PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB Crop Diversification Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answer in one to two words:

Question 1.
Which cropping system is adopted in the sub-mountainous regions?
Answer:
Rice-Wheat.

Question 2.
Which is the main cropping system in southwestern region?
Answer:
Cotton-Wheat.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 3.
Give examples of multiple cropping systems.
Answer:
Maize-potato-moong, groundnut-potato-bajra.

Question 4.
How much water table is depleting every year in central Punjab due to cultivation of rice crop?
Answer:
Approximately 74 cm per year.

Question 5.
Which bacterium helps in nitrogen fixation?
Answer:
Rhizobium.

Question 6.
Which fertilizer can be saved in Dhaincha-Basmati-wheat cropping system?
Answer:
Nitrogen fertilizer.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 7.
Which crops are imported by India from foreign countries?
Answer:
Pulses, oil seed crops.

Question 8.
How many days before basmati transplanting, green manure should be incorporated in the field?
Answer:
Just before a day.

Question 9.
What percentage of area is under irrigation in Punjab state?
Answer:
98%.

Question 10.
How many tubewells (no.) are there in Punjab?
Answer:
Approximately 14 lakhs.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

(B) Answer in one to two sentences:

Question 1.
What do you mean by crop diversification?
Answer:
Crop diversification refers to cultivation of alternate crops by reducing area under conventional crops like wheat and rice and by increasing area under the crops like-maize, pulses, basmati, sugarcane, potato, oilseed crops, etc.

Question 2.
Which crops can be grown in dry land areas?
Answer:
Oil seed crops can be grown in such land areas.

Question 3.
Enlist maize based cropping systems.
Answer:
Maize-potato-summer moong or sunflower, maize-potato or toria- sunflower, maize-potato-onion or mentha and maize-gobhi sarson moong.

Question 4.
Enlist fodder based cropping systems.
Answer:
Maize-Berseem-Bajra, Maize-Berseem-Maize or Cowpea.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 5.
Write significance of intensive cropping system.
Answer:

  • High yield can be taken from small land holding.
  • Climate changes can be tackled.
  • Use of chemical fertilizers is reduced.
  • Balanced nutrition in maintained and employment opportunities are increased.
  • Agro-ecosystem is maintained and it helps in conserving natural resources.

Question 6.
Which enterprises can be adopted in integrated farming system?
Answer:
Following enterprises can be adoped in integrated farming system-

  • Fish farming
  • Cultivation of fruits
  • Cultivation of vegetable
  • Dairy farming
  • Rabbit farming
  • Pig farming
  • Goat farming
  • Bee keeping
  • Poultry farming
  • Agroforestry like poplar.

Question 7.
Write about source of irrigation in Punjab.
Answer:
Approximately 98% of area in Punjab is under irrigation. There are nearly 14 lakhs tubewells in Punjab. Canal irrigation is also adopted.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 8.
Name the alternate crops which can be cultivated in central Punjab over rice-wheat
Answer:
Maize, Potato, Pea, Sugarcane, Basmati, Sunflower, Muskmelon, Chilli and other vegetables.

Question 9.
Write the names of main crops cultivated in sub-mountainous region.
Answer:
Main crops cultivated in sub-mountainous region are-wheat, maize, paddy, basmati, potato, oil seed crops and peas.

Question 10.
Which cropping systems should be adopted in areas having light soils?
Answer:
Groundnut based cropping system can be adoped in light soils, e.g. gsoundnut-potato or toria or wheat, groundnut- potato-bajra (fodder), groundnut- toria or gobhi sarson.

(C) Answer in five to six sentences:

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 1.
What do you mean by crop diversification? Write about its aim and significance?
Answer:
Crop diversification:
Crop diversification refers to cultivation of alternate crops by reducing area under conventional crops; like, wheat and rice and by increasing area under the crops like-maize, pulses, basmati, sugarcane, potato, oilseed crops etc.

Aim: Aims of crop diversification are:

  • Judicious use of natural resources and conserving them for future and for long time.
  • To get more income by investing less on growing crops.
  • To get out of the same crop rotation cycle so that soil and water remain conserved.

Significance:
Rice-wheat cropping cycle requires 215 cm water in a year and out of this water 80% is consumed by rice crop. Cultivation of rice is damaging the physical and chemical properties of the soil. For the last 50 years area under cultivation of rice has increased at the cost of area under groundnut, oil seed crops, cotton, pulses etc. Crop diversification is the reverse of this process and lot of water is saved and soil health is also improved.

Question 2.
Why there is need for crop intensification? Describe in detail with examples?
Answer:
Intensive cropping system means sowing more than two crops in a year. Crops are sown in the time between the harvesting of first crop and sowing of next crop.
Need for crop intensification:

  • High yield can be taken from small land holding.
  • Climate changes can be tackled.
  • Use of chemical fertilizers is reduced.
  • Balanced nutrition is maintained and employment opportunities are increased.
  • Agro-ecosystem is maintained and it helps in conserving natural resources.

Cultivation of leguminous crops help in increasing the soil fertility by fixation of nitrogen with rhizobium. This saves nitrogen fertilizers. Important multiple cropping patterns are –

  • Green manuring based; e.g. Jantar-Maize etc.
  • Maize based; e.g. maize-potato-moong or sunflower.
  • Soyabean based ; e.g. soyabean-wheat-cowpea
  • Groundnut based; e.g. – Groundnut – potato-toriya,.
  • Green fodder based; e.g. – Maize – berseem- bajra.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 3.
Write about the problems related to agriculture in Punjab.
Answer:
Problems related to agriculture in Punjab are as follows:

  • After green revolution Punjab remained stuck in the crop cycle of paddy and wheat. Due to cultivation of these two crops water table is going down and excess use of chemicals like weedicides, pesticides and fertilizers etc. has damaged the health of the soil and also badly affected the chemical and physical properties of the soil.
  • Area under oil seed crops and pulses is reducing.
  • Due to heavy rainfall in south-western zone there exists problem of soil erosion.
  • Water level is going down by 74 cm every year and farmers have to use submersible motor for lifting water,
  • which adds to the cost of cultivation.
  • New species of insectes and weeds are being generated.
  • Biodiversity is decreasing.
  • Climate changes are taking place.

Question 4.
What is integrated farming system? Describe in detail with examples.
Answer:
In Integrated farming system a farmer can adopt one or two additional enterprises other than agriculture. This way farmer can increase his income and his family members can also help in the “’enterprise. (Integrated forming system IFS) helps in meeting the nutritional food requirements of the family. Some of the enterprises which a farmer can adopt from:

  • Fish farming.
  • Cultivation of fruits
  • Cultivation of vegetables
  • Dairy farming
  • Rabbit farming
  • Pig farming
  • Goat farming
  • Bee keeping
  • Poultry farming
  • Agroforestry like, poplar.

Question 5.
What do you mean by inter cropping system? Describe with examples.
Answer:
Intercropping system. Inter cropping is also called mixed cropping system. Inter cropping is done to get high yield from small land holding, get higher income and to fulfil requirements of the population.

Due to increase in factories, expansion of residential areas, land under cultivation is decreasing day by day. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to obtain maximum yield from the available land. For this inter cropping is done e.g. Maize or moong, Arhar or moong, Soyabean or moong, Maize or soyabean, Maize or maize for green fodder or groundnut, Cotton or maize etc. Due to intercropping there is no bad effect on the yield of the main crop. This system helps in maintaining the soil fertility. Problem of weeds is also reduced to large extent.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide Crop Diversification Important Questions and Answers

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How much land is under the cultivation of rice?
Answer:
Approximately 28.3 lakhs hectare.

Question 2.
How much land is under the cultivation of wheat?
Answer:
Approximately 35.1 lakhs hectare.

Question 3.
For the last 50 years, at the cost of which crops area under the cultivation of rice has increased?
Answer:
Groundnut, oil seed crops, sugarcane, pulses.

Question 4.
How much water is consumed by rice-wheat crop cycle in a year?
Answer:
215 cm.

Question 5.
How much water is consumed by rice crop out of total water consumed in a year by rice-wheat crop cycle?
Answer:
80%

Question 6.
How much total area in Punjab is under the cultivation of various crops?
Answer:
41.58 lakhs hectare.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 7.
In how many zones has Punjab been divided on agroclimatic basis?
Answer:
Three zones-sub mountainous zone, central zone, south-western zone.

Question 8.
Submountainous zone lies at foothills of which hill?
Answer:
Himalayan foothills.

Question 9.
How much area under sub-mountainous region is covered by Kandi belt?
Answer:
Approximately 9%

Question 10.
Which is the main crop cycle in Punjab?
Answer:
Wheat-rice.

Question 11.
Which crop rotation cycle is adopted in South-Western Zone?
Answer:
Cotton-Wheat.

Question 12.
What is the quality of ground water in south-western zone?
Answer:
Its is saline or saline sodic.

Question 13.
Name the crops used as green manure.
Answer:
Jantar, Rawanh (Cowpea).

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 14.
If maize is to be sown then for how many days before green manure should be ploughed in the fields?
Answer:
8-10 days before sowing maize.

Question 15.
Dried bits of which crop can be used as green manure?
Answer:
Summer moong.

Question 16.
How much protein content is contained in soyabean?
Answer:
35-40%.

Question 17.
Which crop contributed a lot in bringing white revolution?
Answer:
Fodder crops.

Question 18.
How much fodder is given to cows and buffaloes on daily basis for higher milk yield?
Answer:
40 kg green fodder.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 19.
Write vegetable based crop system for villages which are near to city.
Answer:
Cauliflower-tomato-ladyfinger.

Question 20.
Write vegetable based crop system for villages which are far away from city.
Answer:
Potato-ladyfinger-early sown cauliflower.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you know about Kandi area?
Answer:
It is the nearly 9% area under the sub-mountainous zone.

Question 2.
What is the problem found in central zone of Punjab?
Answer:
The cropping cycle adoped in this zone is of wheat-rice and due to this cycle underground water is going down at the rate of 74 cm per year.

Question 3.
Why is soyabean best alternate for rice crop?
Answer:
Rice yield is decreased due to attack of insects and pests and diseases. Therefore, soyabean is best alternate for rice crop.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 4.
What is the advantage of inter cropping system?
Answer:
Inter cropping system is helpful in maintaining the fertility of the soil. Problem of weeds is also decreased to large extent.

Question 5.
Suggest vegetable cropping system for farms which are nearby city.
Answer:

  • Brinjal (long)- late cauliflower-bottle gourd
  • Potato – muskmelon
  • Spinach-knol khol- onion or green chilli or radish.
  • Cauliflower – tomato-ladyfinger.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Suggest maize based and soyabean based cropping systems.
Answer:
1. Maize based cropping system-
Some of the maize based cropping systems are:

  • Maize – Potato – Moong or sunflower.
  • Maize – Potato or toria – sunflower
  • Maize-potato – onion or mentha etc.

These cropping systems help in conserving the natural sources.

2. Soyabean based cropping system-
Soyabean based cropping system is-Soyabean – wheat- rawanh (Cowpea) (fodder)
Rice yield is decreased due to attack of insects and [email protected] and diseases. Therefore soyabean is best alternate for rice crop. Soyabean is a leguminous crop. It helps in fixing nitrogen in the soil and thus helps in maintaining the fertility of the soil. Soyabean is a good source of protein. It contains nearly 35-40% protein content. It is used to prepare soya milk, soya cheese, soyanutri etc.

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