Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 10 The Delhi Sultanate Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 10 The Delhi Sultanate
SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB The Delhi Sultanate Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer these questions :
What role was played by the historical buildings in constructing the history of the Delhi Sultanate?
Historical Monuments. The historical structures during the period of the Delhi Sultanate e.g. Quwat-ul-Islam Mosque, Alahi Darwaja, Tughlakabad, Hauz Khas, Lodhi Tomb, Firozshah Kotla, etc. These buildings and monuments give us knowledge and information about the artistic hobbies of Delhi Sultans.
How did Balban consolidate the Sultanate?
Answer:Balban became the Sultan of Delhi in 1266 A.D. He was the greatest of the slave kings of Delhi. He was a strong and iron willed ruler who believed that the power of the Sultan was absolute. He commanded absolute obedience from his amirs who had to bow in sajdah in his presence.
Problems faced by Balban. Balban had to face the following problems in order to consolidate the Sultanate :
- He had to defend his Sultanate from the Mongol invasions on his northern frontiers.
- He had to fight against the local rulers like the Rajputs who troubled him both within the Sultanate and on its borders.
- His major problem was to deal with the powerful Turkish nobles who threatened his position as Sultan.
- He crushed the rebellion of Mawatis near Delhi and the pirates of Doaba region.
- He crushed the rebellion of Tugril Khan of Bengal.
- His strong policy towards Mongols is known as “Blood and Iron policy”. In 1286 A.D. Balban died.
Why did Muhainmad-bin-Tughlaq shift the capital from Delhi to Devagiri?
Mohammed-bin-Tughlaq had a large empire to rule. He wanted to build his captial at a place which was in the centre of his ruled area. So, in 1327, A.D., he decided to change his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad).
There were two reasons for it :
- He believed that by doing so he could defend himself against the invasions of the Mongols.
- He thought that the administrative system will be better administer from Devagiri as compared to Delhi.
Describe the results of schemes of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-1351 A.D.) had high political ambitions. He made many political plans but all these plans were unsuccessful. The description about these plans and their results are as follows :
1. Taxation in Doab. He wanted to extend his empire. For this purpose, he needed money. So he increased the revenue of the land in Doab. But unluckily, the rains failed and the peasants found it hard to pay the increased revenue.
2. Transfer of the Capital. The Sultan transferred his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad because he wanted to have a better control over his Deccan territories. But it was not possible to control north Indian territories from Daulatabad.
3. Token Currency. He issued token coins of brass and copper which had made the same legal value as the coins of gold and silver. The people started minting copper and brass coins at their home which they would exchange with gold and silver from the royal treasury.
4. Plan to win Khurasan. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq wanted to be a great administrator. So, he decided to win Khurasan (Iran). So, he collected a big army. The soldiers were given the salary for one full year. Lot of money was spent on their training and weapons but after one year, he shed the idea of invading Khurasan and the army was disbanded. The unemployed soldiers; became rebels. The Sultan lost his confidence among the public. Many states declared freedom and Sultan lost control over his empire. In 1351 A.D. he died.
Causes of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq’s failure.
- As given above, all his projects were visionary and beyond the people’s comprehension.
- He lacked patience and people suffered because of his hasty actions.
- He emptied his treasury as a result of his extravagant schemes and boundless generosity.
- His empire was too vast to be controlled by one man.
Fill in the blanks :
The Qutub-ud-din Aibak was the founder of the _______ Dynasty.
Razia Sultana was a daughter of _______
Iltutmish became the ruler in _______
Iltutmish nominated _______ as his successor.
Malik Kafur was the General of _______ Khalji.
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq decided to shift his capital from _______ to Devagiri.
Timur invaded India during the reign of the rulers of the _______ Dynasty.
III. Write True or False for each statement :
Iltutmish was a slave of Qutab-ud-din Aibak.
Balban was the first ruler of the slave dynasty.
Ala-ud-din Khalji introduced the market control policy.
The Lodhis were overthrown by the Sayyids.
Sikandar Lodhi and Babar clashed at the first battle of Panipat.
On an outline map of India, mark the important extent of Delhi Sultanate.
Do it yourself with the help of Indian Map.
Collect pictures of monuments of the Sultanate period and paste them in your note-book.
Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.
PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide The Delhi Sultanate Important Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions
When slave dynasty ruled Delhi?
When Raziyya Sultan became queen of Delhi?
Which of these was not the Sultan of Delhi?
(b) Allauddin Khalji
(d) Muhammad Tughlaq.
Which of these Sultans implemented to keep control on prices?
(a) Muhammad Tughlaq
(b) Allauddin Khalji
(d) All of these.
(b) Allauddin Khalji.
Which of these dynasties was the last dynasty of Delhi Sultanate?
(a) Lodi dynasty
(b) Tughlaq dynasty
(c) Khalji dynasty
(d) Mughal dynasty.
(a) Lodi dynasty.
Who defeated Mughal emperor Humayun?
(b) Ibrahim Lodhi
(d) Sher Shah Suri.
(d) Sher Shah Suri.
In which century Delhi became an important city?
(a) 12th century
(b) 15th century
(c) 16th century
(d) 17th century.
(a) 12th century.
Which of the Delhi ruler is also known for its economic and military reforms?
(b) Allauddin Khalji
(d) Ibrahim Lodhi.
(b) Allauddin Khalji.
Chief Minister and adviser to Sultan was known as
Short Answer Type Questions
Give the time span of Sultanate period in India.
It was from 1206 A.D. to 1526 A.D.
Which Kingdoms ruled over Delhi during the Sultanate period?
They were Slave dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, Tughlaq dynasty, Sayyids and Lodhis.
Name some great Sultans of Sultanate period.
Iltutmish, Balban, Alauddin Khalji, Mohammad Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
How and when did Qutubudin Aibak die?
In 1210 A.D., he died by falling from a horse.
Who was Aram Shah?
He was a son of Qutub-ud-din Aibak who became the Sultan afterward. He was an incapable ruler, so he was made a prisoner by Iltutmish and later on killed.
What was Chalisa?
Iltutmish appointed 40 Amirs to run administrative system. They were called Chalisa.
Wlho was Razia Sultana?
She was the daughter of Iltutmish and who succeeded him after his death. She ruled from 1236 A.D. to 1240 A.D. She crushed the rebellion of state governors, but Amirs and army generals did not obey her. She was killed in 1240 A.D.
Describe in brief the ruling period of Qutubdin Aibak.
He was the real founder of Turk state. He was the first ruler of Delhi Sultanate. At the time of ascending the throne, he had to face many difficulties. He occupied Punjab to stop the invasion of Yaldoz, who was the ruler of Ghazni. He made Lahore his capital. He was a great art lover. Many mosques in Delhi and Ajmer have been built by him. He started the construction of Qutub Minar, but in 1210 A.D. he fell from a horse and died.
Describe in brief the successes of Iltutmish.
Iltutmish was one of the greatest rulers of the Slave dynasty. He ruled from 1211 to 1236 A.D.
Some of his achievements are the following :
- He shifted his capital from Lahore to Delhi which remained the capital of all the Sultan-rulers.
- For the first ten years, he remained busy in crushing his different rivals who were also claimants to the throne.
- He organized the ruling elite or the nobles into a strong group of faithful nobles of forty known as ‘Chalisa’.
- For the promotion of trade and commerce, many new coins like those of ‘Tanka’ and ‘JitaV were introduced.
- He divided his empire into many big or small pieces of land, known as ‘Iqtas’ and handed them over to his nobles and officers in lieu of salary.
- In 1221, he defended India against the Mongol invasion under Changez Khan.
- He occupied the Rajputana castles of Ranthambhor, Gwalior and Ujjain.
Write a brief comment on Jallaludin Khalji.
Jallaludin Khalji was the founder of Khalji Dynasty. He ruled from 1290 to 1296 A.D. During his ruling period the Delhi Darbar became a centre of scandals. In 1296, his nephew and son-in-law Alauddin Khalji killed him and ascended the throne.
Write about the victories and reforms of Alauddin Khalji.
Alauddin Khalji was the most famous ruler of Khalji Dynasty. He ruled from 1296 A.D. to.1316 A.D. He was an optimist ruler. He wanted to established an empire in India.
- In 1299, he won Gujarat.
- In 1301 A.D. he accupied Ranthambhor.
- In 1303 A.D. Chittor was under his control.
- He sent his General Malik Kafur to South India, where his army won the areas of Devagiri, Warangal, Dwar Samudra and Madurai, but Alauddin Khalji did not annex these areas into Delhi Sultanate.
Reforms of Alauddin Khalji:
- Economic reforms: He reduced the price of essential commodities. To control the
prices, he appointed market officers. Anybody who went against his orders and rules was severely punished. .
- Military reforms: He started the custom of writing the physical measurements of the soldiers. He started paying cash salary to soldiers. He also appointed spies to control his empire.
Write about the administrative period of Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
- Feroz Shah considered the support of the nobles and the Ulema necessary for success.
- He made peace with them and kept them content by giving them grants of revenue.
- He was lenient in his dealings with the nobles.
- He allowed the orthodox ulema to influence state policy in certain matters.
- He improved his relations with the powerful groups at the court but at the same time, the power of the Sultan decreased.
- The governors of certain provinces like Bihar and Bengal had rebelled against the Sultanate.
- He tried to bring them under his control but he was not very successful.
- He established a department called ‘Diwan-i-Khairat’ to help the poor.
Write about the period of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Ibrahim Lodhi was the last ruler of Lodhi dynasty. He ruled from 1517 A.D. to 1526 A.D. He wanted to make his central administration very powerful. But he was not liked by Afghan Chiefs and they created many difficulties for him. Infact, Ibrahim Lodhi was not a farsighted Sultan. He could make friendly relations with his Amirs, but he made them his enemies because of his egoistic behavior. As a result, they started revolts against Delhi Sultanate. In 1526 A.D., Ibrahim Lodhi was killed while fighting against Babar in the first battle of Panipat.
Describe in brief the Timur’s raid on India.
Timur was a Turkish chief. He was brave, powerful and ambitious ruler of Central Asia.
Effects of Timur’s raid on India.
- Timur’s raid on India gave a death blow to the Tughlaq dynasty and it ended in 1413 A.D.
- Delhi Sultanate met with financial crisis.
- A local governor occupied Delhi and founded the Sayyid dynasty.
- Timur’s raid encouraged the Mughals to establish their empire in India.
Briefly comment on Sayyid Dynasty (1414 A.D. to 1451 A.D.).
When Timur left Delhi he appointed Khizar Khan as the governor of Multan, Lahore and Depalpur. In 1414 A.D. Khizar Khan won Delhi and established Sayyid dynasty. This dynasty ruled from 1414 A.D. to 1451 A.D. The last ruler Ala-ud-din Alam Shah was defeated by the Governor of Lahore, Bahlol Lodhi.
Briefly introduce Behlol Lodhi and Sikandar Lodhi.
Bahlol Lodhi. He was the founder of Lodhi dynasty and was its first ruler. He tried to restore the pride of Delhi Sultanate. He established law and order in the country. In 1488 A.D. he died. His son Sikandar Lodhi became his successor.
Sikandar Lodhi. He was (1488 A.D. – 1517 A.D.) the most powerful ruler of Lodhi dynasty. He was a good administrator. He performed many functions for the welfare of public. He brought reforms in agriculture and reduced the prices of essential commodities. In 1503 A.D., he established Agra city and made it his capital. He died in 1517 A.D.
Give a brief account of the Deccan campaigns of Ala-ud-din Khalji.
Ala-ud-din Khalji sent a very big army under his army General Malik Kafur. Malik Kafur won the areas of Devagiri, Warangal, Dwar Samudra and Madurai but Ala- ud-din didn’t annex these areas to his ruling state.
Describe the development of political institutions during the Delhi Sultanate.
The description in brief is as follows :
1. Central Government. Sultan was an autocratic ruler who had unlimited powers. He ran his government with the help of ministers. All the departments were run by the concerned ministers according to the orders of the Sultan. The administrative system of Delhi Sultanate was mainly based on Islamic laws.
The following were the main ministers in-charge of different departments :
- Wajir: He was the most important minister of the state. He was the chief of finance and land revenue. Many officials were employed for his assistance. Mushrif Mamalik (Accountant General) and ‘Mustafi-i-Mamalik’ (Auditor-General) were the main assistants.
- Ariz-i-Mamalik: Minister of army.
- Diwan-i-Insha: Minister of Spy Department.
- Diwan-i-Risalat: Minister of External Affairs.
- Sadar-i-Sadur: Minister of Religion & Education Affairs.
2. Provincial Administration. The empire was divided into many states and governors were appointed for these states. They were called Subedars, Muqtis or Walis. The states were further divided into parganas. A combination of. many villages created one Pargana. The chief official of Pargana was named ‘Amil’. The chief of a village was called ‘Muqadam’.
3. Military Arrangement. The army consisted of horses, elephants and soldiers. The military officers were usually granted jagirs but sometimes they were paid their salaries cash. The military power was must for crushing rebels. They could never think of their existence without a powerful army. So the Delhi Sultans used all the means of military arrangements.
Write short notes on the following :
1. The Court
The Court: Delhi Sultans established their own Courts. The front seats were given to Princes. Ministers, Department’s Chiefs, other officials and foreign diplomats were given the permanent places. The Departmental Chiefs were always present in the Court to answer the questions posed by the Sultan.
2. The Nobility
The Nobility: The Delhi Sultans were complete Autocrates. They ruled with the help of noble class. Most of them were related to Turk or Afghan families. But after the period of Allaudin Khalji, Muslims and Hindus were also employed as high officials. Thus a noble class was also developed among these religions. The central ministers, state governors and army chiefs, all belonged to noble class.
3. Land Control
Land Control: Revenue -was the chief source of the income of the state. There were three systems prevalent at that time. These were Batai, Kankut and measurement of land. Revenue was collected either in cash or in some other form. Alauddin Khalji paid special attention towards land reforms. He got the measurement done and to look after the agriculture, he created a department called ‘Diwan-i-Must-Kharaz’. At that time the rate of land revenue was very high. Firoz Shah Tughlaq also developed agriculture. He got canals built for irrigation. The rate of land revenue was lowered and loans were remitted.
4. Resource Mobilization.
Resource Mobilization: There were many temporary sources of revenue also namely—Kharaz, Khamas, Jakat and Zazia. Kharaz was taken from non-Muslims. It was 10% to 50% of the total produce. Khamas was the 1/5 part of plundered stock from battles. The Sultan had the right over this portion. The rest 4/5 part was distributed among the army. Jakat was a religious tax, which was charged from Muslims. It was 2.5% of their property. Zazia tax was again charged from non-Muslims. It is said that women, children and poor people were exempted from this tax. This tax was charged from 10 to 40 Takas on the basis of income.
Write the names of the main historical sources of the Delhi Sultanate.
The main sources are as follows:
1. Accounts of Foreign Travellers: Iban-batuta and Marco Polo travelled to India during the Sultanate period and wrote accounts about the personality of Sultans and knowledge about different sectors.
2. Royal Description: Tughlaq Nama, Tarikh-i-Alahi, Tarikh-i-Firozshahi, Futuhat-i-Firozshahi, Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahi, and Makhzari-i-Afghan, etc. were the royal descriptions, where we get knowledge about Delhi Sultans and main events.
3. Historical Monuments: The historical structures during the period of the Delhi Sultanate include Quwat-ul-Islam Mosque, Alahi Darwaja, Tughlakabad, Hauz Khas, Lodhi Tomb, Firozshah Kotla, etc. These buildings and monuments give us knowledge and information about the artistic hobbies of Delhi Sultans.