
Write a note on the discrimination policy in the British army between the Indians and the British.
Answer:
The British government made discrimination between the Indians and the British in making recruitments in the army. Indians were given low salaries as compared to the British. The arrangements for their lodging and boarding were also of low quality. Indian soldiers were not given due respect. They were often insulted. They could only reach the posts of the ‘Subedars’ by promotion. Contrary to it, the British were directly appointed as officers. This policy of discrimination later on became the cause of the revolt of 1857.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write down in brief the constitutional changes made by British Government in India.
Answer:
The British government brought following constitutional changes in India :
1. Regulating Act: An Act was passed in 1773 A.D. to check the activities of English East India Company. It was known as the Regulating Act. According to this Act :

  • The civil and military administration of the company came under the control of the British Parliament. The Parliament got control over its revenue too.
  • The governor of Bengal was made the Governor-General of the British India. A council of members was appointed to help the Governor-General in discharging his duties.
  • The Governor-General was empowered to control the two presidencies of Bombay and Madras.

2. Pitt’s India Act. Pitt’s India Act was passed to remove the defects of the Regulating Act. According to this :

  • Political and commercial functions of the company were separated. The Board of Directors was now to look after the commercial activities of the company only.
  • A Board of Control consisting of six members was formed through which the British government could fully control the affairs of the company in India.
  • The council of the Governor-General was to have three members instead of four.
  • The Governor-General in council got complete powers to direct and control Bombay and Madras presidencies.

3. The Charter Act, 1833:

  • The company was restricted to do trade through Charter Act of 1833 so that it could completely concentrate on administration of the British India.
  • Governor-General and his council were given the name the Governor-General and his Council of India.
  • A legal member was included in council of Governor-General to make laws for the country. Right of making law was taken away from presidencies governments. In this way control of government was made very powerful.

4. The Charter Act 1853. Another Charter Act was passed in 1853 A.D. Legislative and Executive were separated through this Act. Now total of 12 members were there in legislative. Interference of central government in the affairs of company was increased. Now it was free to take rule of India in its hands at any moment.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 2.
Write down in brief about the Civil Services in India during the British rule.
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis is known as the founder of Civil Services in India. He raised the salaries of officers to eradicate bribery from the system. He restricted the officials to do their personal trade and to take gifts from Indians. He appointed only Europeans on the higher posts.

Development of Civil Services after Lord Cornwallis till 1885 A.D :
1. Lord William Bentick established the Hellibery College in England in 1806 A.D. Here formal training was given to the newly appointed officers of Civil Service. They were sent to India after taking formal training.

2. There was a provision in the Charter Act of 1833 that the Indians will be given government jobs without any discrimination on the basis of religion,-caste or colour. But they were deprived of higher posts in Civil Services.

3. Till 1853 A.D., only directors of the company appointed the British officials in India. But after the Charter Act of 1853, one competitive examination was started for the appointment of officials. This examination was conducted in England and its medium was English. Maximum age of 22 years was fixed for taking part in competition. This age was reduced to 21 years in 1864 and 19 years in i876. Satindra Nath Tagore was the first Indian to pass examination of Civil Service. He passed this exam in 1863 A.D.

4. It was very difficult for Indians to take part in this examination in less age and in England. So Indians raised the demand to increase the age of giving exam. They also demanded that this examination should also be taken simultaneously in India as well as in England. Lord Rippen supported this demand but it was refused by Indian government.

Development of Civil Services After 1886 A.D:
1. In 1886 A.D. Viceroy Lord Rippen appointed the Public Service Commission of 15 members: This commission recommended to divide civil services in following three parts :

  • Imperial or Indian Civil Service. Examination for this should take place only in England.
  • Provincial Services. Its examination should take place in different provinces.
  • Professional Service. Commission recommended to raise the age of this examination from 19 years to 23 years.

These recommendations were accepted by Indian Government in 1892 A.D.

2. In 1918, Montague-Chelmsford report recommended that 33% seats of Civil Service should be given to Indians and this number should be gradually increased. This report was implemented by the Indian Government in 1919 A.D.

3. In 1926, Central Public Service Commission and in 1935 Union Public Service Commission and some State Public Service Commissions were established.

It is right that a number of Indians were appointed in Indian Civil Service but still few higher posts were there which were restricted only for the Europeans.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration

Question 3.
Write down in brief about military, police and judicial system in India during the British rule.
Answer:
A brief description of military, police and judicial administration of India in the British empire is given below:
1. Military Administration. The military was one of the most important part of the British administration. It gave a great contribution in establishing and spreading the British empire in India. In 1856, there were 2,33,000 Indians and 45,300 European soldiers in the British military. Indian soldiers were given very less wages and incentives as compared to the British soldiers. Highest rank for Indians in military was the subedar. Indian soldiers were badly treated by the British officers. That’s why Indian soldiers revolted against the British in 1857 A.D.

It became necessary to reorganize the military after the great revolt of 1857 A.D. the British didn’t want that soldiers would again go for revolt.

So the following changes were brought in Indian military while keeping in mind these things :

  • The number of British soldiers were increased.
  • Only the British to be appointed in Artillery.
  • Indians and Europeans in the military of Madras and Bombay were kept in the ratio of 2:1.
  • European troops were kept at all the important places from a geographical and military point of view.
  • Now the British started recruiting people of different religions and castes in one regiment of soldiers so that people of other religion should remain ready to kill people of one religion in case of any rebellion.
  • Soldiers of Awadh, Bihar and Central India took part in the revolt of 1857 A.D. Now their numbers in the military was reduced and number of Gorkhas, Sikhs and Pathan soldiers was increased.

2. Police. Lord Cornwallis gave a new look to the police system to establish law, order and peace in the empire. He appointed one Police Superintendent in each district. Each district was further divided in divisions and ancient division system was given a new look. Every division was kept under one Daroga or inspector. Function of police in villages was being done by Chowkidars. Indians were not being given higher posts in police department. Their salary was also very low as compared to the British. They were badly treated by Britishers as well.

3. Judicial System: The British established important judicial system in India. Its main feature was written laws.

  • Warren Hastings established Revenue and Criminal Courts in each district.
  • According to Regulating Act of 1773, A Supreme Court was established in Calcutta. Lord Cornwallis prepared a book called Cornwallis code to give directions to judges.
  • Lord William Bentick started jury system in Bengal in 1832 A.D.
  • In 1833 A.D. the Indian Law Commission was appointed which completely reorganized the whole judicial system. Right of making laws was given to Governor-General through Charter Act.
  • Common legal system was introduced in whole of the country. According to this, all the Indians were considered as equal in front of law without any discrimination.

Even after this, discrimination with Indians was there and they were deprived of some specific rights. For example, Indian judges were not allowed to hear the cases of Europeans. Lord Rippen, in 1883 A.D. tried to give this right to Indian judges but remained unsuccessful.

Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Regulating Act: This Act was passed in 1773 A.D., now the British government controlled the activities of the English Company.
  • Pitt’s India Act: This Act was passed in 1784 A.D. According to this Act, the position of Governor-General was strengthened.
  • Civil Services: Lord Cornwallis started civil services in India to fill higher government jobs. Indians were kept away from these.
  • Police: The British organised police system in a new way. They started the system of Police-Thanas.
  • Law and Justice. Same laws were introduced in the country. Courts were established in the country and the job was done in local language.
  • The Charter Act of 1833: According to the Charter Act, all the military and civil rights were grafted to the Governor-General and his council.
  • The Charter Act of 1853: Executive and Legislative were separated from each other through this Act. There were 12 members of the newly established legislature.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 11 Administrative Structure, Growth of Colonial Army and Civilian Administration Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Leave a Comment