PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 1 Tribal Society

This PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 1 Tribal Society will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 1 Tribal Society

Simple Division of Labour:

  • Tribal societies are based on a simple division of labor in which age and sex are the most important bases.


  • Animism is faith in spirits that there exist spirits even after death. This theory was given by Tylor.


  • When any object, plant, animal, or stone is considered sacred by a tribe, it is known as a totem.
  • Belief in totem is known as totemism. So, the sacred object is not touched or eaten.
  • It is believed that there exists some spiritual power in that object.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 1 Tribal Society

Subsistence Economy:

  • A subsistence economy is an economy in which people only fulfill their needs.
  • Tribal societies are simple in nature and they fulfill their needs by hunting, collecting, fishing, and collecting other forest products.
  • The barter system also exists in tribal societies.
  • There is no notion of profit among tribal societies.
  • In fact, their economy is based on the fulfillment of their needs.

Shifting Cultivation:

  • This is one of the methods of doing agriculture among tribal people.
  • It is also known as Jhum or Podu agriculture in different tribes.
  • In this method, first of all, the forest is cleared by cutting trees and then cleared land is sown with seeds before the rainy season.
  • After the rain, the crop is ready to cut down. Later on, another piece of land is cleared to do agriculture and the process continues.

→ Indian tribal heritage is quite rich and varied. Here different racial and linguistic tribes live and they are at different levels from an economic and technological point of view.

→ Though many changes are coming among Indian tribes still they are backward and the government is giving special attention to their welfare.

→ Tribals in India are known by different names such as Vanyajati, Vanvasi, Pahari, Adimjati, Adivasi, Janjati, Anusuchit Janjati (Scheduled Tribe) etc.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 1 Tribal Society

→ Actually, the tribe is an endogamous group that lives in a particular geographical area, which has a specific language and culture. Technically, they live in ancient conditions and their economy is subsistence and based on the barter system.

→ Tribes are divided on different bases. Sir Herbert Risley has given their classification on different bases. They can also be divided on an economic basis and on the basis of their integration into the mainstream of our country.

→ There exist hundreds of tribes in India but seven major tribes are there whose population is one lac or more such as the Gond, the Bhils, the Sanfchals, the Oraons, the Munda, and the Khonds.

→ There exist many types of families, in tribal society, on many bases such as authority, place of living, and descent. In the same way, many types of marriages exist in tribal society.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 1 Tribal Society

→ Tribal societies face many problems but the most important one is deforestation and displacement. Due to deforestation, tribals are displaced from their areas and are forced to move somewhere else. That’s why they face many problems.

→ Many changes are coming in tribal society such as, they are integrating into the mainstream of the country, they are adopting social ways of living of their nearby society, they are leaving their own occupations and are adopting the new ones and they are migrating to other areas.

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