PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 2 Rural Society

This PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 2 Rural Society will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 2 Rural Society

Rural Society:

  • That society which lives in a rural area with special features such as small in size, less density of population, agriculture-main occupation, similarities among the people, caste-based stratification, joint family, etc.


  • The type of marriage in which an individual needs to marry within his own group such as caste.


  • The type of marriage in which one needs to marry out of his group such as clan, family.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 2 Rural Society

Green Revolution:

  • With the help of high-yielding variety seeds, agriculture production was increased and this is known as the green revolution.


  • When a person takes a loan for agriculture or any other purpose, it is known as a loan.
  • When he fails to pay back the loan and it increases with interest, then it is known as indebtedness.

Joint Family:

  • That family in which members of a minimum of three generations live such as grandparents, parents, grandchildren, etc.
  • They live under one roof, eat in a common kitchen, and perform the same economic activity.

→ India is basically a rural society in which around 70% (68.84%) population still lives in villages.

→ Rural people live a very simple life, share a lot with each other, and have many similarities with each other.

→ Mahatma Gandhi is often quoted to have said, “Real India lives in its villages.”

→ There are many features of rural society such as small in size, close relationship, homogeneity, more social control, agriculture main occupation, more impact of religion, the dominance of joint family, less social mobility, etc.

→ Rural society is dominated by the joint family in which a minimum of three generations lives together. Such families are large in size and live under a single roof.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 2 Rural Society

→ In 1992, the 73rd Constitutional Amendment was made and a three-tier structure of local self-government was established.

→These three levels are Panchayat at the village level, Panchayat Samiti at the block level, and Zila Parishad at the district level. Their main objective is to do all-around development of rural areas.

→ During the decade of 1960s, a green revolution came in India to increase agricultural production for farmers.

→ There were many positive consequences of this revolution such as cereal production increased, production of commercial crops increased, changes in the methods of agriculture, etc.

→ But there were a few negative consequences as well such as it helped only the rich farmers, the difference between rich and poor farmers increased, etc.

→ Indian farmers presently are facing a very serious issue and this is the problem of indebtedness.

→ Due to this problem, many farmers have committed suicide. There can be many reasons for indebtedness such as poverty,’ ancestral debt, legal cases, backwardness, extra expenditure, more interest on loans, etc.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 2 Rural Society

→ Present rural society is going through a phase of transition. Now old relations are coming to an end, control of caste panchayats is reducing, crimes are increasing, the jamjar system has come to an end, people are migrating towards urban areas, etc.

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