PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Source Based Questions

Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Sociology Book Solutions Source Based Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Source Based Questions

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Question 1.
The tribal population in India as per the 2011 Census constitutes 68% of the country’s total population. The state with the highest population of tribal is Mizoram; the state with the lowest population of tribes is Goa. The Union Territory (U.T.) with the highest population of tribals is Lakshadweep and the U.T. with the lowest population of tribals in Andaman and Nicobar Island. The largest tribal community in India is the Santhals, who are found mainly in West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa.

  1. In which Indian region, tribals reside the most?
  2. Which different names are given to tribes?
  3. What is a tribe?


  1. Although the tribal population lives more in Central India if we look into their population percentage, their percentage in population is more in the north-eastern region of India.
  2. Tribals are called by different names in different regions such as Adivasi, Vanvasi, Tribe, Pahari, Scheduled tribe etc.
  3. A tribe is a group of people that lives very much away from our civilisation such as forests, mountains or valleys whose members are blood relatives, which is endogamous and which is different from other tribes on the basis of language, religion and other features.

Question 2.
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Deforestation is one of the major causes of environmental degradation. It implies the cutting down of trees. Besides, the expansion of cropped areas and pastures are also the major sources of deforestation. During earlier times, the tribals were able to survive because of the availability of forest and natural resources. They were totally dependent on forests for their livelihood. But due to industrialisation, urbanisation, agriculture, commercial logging, increase in population, fuel-wood collection, etc. the deforestation has increased and affected the tribal’s livelihood directly and indirectly. The loss of forest covers also influences the climate and contributes to loss of the biodiversity.

  1. What is meant by deforestation?
  2. What are the reasons for deforestation?
  3. What is the impact of deforestation on tribal life?


  1. When naturally grown trees are cut down due to different reasons, it is known as deforestation.
  2. ⇒ Forests are cut down to increase agricultural and pastoral areas.
    ⇒ The land is needed to make dams and to make houses for an increasing population which comes by cutting forests.
    ⇒ We need wood to make furniture and food and that’s why forests are cleared.
  3. ⇒ It reduces the habitat for the tribal people.
    ⇒ Tribals get a lot many things from forests and now they can’t get all these things.
    ⇒ Tribal economy is mainly dependent upon forests. Deforestation completely destroys the tribal economy.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 1 Tribal Society

Question 3.
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The term ‘rural’ is the opposite of ‘urban’. The term ‘rural society’ is used almost interchangeably with the term Village’. As per census 2011, out of 121 crore Indians, 83.3 crore population lives in the rural areas. The rural community has a long history of its own. It is a group of about 5000 people depending on agriculture and allied occupations, permanently residing in a particular geographic area and participating in common socio-economic and cultural activities.

  1. Give the meaning to the word ‘Village’.
  2. Give three features of a village.
  3. Give three differences between a village and a town.


  1. A village is a geographical area that is close to the natural environment, whose most of the population is engaged in agricultural-related occupations and which is different from urban areas due to its distinct features.
  2. ⇒Rural people have direct and primary relations.
    ⇒ Most of the rural population is engaged in agriculture or related occupations.
    ⇒ Villages are small in size and that’s why they have social uniformity.
  3. ⇒ Villages are small in size but towns are large in size.
    ⇒ Rural people have direct and primary relations with each other but urban people have indirect and secondary relations.
    ⇒ Most of the rural population is directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture or related occupations but more than 75% urban population is engaged in industrial work or non-agricultural occupations.

Question 4.
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One of the major problems of rural society is indebtedness. The reasons for the chronic indebtedness are poverty and a deficit economy. This problem is not related to just one individual but is passed on from one generation to the next generation. Taking debt for the purpose of agricultural production is indeed necessary as it contributes to production. However, the rural people incur debts for non-productive purposes such as, to meet the family needs, to perform social functions (related to marriage; birth and death), litigation, etc. Since money borrowed does not contribute to production but rather to consumption, it drags the rural people into indebtedness. Thus, it becomes impossible to repay these loans and the rural population becomes. an easy victim of exploitation by greedy moneylenders and middlemen who take advantage of the situation and earn money at a very high rate of interest. As a result, the moneylenders snatch whatever little property these people have, such as, house or land, etc. This system is prevalent in most parts of our country.

  1. What is meant by Indebtedness?
  2. Give reasons for indebtedness.
  3. Give three effects of indebtedness.


  1. When an individual takes some loan from another individual, money lender, or bank and is unable to pay it back on time, it is called indebtedness.
  2. People take loans due to many factors such as to fulfill family needs, to solve legal problems, to do agriculture, to do marriage or to complete death ceremony, etc.
  3. ⇒ Due to indebtedness, an individual is exploited by the moneylenders.
    ⇒ His land and house are captured by a moneylender and he becomes homeless.
    ⇒ All his means of living and livelihood are taken away by the moneylender and occasionally rural people commit suicide.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 1 Tribal Society

Question 5.
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Urbanism is an important element of the urban society which separates the identity or personality of the people from rural society and tribal society. It represents a way of living. It also denotes the diffusion of urban culture and the evolution of urban society. It reflects an organization of society in terms of complex division of labor, high level of technology, high mobility, the interdependence of its members in fulfilling economic functions, and impersonality in social relations. Louis Wirth has mentioned four characteristics of urbanism: Transiency, Superficiality; Ahbrtymity and Individualism.

  1. What is meant by urbanization?
  2. Give three elements of urbanization.
  3. Which four features of urbanism are given by Louis Wirth?


  1. When rural people start to migrate to urban areas to settle there or to find occupation, it is called urbanization.
  2. Following are the elements of urbanization:
    ⇒ Population of more than 5000.
    ⇒ The density of population is up to 400 persons per square kilometer.
    ⇒ 75% population is engaged in agriculture or related occupations. Transiency Superficiality Anonymity Individualism.

Question 6.
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The growth of population in cities is so fast that it has become impossible to provide adequate residential accommodation to all. Hence, the housing problem or what is known as ‘ho, uselessness’ has become one of the serious problems of the urban setting. The pressure on space in cities is so tremendous that large numbers of people are forced to live on roads, buts ‘stands, railway stations and in poorly equipped houses. It is said that around half of the city population in India is either ill-housed or has to pay more than twenty per cent of their income on rent. Megacities like Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi, and Chennai are suffering from acute housing problems. ”

  1. Why is the urban population increasing?
  2. What are the demerits of the increasing urban population?
  3. Is the increasing urban population a major problem?


  1. There is a conception among rural people about more facilities in urban areas and the availability of more occupations that’s why rural people are moving towards urban areas. That’s why the urban population is continually increasing.
  2. ⇒ There is a lack of living space in urban areas.
    ⇒ Lot many people are forced to live under the open sky or in slums.
    ⇒ 20% of people’s earning is spent on paying rent which reduces their savings.

It is true that the increasing urban population is becoming a major problem. People migrate to urban areas in search of occupations and more facilities ‘ and when they are unable to get the things, they become mentally sick. That’s why crimes are increasing in urban areas which itself is becoming a major problem.

Question 7.
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transformed into the same group activity with the help of some organ or instrument. A political party is one such organ. Hence, Vladimir Lenin added the idea of a party in Marxism to prepare the workers for class struggle.

  1. Who was Karl Marx?
  2. What is meant by class consciousness?
  3. Explain in brief Karl Marx’s concept of class struggle.


  1. Karl Marx was a German philosopher who gave a great contribution to the development of Sociology. His concepts became the basis of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and paved the way for the making of laborers’ government in Russia.
  2. When a group becomes conscious about its existence, features, etc., and starts to consider itself separate from other groups, it is called class consciousness. According to Marx, class consciousness leads to class identification and class solidarity.
  3. According to Marx, there are two groups in society-Capitalist and Labourer class. There exist a struggle between both groups. Capitalist always exploits the laborers with the help of their money. He wants to get more work from labourers by paying less money and labourer wants to get more money by doing less work. This leads to a struggle between the both which is known as class struggle.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 1 Tribal Society

Question 8.
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In rural India th£ big landlords, the absentee landlords, the upper and middle peasantry and the capitalist farmers basically belong to upper and middle castes. And low peasantry, marginal farmers and landless agriculturists belong to lower castes. The class of moneylenders in rural India is basically composed of castes related to Vaishya-Varna. At the same time it is also a reality that because of protective discrimination (e.g. reservations), new opportunity structures based on industries and education and spatial mobility, some sections of lower castes have entered into the sphere of middle and upper classes. However, class status can be altered since it is usually achieved but caste status can never be changed due to its ascriptive nature.

  1. Which classes are available in rural areas?
  2. Which reasons gave chances to different groups to do progress in society?
  3. Is it possible to change status in class?


  1. In rural India, big landlords, upper and middle-class peasants, big capitalist farmers, and landless laborers live and they are divided into the upper class, middle class, and lower class according to their landholding.
  2. Although many facilities are available in society in the present age and one can do progress with his hard work but many groups are provided with reservations and other protective measures with which they can progress in society.
  3. Yes, status can be changed in the class system. If an individual has the ability, he can do hard work and earn more money or can get any higher post. It increases his status in society.

Question 9.
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Gender relations as we have already discussed refer to men-women relations on the basis of ideological, cultural, political and economic issues. In gender relations, we examine gender subordination. Issues relating to women empowerment and exploitative trends about women are found differently in different societies. In gender relations, it becomes important to talk about the institution of marriage, family, pre-marital, marital, and extramarital relations, the issues of homosexuality, issues related to transgenders, the nature of intimate relations as human sexuality, etc. It is generally accepted that men and women are naturally different because of physiological distinctiveness. But such biological or physiological differences with the support structure of society and culture are converted into social differences. Anthropological and historical evidence has proved that cultural revivalism establishes and re-establishes these differences in relation to vital roles of social interaction.

  1. What is meant by Gender Relations?
  2. Differentiate between Sex and Gender.
  3. How does gender difference become social difference?


  1. Gender relations tell us about men-women relations on the basis of cultural, ideological, economic, and political issues.
  2. Sex differences are understood as biological whereas gender differences refer to that behavior and attitudes which are constructed through social practices.
  3.  It is believed that males and females have different natures due to their natural and physical differences but biological and physical differences get converted into social differences with the help of society and culture. Physical differences establish social differences in social interactions.

Question 10.
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In order to understand the socio-cultural changes, one needs to comprehend the meaning of Westernisation. According to M.N. Srinivas, westernization refers to “the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule and the term subsumes changes occurring at different levels – technology institutions, ideology, values”. It can therefore be said that the growth of westernization can be traced from the period of the British Raj. No doubt colonial rule lead to exploitation and suppression of the masses. But at the same time, it had also brought a few radical changes in the society and culture of India.

  1. Who gave the concept of Westernisation?
  2. What is meant by Westernisation?
  3. What were the reasons for Westernisation?


  1. The concept of Westernisation was given by a famous Indian Sociologist M.N. Srinivas.
  2. According to Srinivas, “Westernisation refers to the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule and the term subsumes changes occurring at different levels technology, institutions, ideology, values”.
  3. The British brought many changes to Indian society. They established an army, police, and court system where people of different castes started working together. They also established railways, post and telegraph systems, roads, rivers, etc. They also brought a printing press and established factories in India. People started imitating the British living style which increased the process of westernization a great deal.

Question 11.
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Reference group means a group to which we compare ourselves. That group becomes the benchmark according to which one starts changing its opinion, behavior, attitude, and beliefs. For example, Ram is a below-average student in a class. He got inspired by the group of intelligent students in his class and decided to improve himself. There onwards he starts observing their peculiar traits, behavior, and orients himself making them his reference group. He become punctual, disciplined, and improved in his studies. In our day-to-day life, we rely on many reference groups. It may be family, peer group, actor etc.

  1. Who gave the concept of Reference Group?
  2. What is meant by Reference Group?
  3. Does every person have a reference group? If yes then why?


  1. The concept of Reference Group was given by Herbert Hyman in 1942.
  2. Reference group means a group to which we compare ourselves. That group becomes an ideal group according to which one starts to change his opinion, behaviour, attitude and beliefs.
  3. Yes, every individual has an ideal group or reference group. Actually, it is human nature that everyone wants to do progress and we start to follow any individual or group. We try to imitate the values, ideas of that group and then it becomes a reference group for us.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 1 Tribal Society

Question 12.
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Sanskritisation is a broader term and it can include in itself the narrower process of Brahminisation. For instance, Brahmins are vegetarians and teetotallers by and large. But some of them like Kashmiris, Bengali, Brahmins etc. eat non-vegetarian food, as well. If the term Brahminisation had been used, it would have become essential to specify which particular Brahmin group was being discussed Moreover, it has also been asserted by Srinivas that the reference groups of Sanskritisation are not always Brahmins.

The process of imitation need not necessarily be oriented on the model of Brahmins. He has given the example of low castes of Mysore who adopted the way of life of lingayats who are not Brahmins but who claim equality with Brahmins. The lower caste has made not only Brahmins their reference group but also tend to imitate the way of life of Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Jats, etc. in different parts of the country. Hence, Sanskritisation means not only adaptation of new customs and habits, but also exposure to new ideas, values, and behavior patterns of the upper caste.

  1. Who gave the concept of Sanskritisation?
  2. What is meant by Sanskritisation?
  3. Which castes became ideal castes to be imitated in Sanskritisation?


  1. M.N. Srinivas gave the concept of Sanskritisation.
  2. When lower castes start to imitate the living styles, habits, values, etc. of any upper caste or nearby caste, it is called Sanskritisation. It means not only adaptation of new customs and habits, but also exposure to new ideas, values, and behavior patterns of the upper caste.
  3. In the process of Sanskritisation, lower castes started adopting customs, habits, values of upper castes or nearby castes and in the process, Brahmins, Kshatriyas, and Vaishyas became model castes or ideal castes.

Question 13.
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Class-based movements include both worker’s movements as well as peasant movements. The main demand of workers as well as of peasants was freedom from economic exploitation. The trade union movement in India illustrates a study of the working class, their demands, the response of their owners, and measures taken up by the government. With the growth of cotton mills, jute mills, and the tea industry in India the poor Indian masses got employment in these factories as workers. Low wages, long working hours, unhygienic conditions, exploitation at the hands of native and foreign capitalists made their conditions miserable.

A number of Factory Acts came at various points of time but they too, could not improve the plight of the working-class people. Further, peasants were also exploited economically. Well, known peasant revolts were the Bengal revolt against the indigo plantation system and the peasant movement in Punjab.

  1. What is meant by class-based movement?
  2. Why were class-based movements started in Indian industries?
  3. Give examples of class-based movements.


  1. When a movement is started by keeping in mind the demands of a particular class, it is known as a class-based movement.
  2. The condition of laborers in the Indian industries was miserable. They were paid fewer wages, had more working hours, and were exploited by the local and foreign industrialists. That’s why workers movements were started in the Indian industries.
  3. In class-based movements, we can include the movement of Trade Union Organisation, Peasant movement, etc. but the Peasantry Movement of Punjab, the Workers Movement of Mumbai textile mills, and Indigo Plantation of Bengal are very important.

Question 14.
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Drug addiction is a problem that has been increasing immensely in our society today. Young people are more vulnerable to drug abuse because of poor self-esteem, low achievement at school, family history, and peer pressure. On the other hand, sometimes they feel that they are too bright, too powerful and are too much in control to become addictive and hence get into the habit of taking drugs. Thus, addiction can trap anyone. It can lead to harming one’s health, causing problems in family structure, and contributing to delinquency in society. The persons who get addicted often lose interest in other activities of their life. As a result, they are not able to take care of their responsibilities and may become a liability for their families as well as their society.

  1. What is meant by drug addiction?
  2. Why do people consume drugs?
  3. What is the result of drug addiction?


  1. When an individual becomes so addicted to using liquor, opium, or any other drug that he can’t live without it, this is known as drug addiction.
  2. Many people consume drugs for fun sake, many consume them to reduce stress, many people use them due to any pressure, etc. Gradually, they become so addicted to the drug that it becomes impossible for them to live without it and become victims of a trap.
  3. ⇒ It is having a bad impact on their health as they are unable to do anything.
    ⇒ All of his economic resources get exhausted and economically, he becomes quite weak.
    ⇒ It is having a direct impact on social progress.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 1 Tribal Society

Question 15.
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During the course of old age, metabolism processes slow down. People become weak both physically and mentally. They are more prone to sickness, diseases, syndromes, etc. The immunity of a person diminishes. Older people are most vulnerable to non-communicable diseases. Declining health due to increasing age is complicated by the non-availability of good quality age-sensitive health care for a large proportion of older persons. In addition to this, lack of information and knowledge in combination with high costs of disease management puts old-age care beyond the reach of older persons, especially those who are poor and disadvantaged.

  1. Who is an old-age person?
  2. Which three problems are faced by an old-age person?
  3. How can we remove the problems of an old-age person?


  1. Anyone who is retired from his Job or is above the age of 60 years is known as an old age person.
  2. ⇒ He is suffered from many diseases such as sugar, high blood pressure, etc.
    ⇒ After retirement, his income gets exhausted and now he becomes dependent upon his children to meet his daily needs.
    ⇒ His physical ability to fight diseases becomes so low. He is unable to clearly listen or see things.
  3. ⇒ Laws must be strictly implemented so that no one could harass them.
    ⇒ Government must provide excellent and free medical facilities to the elders.
    ⇒ Government must provide them good old age pension to reduce their financial dependency on children.

Question 16.
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There are more than one billion people in the world who live with one or the other form of disability. Many of us have people with disabilities as friends or family, who have difficulties in day-to-day life. People with disabilities are subject to multiple deprivations with limited access to basic services, including education, employment, rehabilitation facilities, etc. Additionally, widespread social stigma plays a major role in hindering their normal social and economic life.

The term disability carries with it a connotation of a lack or deficiency whether mental, physical, or sensory. It has been defined primarily in terms of medical deficit. Moreover, the word disability is itself not a homogenous category as it includes different kinds of bodily variations, physical impairments, sensory deficits, and mental or learning inadequacies which may be either congenital or acquired.

  1. What is meant by disability?
  2. Which problems are faced by disabled people?
  3. Give types of disability.


  1. The term disability carries with it a connotation of a lack or deficiency whether mental, physical, or sensory. It is primarily defined in terms of medical deficit.
  2. ⇒ Disable people are unable to get a proper education.
    ⇒ Their chances of getting jobs become quite limited.
    ⇒ They cannot do any work fast the way which a normal person can do.
    ⇒ It becomes an obstacle to their economic growth.
  3. Disability is of many types such as:
    ⇒ Locomotor Disability
    ⇒ Visual Disability
    ⇒ Hearing Disability
    ⇒ Mental Disability
    ⇒ Speech Disability.

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