# PSEB 12th Class History Solutions Chapter 23 Second Anglo-Sikh War, Causes, Results and Annexation of the Punjab

Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class History Book Solutions Chapter 23 Second Anglo-Sikh War, Causes, Results and Annexation of the Punjab Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## PSEB Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 23 Second Anglo-Sikh War, Causes, Results and Annexation of the Punjab

Question 1.
Explain in brief the causes of Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
What were the causes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
What were the five main causes for Second Anglo-Sikh War?
Or
Describe five main reasons of Second Anglo-Sikh War.
1. Sikhs’ desire to avenge their defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War: It is true that the Sikhs were defeated in the First Anglo-Sikh War against the Britishers, but this did not demoralise them. They knew very well the main cause of their defeat was the treachery of Sikh leaders. The Sikh soldiers were confident of their ability. Therefore, they wanted to avenge their defeat. This strong desire of theirs became one of the main causes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.

2. Punjabis were dissatisfied with the Treaties of Lahore and Bhairowal: After the First Anglo-Sikh War, the British forced the Lahore Darbar to sign the treaties of Lahore and Bhairowal. These treaties had, almost, ended the sovereignty of the Sikh Empire. The people of the Punjab could not tolerate the ruining of the empire which Maharaja Ranjit Singh had built, bit by bit by the sweat of his brow. Therefore, the Sikhs had to fight one more war with the British.

3. Resentment among the Sikh Soldiers: According to the treaty of Lahore, the British had fixed the strength of the Khalsa army at 20,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalries. Thousands of Sikh soldiers were disbanded. These jobless soldiers would wander about in the villages. They felt that it was the high-handedness of British Government.

4. Harsh treatment of Maharani Jindan: The humiliating treatment meted out to Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s widow, and Maharaja Dalip Singh’s mother, Maharani Jindan, further aggravated the resentment of the Sikhs. The maltreatment of Maharani Jindan by the British sent a wave of anger throughout Punjab.

5. Revolt of Diwan Moolraj: The revolt of Diwai Moolraj of Multan was one of the most potent causes, which led to the Second Anglo-Sikh War. On 20th April, the two British officers – Vans Agnew and Anderson were murdered in Multan. The British Government falsely implicated Diwan Moolraj for these murders. It enraged Moolraj and he raised the banner of revolt against the British.

Question 2.
Write a note on the revolt of Diwan Moolraj of Multan.
Diwan Moolraj was appointed the Nazim (Governor) of Multan in 1844 A.D. He paid about 13 ^ lakh rupees annually to Lahore Darbar as revenue. Later on this amount was raised to 20 lakh but at the same time 3rd of the territory of his state was taken away. As a result he resigned from the post of Nazim. In march 1848 A.D., the new Resident Fredrick Currie accepted his resignation. He decided to appoint Kahan Singh the new Governor of Multan.

Two British officers Agnew and Anderson were sent to assist him. Moolraj handed over the charge of the fort to Kahan Singh on April 19,1848 A.D. without any opposition. But on April 20, some soldiers of Moolraj slew both the British officers and compelled Moolraj to lead their revolt against the British. Instead of crushing it, the British allowed it to spread so that they could have an excuse to invade the kingdom of Lahore.

Question 3.
What do you know about the revolt of Chattar Singh of Hazara?
Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala was the Nazim of Hazara. He had grown suspicious of the designs of the British when they intentionally delayed action to crush the revolt of Multan and showed harsh and unjust attitude towards Maharani Jindan. His daughter was engaged to Maharaja Dalip Singh. The Britishers were opposed to this matrimonial alliance because they did not want the two powerful royal families to unite. It could impede the Britishers’ policy of taking Punjab’s possession. Consequently, Chattar Singh’s suspicion of the Britishers, design was further deepened. Captain Abbott who had been appointed advisor to Chattar Singh was determined to wipe out the Sikh Empire.

Instigated by him the Muslims of Hazara attacked the residence of Chattar Singh on 6th August, 1848 A.D. On seeing this Sardar Chattar Singh ordered Col. Canora to take action against the rebels. Col. Canora who was in league with Captain Abbott refused to comply with the orders of Chattar Singh. On the other hand he fired two shots which killed two Sikh soldiers. At that time a Sikh soldier advanced with his sword and beheaded Canora. When this news reached Abbott he flew into a rage. He removed Sardar Chattar Singh from his office and seized his Jagir. As a result the blood of Chattar Singh began to boil and he raised the banner of revolt against the British. Now the fire of revolt spread everywhere.

Question 4.
Write a brief note on the battle of Chilliamwala.
The battle of ChillianWala was an important battle of the Second Anglo- Sikh War. Lord Hugh Gough who was commanding’the British forces was waiting for more military assistance to face the forces of Sher Singh. At this time he got information that Chattar Singh had taken the Attock fort and he was coming to the help of Sher Singh. It could pose a great danger for the British. Well before Chattar Singh could reach Hugh Gough attacked the forces of Sher Singh at Chillianwala on January 13, 1849 A.D. In this pitched battle the Sikhs fought like devils and their artillery took a heavy toll.

It created disorder in the British ranks. It was the worst defeat, the British had suffered since their occupation of India. It created furore in England. Hugh Gough was superseded and Charles Napier was asked to come from England to take over command.

Question 5.
What was the importance of the Battle of Gujarat in Second Anglo- SikhWar?
The battle of Gujarat was the last and the most decisive battle of the Second Anglo-Sikh War. It was fought on February 21,1849 A.D. In this battle the number of Sikh troops was 40,000. They were jointly led by Chattar Singh, Sher Singh and Bhai Maharaj Singh. On the other hand the number of British troops was 68,000. They were commanded by Lord Hugh Gough. As both the sides used excessive guns in this battle, so the battle of Gujarat is also called the battle of guns. The Sikhs fought bravely but were defeated as they ran short of ammunition.

The Sikhs suffered heavy loss in this battle and pandemonium prevailed. Chattar Singh, Sher Singh and Bhai Maharaj Singh fled to Rawalpindi. The British soldiers chased them. They surrendered on March 10, and the remaining soldiers surrendered on March 14. After the British victory in this battle on March 29, 1849, they annexed Punjab to their empire. In this way the empire established by Maharaja Ranjit Singh came to an end.

Question 6.
What were the results of Second Anglo-Sikh War?
Or
Study in brief the results of Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
Explain the five effects of Second Anglo-Sikh War.
The Second Anglo-Sikh war had far-reaching consequences. It may be summarised as follows :
1. End of the Empire of Maharaja Ranjit Singh : The most significant result of the Second Anglo-Sikh War was this that it completely brought an end to the empire. The last Sikh Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned.

2. Sikh Army was Disbanded : After the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the Sikh army was disbanded. Majority of these soldiers were engaged in farming. Those soldiers, whose loyalty was not in doubt, were recruited in the British Indian army.

3. Banishment of Moolraj and Bhai Maharaj Singh : Diwan Moolraj had been awarded the death sentence .on the charge of the murder of two British officers. Later on it was converted into ‘Kalapani’. He was to be sent to Andaman but before that his health broke down. Consequently, he died on 11th August, 1851 A.D. at Calcutta. Bhai Maharaj Singh was sent to the Singapore jail, where he died on 5th July, 1856 A.D.

4. Punishment to S. Chattar Singh and Sher Singh : The British Government had imprisoned Sardar Chattar Singh and his son Sher Singh. They were first kept in the Allahabad jail and then transferred to the Calcutta jail. In 1854 A.D. the government released both of them.

5. New Administration for the Punjab : After the annexation of the Punjab to the British Empire, the British established a Board of Administration to run the administration of the Punjab. It functioned from 1849 to 1853 A.D. During this period, the Britishers introduced many changes in the administrative structure of the Punjab.

Question 7.
Was the annexation of Punjab by Lord Dalhousie justified? Give arguements in your favour.
Or
“Annexation of Punjab was a violent breach of trust.” Explain.
Or
Was the annexation of Punjab justified? Give five reasons for it.
The annexation of Punjab was a violent breach of trust.

1. Sikhs provoked to Revolt: Between the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War and the beginning of the Second Anglo-Sikh War, many such events took place as provoked the Sikhs to revolt. According to the treaty of Lahore, the Britishers had taken away important areas of Punjab. The Britishers had meted out a shabby treatment to Maharani Jindan. They forced Diwan Moolraj and Sardar Chattar Singh to revolt. In this way, the Sikhs were compelled to rise against the British.

2. Revolt was not suppressed in time : When the fire of revolt broke out in Multan, it could have been controlled there and then. To let the revolt linger on for eight months, was a politically motivated move. As a consequence, the British got the much needed pretext to wage a war against Punjab and its annexation.

3. British had not fulfilled the terms of the Treaty : It was said by the British that they had stood by all the promises. An assessment made, brings to light the fact that the British had fulfilled only those terms of the treaty, which looked advantageous to them. Thus, the Britishers’ assertion that they fulfilled all the terms of the treaty is a white lie.

4. Lahore Darbar gave full co-operation in fulfilling the terms of the Treaty: The Lahore Darbar continued to fulfil faithfully the terms of the treaty till the British finally took over the Punjab. The Lahore Government was bearing the whole expense of the British army posted in Punjab. It condemned the revolts of Diwan Moolraj, Chattar Singh and Sher Singh, and also co-operated fully with the British army to crush these revolts.

5. The whole Sikh Army and the people did not Revolt: Lord Dalbousie had charged that the entire Sikh army of the Punjab in collusion with the people had revolted against the British. It necessitated the possession of the Punjab by the British. But there is not an iota of truth in this statement of Lord Dalhousie. The revolt against the British had taken place only in Multan and Hazara provinces of the Punjab. Most of the Sikh army and the people remained loyal to the British. To punish the whole of Punjab under such circumstances, was totally wrong.

Question 8.
Give any five arguments in favour of Dalhousie’s annexation of the Punjab to the British empire.
Or
Give arguments in favour of Dalhousie’s policy of the annexation of Punjab.
The following arguments are given in favour of Dalhousie’s policy of annexation :

1. Sikhs had broken their Promises: Lord Dalhousie had accused that the Sikhs had violated the terms of the treaty of Bhairowal. Through this treaty, the Sikhs had promised to co-operate with the British Resident, but the Sikhs did not keep the word. On the contrary, they tried to spread disturbance by raising the banner of revolt against the British. Lord Dalhousie termed Diwan Moolraj’s revolt as the revolt of the whole Sikh community. In this way, to tide over the deteriorating conditions, the annexation of Punjab to the British Empire was essential.

2. Punjab remained no more a good Buffer State: After the First Anglo- Sikh War, Lord Hardinge had not annexed Punjab to the British Empire because he had held the opinion that the Punjab would prove a useful buffer state between Afghanistan and the Britishers. But his opinion proved to be wrong. A friendship came to be established between the Sikhs and the AfghAnswer: So, Lord Dalhousie considered the annexation of the Punjab to the British empire essential.

3. Non-payment of the Loans: Lord Dalhousie levelled a charge against the Lahore Darbar that according to the terms of the treaty of Bhairowal, she was to pay Rs. 22 lakhs annually to the British. But the Lahore Darbar broke this term also. It did not pay even a single penny to the British. Besides, it did not make payment of that loan which it owed to the Britishers. Therefore, the annexation of the Punjab was justified.

4. It was advantageous to annex Punjab: After the victory in the First Anglo-Sikh War, the British had not annexed Punjab to the British Empire. But after having lived in the Punjab for two years, they realised that it could prove useful to them not only from the economic point of view but also from many other angles. Owing to these reasons, Lord Dalhousie decided to take possession of the Punjab.

5. Annexation of the Punjab was inevitable: It is said that if the Punjab had not been annexed to the British Empire, the Sikhs would have continued to hatch conspiracies against the British Empire for their freedom. It would have affected the other parts of India also. Lord Dalhousie considered it necessary to annex the Punjab to the British Empire.

Question 9.
Write a brief note on Maharaja Dalip Singh.
Maharaja Dalip Singh was the youngest son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He became the ruler of Punjab on September 15,1843 A.D. At that time he was only five years old. As a result Maharani Jindan was made his regent. Maharaja Dalip Singh appointed Hira Singh as the Prime Minister of Punjab. Although Hira Singh was very wise he had annoyed most of the courtiers by appointing Pandit Jalla to the post of Mashir-i-Khas. After the murder of Hira Singh in 1844 A.D. Jawahar Singh became the new Prime Minister of the State.

But he was very incompetent and haughty. He was murdered by some soldiers in September 1845 for assassinating Prince Peshaura Singh. Thereafter, Lai Singh was appointed to the post of Prime Minister. He was already in league with the British. Consequently, the Sikhs had to face defeat in the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars. The British dethroned Maharaja Dalip Singh and annexed Punjab to the British empire on 29 March, 1849 A.D. Maharaja Dalip Singh was sent to England. He died heart-broken in Paris on October 22,1893 A.D.

Question 10.
Write a brief note on Maharani Jind Kaur (Jindan).
Or
What do ycu know about Maharani Jindan?
Maharani Jindan was the mother of Maharaja Dalip Singh and queen of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. When Dalip Singh became the new king of the Punjab on September 15,1843 A.D., Maharani Jindan was appointed as his regent. Soon she became the symbol of Punjabi resurgence. She wanted to maintain the independence of Punjab at all costs. Her activities irked the British government. Consequently, she was dispossessed of all her powers through the Treaty of Bhairowal. She was to be given an annual pension of Rs.1$$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ lakh. In August 1847 A.D. she was put under house imprisonment in the fort of Sheikhupura. She was ill-treated in jail.

In May 1848 A.D. she was exiled and sent to Banaras. Maharani Jindan succeeded in reaching Nepal in disguise in April 1849 A.D. When Maharaja Dalip Singh came to India from England in 1861 A.D., Maharani came to see him from Nepal. Maharaja Dalip Singh took his mother to England along with him. Here also the English did not allow them to live together. On August 1, 1863, she died broken-hearted.

Essay Type Questions:

Question 1.
Discuss the circumstances leading to the Second Anglo-Sikh War. How far were the British responsible for it?
Or
What were the main causes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War?
Or
Write the reasons of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
In the First Anglo-Sikh War the British emerged victorious and Sikhs were defeated in it. The Sikhs were enraged due to their humiliation by the treaties imposed upon them. It led to the Second Anglo-Sikh War. The main causes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War are given ahead :

1. Sikhs’ desire to avenge their defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War : It is true that the Sikhs were defeated.in the first war against the Britishers, but this did not demoralise them. They knew very well that in the battle of Ferozeshah they had inflicted a crushing defeat on the Britishers. The main cause of this defeat was the treachery of Sikh leaders like Lai Singh and Teja Singh. The Sikh soldiers were confident of their ability. Therefore, they wanted to avenge their defeat. This strong desire of theirs became one of the main causes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.

2. Punjabis were dissatisfied with the Treaties of Lahore and Bhairowal: After the First Anglo-Sikh War, the British forced the Lahore Darbar to sign the treaties of Lahore and Bhairowal. These treaties had, almost, ended the sovereignty of the Sikh Empire. Besides, through these treaties the British had taken possession of the famous areas like the Jalandhar Doab. They had handed over the area of Kashmir to their friend, Gulab Singh. Thus, the British had divided Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s Raj into three parts. The people of the Punjab could not tolerate the ruining of the empire which Maharaja Ranjit Singh had built, bit by bit by the sweat of his brow. They wanted to retrieve their old glory. Therefore, the Sikhs had to fight one more war with the British.

3. Resentment among the Sikh Soldiers: According to the treaty of Lahore, the British had fixecf the strength of the Khalsa army at 20,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry. Thousands of Sikh soldiers were disbanded. These jobless soldiers would wander about in the villages. They felt that it was the high-handedness of British Government.

4. Harsh treatment of Maharani Jindan: The humiliating treatment meted out to Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s widow, and Maharaja Dalip Singh’s mother, Maharani Jindan, further aggravated the resentment of the Sikhs. Through the treaty of Lahore, the Britishers had accepted Maharani Jindan as the regent of minor Maharaja Dalip Singh. She was a woman of high ambitions. It soon became clear to the British that as long as the administration of the Lahore Darbar was under the influence of the Maharani, they would not be able to have their own ways in Punjab.

That is why, under the treaty of Bhairowal, the Britishers divested the Maharani of her powers and gave her a pension of Rs.1.5 lakh per year. In 1847 A.D. the Britishers detained the Maharani in the fort of Sheikhupura. In 1848 A. D., the Maharani was exiled to Banaras. Her annual pension was reduced to Rs. 12000/- per year. The maltreatment of Maharani Jindan by the British sent a wave of anger throughout Punjab.

5. Revolt of Diwan Moolraj : The revolt of Diwan Moolraj of Multan was one of the most potent causes, which led to the Second Anglo-Sikh War. In 1844 A.D. Diwan Moolraj was appointed the new Nazim of Multan. He was compelled to resign by the British in 1847 A.D. In March 1848 A.D. Sardar Kahan Singh was made the new Nazim of Multan. In order to take over the charge of Multan, two British officers, Vans Agnew and Anderson were sent alongwith Kahan Singh. Moolraj warmly welcomed them. On 20th April, some soldiers of Moolraj murdered both the officers and imprisoned Kahan Singh. Fredrick Currie held Moolraj responsible for the revolt of Multan.

It enraged Moolraj and he raised the banner of revolt against the British, The Governor-General of India Lord Dalhousie was on the look out for such a golden opportunity. He deliberately avoided the suppression of rebellion. He wanted that the revolt should flare up on a large-scale, so that he might find a pretext to swallow Punjab. Dr. Kirpal Singh aptly writes, “The spark which kindled a conflagration and reduced the sovereign state of the Punjab to ashes, rose from Multan.”

6. Revolt of Chattar Singh : Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala was the Nazim of Hazara. He had grown suspicious of the designs of the British, when they intentionally delayed action to crush the revolt of Multan and showed harsh and unjust attitude towards Maharani Jindan. One of his soldiers had killed Col. Canora for misbehaving with S. Chattar Singh. For this the British dismissed Sardar Chattar Singh from his office and seized his Jagir. As a result the blood of Chattar Singh began to boil and he raised the banner of revolt against the British. Now the fire of revolt spread everywhere.

7. Revolt of Sher Singh : As has already been described that Sher Singh was the son of Chattar Singh and was the member of the Council of Regency. He was a staunch supporter of the British. But when Sher Singh came to know about the maltreatment meted out to his father by the Britishers, he too raised the banner of revolt against them on 14th September 1848 A.D. Through a declaration, he appealed to the people of Punjab, who had tasted Ranjit Singh’s salt, to rise in revolt against the treacherous Britishers. The Sikh soldiers responded to this appeal warmly and gathered under the banner of “Sher Singh.

8. Policy of Lord Dalhousie : In January 1848 A.D.; Lord Dalhousie became the new Governor-General of India. He was a great imperialist. By the Doctrine of Lapse and other methods he annexed many Indian States to the British Emjpire. After having taken possession of whole of India, Punjab was the only such state as could not yet be included to the British Empire. Dalhousie had been looking greedily towards Punjab for quite some time, and was on the look out for a golden opportunity. He got this opportunity, when Diwan Moolraj, Chattar Singh and Sher Singh raised their banner of revolt against the British.

Question 2.
Discuss in brief the events of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
The imprudent policies being followed by the British further widened the gulf between them and the Sikhs. It brought them at the door step of Second Anglo-Sikh War. Lord Dalhousie had sent Lord Hugh Gough to suppress the revolts of Diwan Moolraj, Chattar Singh and Sher Singh. As a consequence the second Anglo-Sikh War was started. The main events of this war were as given ahead :

1. Battle of Ramnagar: The first battle of the Second Anglo-Sikh War between the Sikhs and the British took place at Ramnagar on 22nd November, 1848 A.D. Lord Hugh Gough was the commander of the British army, which comprised 20,000 soldiers and 100 guns. The Sikh army was commanded by Sher Singh, which comprised 15,000 soldiers. The Sikhs had already dug their ‘Morchas’ (trenches) at Ramnagar. When the soldiers of Lord Hugh Gough reached there, the Sikhs challenged them. The Sikhs inflicted a crushing defeat on the British. General Havelock and General Cureton were killed in the battlefield. From this battle Hugh Gough realized that it was not a child’s play to face the Sikhs.

2. Battle of Chillianwala : The battle of Chillianwala was one of the significant battles of the second Anglo-Sikh War. This battle was fought on 13th January, 1849 A.D. Lord Gough was of the view that he did not have a strong force to face Sher Singh. So, he was waiting for more reinforcement, but when Gough came to know that Chattar Singh with his soldiers was coming to the help of Sher Singh, he attacked the soldiers of Sher Singh on 13th January. It Was one of the hardest and fiercest battles. The Sikhs fought with great determination and daring. They wrought havoc in the British army. The British lost 695 soldiers, including 132 officers in the bat’tle and 1651 soldiers were wounded.

Four British Guns were also captured by the Sikhs. Sita Ram Kohli aptly says, “Chillianwala was the worst defeat the British had suffered since their occupation of India.” The heavy disaster of the British in the battle of Chillianwala created a stir in England. So, it was decided by the British Government to appoint Sir Charles Napier as Commander-in-Chief in place of Lord Hugh Gough.

3. Battle of Multan: Diwan Moolraj had raised the banner of revolt against the British at Multan in April 1848 A.D. The British had, at first, allowed the revolt to spread and later when Sher Singh joined Diwan Moolraj of Multan, they decided to act. War did take place between the British soldiers and the soldiers of Moolraj, but the British could not win any decisive victory. At last, the British played a trick. They wrote a forged letter and created a misunderstanding between Diwan Moolraj and Sher Singh. As a result, Sher Singh parted company with. Moolraj in October, 1848 A.D.

General Whish besieged the fort of Multan. Diwan Moolraj bravely resisted the British army. On 30th December, a shell hurled by the British fell on the gun-powder. As a result a big quantity of ammunition was destroyed and 500 soldiers of Moolraj were killed. Owing to this heavy loss, it became difficult for Moolraj to resist the British for long. At last, on 22nd January, 1849 A.D. Diwan Moolraj was forced to surrender to the British and he handed over the fort of Multan to them. The victory of Multan redeemed to a large extent the lost prestige of the Britishers suffered at Chillianwala.

4. Battle of Gujarat: The battle of Gujarat proved to be the most important and decisive battle of the Second Anglo-Sikh War. In this battle, Chattar Singh,

Sher Singh and Bhai Maharaj Singh made a united front against the British. In addition, the king of Afghanistan, Dost Mohammad also sent 3,000 cavaliers under the command of his son, Akbar Khan to help the Sikhs. In this battle, the Sikhs had a total army of 40,000 soldiers. On the other hand, the English army was still led by Lord Hugh Gough because Charles Napier had not yet reached India. The British army comprised 68,000 soldiers. In this battle, guns were extensively used by both the sides, because of which this battle is also famous in history as the Battle of Guns.

This battle started at 7.30 a.m. on 21st February, 1849 AD. The ammunition of the Sikhs was soon exhausted. When the Britishers came to know about it, they made a fierce attack on the Sikhs. The Sikh soldiers unsheathed their swords, but they could not resist the guns for long. The Sikhs suffered heavy losses in this battle. 3000 to 5000 of their soldiers were killed in the battle and 53 guns fell into the hands of the British. On the other hand, only 96 soldiers of the British army were killed. After this battle, the Sikh soldiers fled from the battlefield. The British army chased them. On 10th March, 1848 Chattar Singh, Sher Singh and other leaders surrendered near Rawalpindi before Gen. Gilbert. On 14th March the rest of the Sikh soldiers collectively surrendered before the General. While laying down their arms, the soldiers could not restrain their tears and were saying, “Today Ranjit Singh has died.” In this way, we see that the battle of Gujarat proved disastrous for the Sikh Empire. Patwant Singh aptly says, “Thus ended the Second Sikh War and with it the curtain came down on Ranjit Singh’s proud Empire.”

Question 3.
Discuss the main results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
The Second Anglo-Sikh war had far-reaching consequences. It may be summarised as follows :

1. End of the Empire of Maharaja Ranjit Singh : The most significant result of the Second Anglo-Sikh War was this that it completely brought an end to the empire, which Maharaja Ranjit Singh had built with great toils. In this connection a letter of declaration was read in the Lahore Darbar, on 29th March, 1849 A.D. The last Sikh Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned. He was allowed to live in any part of India except Punjab. The whole property of the Lahore Darbar was confiscated. The famous Kohinoor diamond was taken from Maharaja Dalip Singh and presented to Queen Victoria. After some time Maharaja Dalip Singh was sent to England. He died in Paris, in the year 1893 A.D.

2. Sikh Army was Disbanded : After the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the Sikh army was disbanded. Majority of these soldiers were engaged in farming. Those soldiers, whose loyalty was not in doubt, were recruited in the British Indian army.

3. Banishment of Moolraj and Bhai Maharaj Singh : Diwan Moolraj had been awarded the death sentence on the charge of the murder of two British officers. Later on it was converted into ‘Kalapani’. He was to be sent to Andaman but before that his health broke down. Consequently, he died on 11th August, 1851 A.D. at Calcutta. Bhai Maharaj Singh was at first kept in the Allahabad jail and then in the Calcutta jail. Later on, he was sent to the Singapore jail, where he died on 5th July, 1856 A.D.

4. Punishment to S. Chattar Singh and Sher Singh : The British Government had imprisoned Sardar Chattar Singh and his son Sher Singh. They were first kept in the Allahabad jail and then transferred to the Calcutta jail. In 1854 A.D. the government released both of them.

5. New Administration for the Punjab : After the annexation of the Punjab to the British Empire, the British established a Board of Administration to run the administration of the Punjab. It functioned from 1849 to 1853 A.D. During this period, the Britishers introduced many changes in the administrative structure of the Punjab. The North-West frontier was made safe. The Sikhs were disarmed. The police system was made more efficient. The judiciary was made more cheap and prompt. A network of roads and canals was laid in the Punjab. Agriculture was encouraged. Jagirdari system was abolished. Efforts were made to encourage trade. Western education was introduced in Punjab. As a result of these efforts, the British were able to restore peace and prosperity in Punjab. That is why, Punjab remained loyal to the British during the revolt of 1857.

6. Friendly Attitude towards Princely States of the Punjab : During the Second Anglo-Sikh War the states of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Malerkotla, Faridkot and Kapurthala had given co-operation to the Britishers. So, the Britishers continued their friendly relations with-them and did not annex them to the British Empire. ”

Question 4.
What were the causes and results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War? Explain.
Or
Discuss the causes and results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.

In the First Anglo-Sikh War the British emerged victorious and Sikhs were defeated in it. The Sikhs were enraged due to their humiliation by the treaties imposed upon them. It led to the Second Anglo-Sikh War. The main causes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War are given ahead :

1. Sikhs’ desire to avenge their defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War : It is true that the Sikhs were defeated.in the first war against the Britishers, but this did not demoralise them. They knew very well that in the battle of Ferozeshah they had inflicted a crushing defeat on the Britishers. The main cause of this defeat was the treachery of Sikh leaders like Lai Singh and Teja Singh. The Sikh soldiers were confident of their ability. Therefore, they wanted to avenge their defeat. This strong desire of theirs became one of the main causes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.

2. Punjabis were dissatisfied with the Treaties of Lahore and Bhairowal: After the First Anglo-Sikh War, the British forced the Lahore Darbar to sign the treaties of Lahore and Bhairowal. These treaties had, almost, ended the sovereignty of the Sikh Empire. Besides, through these treaties the British had taken possession of the famous areas like the Jalandhar Doab. They had handed over the area of Kashmir to their friend, Gulab Singh. Thus, the British had divided Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s Raj into three parts. The people of the Punjab could not tolerate the ruining of the empire which Maharaja Ranjit Singh had built, bit by bit by the sweat of his brow. They wanted to retrieve their old glory. Therefore, the Sikhs had to fight one more war with the British.

3. Resentment among the Sikh Soldiers: According to the treaty of Lahore, the British had fixecf the strength of the Khalsa army at 20,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry. Thousands of Sikh soldiers were disbanded. These jobless soldiers would wander about in the villages. They felt that it was the high-handedness of British Government.

4. Harsh treatment of Maharani Jindan: The humiliating treatment meted out to Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s widow, and Maharaja Dalip Singh’s mother, Maharani Jindan, further aggravated the resentment of the Sikhs. Through the treaty of Lahore, the Britishers had accepted Maharani Jindan as the regent of minor Maharaja Dalip Singh. She was a woman of high ambitions. It soon became clear to the British that as long as the administration of the Lahore Darbar was under the influence of the Maharani, they would not be able to have their own ways in Punjab.

That is why, under the treaty of Bhairowal, the Britishers divested the Maharani of her powers and gave her a pension of Rs.1.5 lakh per year. In 1847 A.D. the Britishers detained the Maharani in the fort of Sheikhupura. In 1848 A. D., the Maharani was exiled to Banaras. Her annual pension was reduced to Rs. 12000/- per year. The maltreatment of Maharani Jindan by the British sent a wave of anger throughout Punjab.

5. Revolt of Diwan Moolraj : The revolt of Diwan Moolraj of Multan was one of the most potent causes, which led to the Second Anglo-Sikh War. In 1844 A.D. Diwan Moolraj was appointed the new Nazim of Multan. He was compelled to resign by the British in 1847 A.D. In March 1848 A.D. Sardar Kahan Singh was made the new Nazim of Multan. In order to take over the charge of Multan, two British officers, Vans Agnew and Anderson were sent alongwith Kahan Singh. Moolraj warmly welcomed them. On 20th April, some soldiers of Moolraj murdered both the officers and imprisoned Kahan Singh. Fredrick Currie held Moolraj responsible for the revolt of Multan.

It enraged Moolraj and he raised the banner of revolt against the British, The Governor-General of India Lord Dalhousie was on the look out for such a golden opportunity. He deliberately avoided the suppression of rebellion. He wanted that the revolt should flare up on a large-scale, so that he might find a pretext to swallow Punjab. Dr. Kirpal Singh aptly writes, “The spark which kindled a conflagration and reduced the sovereign state of the Punjab to ashes, rose from Multan.”

6. Revolt of Chattar Singh : Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala was the Nazim of Hazara. He had grown suspicious of the designs of the British, when they intentionally delayed action to crush the revolt of Multan and showed harsh and unjust attitude towards Maharani Jindan. One of his soldiers had killed Col. Canora for misbehaving with S. Chattar Singh. For this the British dismissed Sardar Chattar Singh from his office and seized his Jagir. As a result the blood of Chattar Singh began to boil and he raised the banner of revolt against the British. Now the fire of revolt spread everywhere.

7. Revolt of Sher Singh : As has already been described that Sher Singh was the son of Chattar Singh and was the member of the Council of Regency. He was a staunch supporter of the British. But when Sher Singh came to know about the maltreatment meted out to his father by the Britishers, he too raised the banner of revolt against them on 14th September 1848 A.D. Through a declaration, he appealed to the people of Punjab, who had tasted Ranjit Singh’s salt, to rise in revolt against the treacherous Britishers. The Sikh soldiers responded to this appeal warmly and gathered under the banner of “Sher Singh.

8. Policy of Lord Dalhousie : In January 1848 A.D.; Lord Dalhousie became the new Governor-General of India. He was a great imperialist. By the Doctrine of Lapse and other methods he annexed many Indian States to the British Emjpire. After having taken possession of whole of India, Punjab was the only such state as could not yet be included to the British Empire. Dalhousie had been looking greedily towards Punjab for quite some time, and was on the look out for a golden opportunity. He got this opportunity, when Diwan Moolraj, Chattar Singh and Sher Singh raised their banner of revolt against the British.

The imprudent policies being followed by the British further widened the gulf between them and the Sikhs. It brought them at the door step of Second Anglo-Sikh War. Lord Dalhousie had sent Lord Hugh Gough to suppress the revolts of Diwan Moolraj, Chattar Singh and Sher Singh. As a consequence the second Anglo-Sikh War was started. The main events of this war were as given a head:

1. Battle of Ramnagar: The first battle of the Second Anglo-Sikh War between the Sikhs and the British took place at Ramnagar on 22nd November, 1848 A.D. Lord Hugh Gough was the commander of the British army, which comprised 20,000 soldiers and 100 guns. The Sikh army was commanded by Sher Singh, which comprised 15,000 soldiers. The Sikhs had already dug their ‘Morchas’ (trenches) at Ramnagar. When the soldiers of Lord Hugh Gough reached there, the Sikhs challenged them. The Sikhs inflicted a crushing defeat on the British. General Havelock and General Cureton were killed in the battlefield. From this battle Hugh Gough realized that it was not a child’s play to face the Sikhs.

2. Battle of Chillianwala : The battle of Chillianwala was one of the significant battles of the second Anglo-Sikh War. This battle was fought on 13th January, 1849 A.D. Lord Gough was of the view that he did not have a strong force to face Sher Singh. So, he was waiting for more reinforcement, but when Gough came to know that Chattar Singh with his soldiers was coming to the help of Sher Singh, he attacked the soldiers of Sher Singh on 13th January. It Was one of the hardest and fiercest battles. The Sikhs fought with great determination and daring. They wrought havoc in the British army. The British lost 695 soldiers, including 132 officers in the bat’tle and 1651 soldiers were wounded.

Four British Guns were also captured by the Sikhs. Sita Ram Kohli aptly says, “Chillianwala was the worst defeat the British had suffered since their occupation of India.” The heavy disaster of the British in the battle of Chillianwala created a stir in England. So, it was decided by the British Government to appoint Sir Charles Napier as Commander-in-Chief in place of Lord Hugh Gough.

3. Battle of Multan: Diwan Moolraj had raised the banner of revolt against the British at Multan in April 1848 A.D. The British had, at first, allowed the revolt to spread and later when Sher Singh joined Diwan Moolraj of Multan, they decided to act. War did take place between the British soldiers and the soldiers of Moolraj, but the British could not win any decisive victory. At last, the British played a trick. They wrote a forged letter and created a misunderstanding between Diwan Moolraj and Sher Singh. As a result, Sher Singh parted company with. Moolraj in October, 1848 A.D.

General Whish besieged the fort of Multan. Diwan Moolraj bravely resisted the British army. On 30th December, a shell hurled by the British fell on the gun-powder. As a result a big quantity of ammunition was destroyed and 500 soldiers of Moolraj were killed. Owing to this heavy loss, it became difficult for Moolraj to resist the British for long. At last, on 22nd January, 1849 A.D. Diwan Moolraj was forced to surrender to the British and he handed over the fort of Multan to them. The victory of Multan redeemed to a large extent the lost prestige of the Britishers suffered at Chillianwala.

4. Battle of Gujarat: The battle of Gujarat proved to be the most important and decisive battle of the Second Anglo-Sikh War. In this battle, Chattar Singh, Sher Singh and Bhai Maharaj Singh made a united front against the British. In addition, the king of Afghanistan, Dost Mohammad also sent 3,000 cavaliers under the command of his son, Akbar Khan to help the Sikhs. In this battle, the Sikhs had a total army of 40,000 soldiers. On the other hand, the English army was still led by Lord Hugh Gough because Charles Napier had not yet reached India. The British army comprised 68,000 soldiers. In this battle, guns were extensively used by both the sides, because of which this battle is also famous in history as the Battle of Guns.

This battle started at 7.30 a.m. on 21st February, 1849 AD. The ammunition of the Sikhs was soon exhausted. When the Britishers came to know about it, they made a fierce attack on the Sikhs. The Sikh soldiers unsheathed their swords, but they could not resist the guns for long. The Sikhs suffered heavy losses in this battle. 3000 to 5000 of their soldiers were killed in the battle and 53 guns fell into the hands of the British. On the other hand, only 96 soldiers of the British army were killed. After this battle, the Sikh soldiers fled from the battlefield.

The British army chased them. On 10th March, 1848 Chattar Singh, Sher Singh and other leaders surrendered near Rawalpindi before Gen. Gilbert. On 14th March the rest of the Sikh soldiers collectively surrendered before the General. While laying down their arms, the soldiers could not restrain their tears and were saying, “Today Ranjit Singh has died.” In this way, we see that the battle of Gujarat proved disastrous for the Sikh Empire. Patwant Singh aptly says, “Thus ended the Second Sikh War and with it the curtain came down on Ranjit Singh’s proud Empire.”

Question 5.
“Annexation of the Punjab was a violent breach of trust.” Discuss briefly.
Or
Explain critically Lord Dalhousie’s Annexation of Punjab. “The Annexation of Punjab by Lord Dalhousie to the British Empire was unprincipled and unjustified.” Do you agree to this view? Give arguments in your favour.
Lord Dalhousie became the Governor-General of India in 1848 A.D. He was the greatest imperialist of all the Governor-Generals, who had come to India, so far. He adopted many methods to expand the British empire in India. The Punjab also fell a victim to his imperialist policies. He had been looking greedily towards the Punjab right from the beginning. Soon, his dream came out to be true. The Sikhs were defeated in the Second Anglo-Sikh War. On 29th March 1849 A.D., a Darbar was called at Lahore. At this Darbar Henry Elliot, the Foreign Secretary of the British read a proclamation of the Governor-General, in which it was said that from that day the Lahore Raj was being put to an end, and Maharaja Dalip Singh’s kingdom was being annexed to the British Empire.

Arguments in favour of Dalhousie’s Policy of Annexation:

The historians like W.W. Hunter, Marshman and S.M. Latif etc. have supported Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation of. Punjab to the British empire on the following grounds :

1. Sikhs had broken their Promises : Lord Dalhousie had accused that the Sikhs had violated the terms of the treaty of Bhairowal. Through this treaty, the Sikhs had promised to,co-operate with the British Resident, but the Sikhs did not keep the word. On the contrary, they tried to spread disturbance by raising the banner of revolt against the British. Lord Dalhousie termed Diwan Moolraj’s revolt as the revolt of the whole Sikh community. According to him the objective of this revolt was only to drive out the British and to revive the Sikh rule in Punjab. Sardar Chattar Singh and his son Sher Singh revolted and supported Moolraj. In this way, to tide over the deteriorating conditions, the annexation of Punjab to the British Empire was essential. That is why Lord Dalhousie said, “I have an undoubting conviction of the’expediency, the justice and necessity of my act.”

Many historians like Evans Bell, Jagmohan Mahajan, Ganda Singh and Khushwant Singh etc. have described the annexation of-the Punjab to the British Empire as unprincipled, unjustified and treachery with the Sikhs. They put forward the following arguments

1. Sikhs provoked to Revolt: Between the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War and the beginning of the Second Anglo-Sikh War, many such events took place as provoked the Sikhs to revolt. According to the treaty of Lahore, the Britishers had snatched away important areas of Punjab which badly affected its treasury. The majority of the army of the Lahore Darbar was disbanded, as a result of this, resentment among these soldiers against the British was natural. The Britishers had meted out a shabby treatment to Maharani Jindan. They forced Diwan Moolraj and Sardar Chattar Singh to revolt. In this way, the Sikhs were compelled to rise against the British.

2. Revolt was-not suppressed in time : When the fire of revolt broke out in Multan, it could have been controlled there and then. But the Governor-General, Lord Dalhousie, deliberatedly avoided the suppression of the revolt, so, that he might get the required pretext to swallow Punjab. To let the revolt linger on for eight months, was a politically motivated move. During this time Chattar Singh, Sher Singh and Bhai Maharaj Singh had also raised the banner of revo

2. Punjab remained no more a good Buffer State : After the First Anglo- Sikh War, Lord Hardinge had not annexed Punjab to the British Empire because he had held the opinion that the Punjab would prove a useful buffer state between Afghanistan and the Britishers. As a result, the British empire would not have to face any danger from Afghanistan. But his opinion proved to be wrong. A friendship came to be established between the Sikhs and the AfghAnswer: The ruler of Afghanistan helped the Sikhs against the British in the Second Anglo-Sikh War. So, Lord Dalhousie considered the annexation of the Punjab to the British empire essential.

3. Non-payment of the Loans : Lord Dalhousie levelled a charge against the Lahore Darbar that according to the terms of the treaty of Bhairowal, she was to pay Rs. 22 lakhs annually to the British. But the Lahore Darbar broke this term also. It did not pay even a single penny to the British. Besides, it did not make payment of that loan which it owed to the Britishers. Therefore, the annexation of the Punjab was justified. Singh and Bhai Maharaj Singh had also raised the banner of revolt. In this way, the British got the much needed pretext to wage a war against Punjab and its annexation.

4. It was advantageous to annex Punjab : After the victory in the First Anglo-Sikh War, the British had not annexed Punjab to the British Empire. One of its main reasons was that the British held the view that the Punjab was not a useful state from the economic point of view. But after having lived in the Punjab for two years, they realised that it could prove useful to them not only from the economic point of view but also from many other angles. Owing to these reasons, Lord Dalhousie decided to take possession of the Punjab.

5. Advantageous for the people of Punjab : Another argument advanced in favour of the annexation of the Punjab by Lord Dalhousie is that it was advantageous to the people of Punjab. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, anarchy had prevailed in Punjab. Under such circumstances, Punjab had become a propitious ground for thieves, dacoits and imposters. Their activities had made the nights of the people sleepless. The British restored peace here after annexing Punjab to the British Empire. Police system and judicial system were toned up. Agriculture and trade were encouraged. Arrangements were made to impart western education to the people. In short, the annexation of Punjab to the British Empire on the whole proved useful for the people.

6. Annexation of the Punjab was inevitable : It is said that if the Punjab had not been annexed to’the British Empire, the Sikhs would have continued to hatch conspiracies against the British Empire for their freedom. It would have affected the other parts of India also. This thing could prove dangerous to the British Empire. In order to avert this danger, Lord Dalhousie considered it necessary to annex the Punjab to the British Empire.

Arguments against Dalhousie’s Policy of Annexation:

3. British had not fulfilled the terms of the Treaty : It was said by the British that they had stood by all the promises. An assessment made, brings to light the fact that the British had fulfilled only those terms of the treaty, which looked advantageous to them. For instance, according to the treaty of Lahore, the British had accepted the term that they would withdraw their forces from Lahore after December 1846 A.D. Before that time, they imposed the treaty of Bhairowal on the Sikhs and extended this period of withdrawal. Thus, the Britishers’ assertion that they fulfilled all the terms of the treaty is a white lie.

4. Lahore Darbar gave full co-operation in fulfilling the terms of the Treaty: The assertion of the British that the Lahore Darbar had violated the terms of the treaty was a white lie. The Lahore Darbar continued to fulfil faithfully the terms of the treaty till the British finally took over the Punjab. The Lahore Government was bearing the whole expense of the British army posted in Punjab. It condemned the revolts of Diwan Moolraj, Chattar Singh and Sher Singh, and also co-operated fully with the British army to crush these revolts.

5. Facts about Loan : The charge levelled by Lord Dalhousie that the Lahore Darbar did not repay-even a single penny of the loan was also baseless. On 23rd February, 1848 A.D. the British Resident at Lahore, Fredrick Currie, wrote a letter to Lord Dalhousie in which it was said that the Lahore Darbar had deposited gold worthRs. 13, 56, 837. By this payment they had reduced the sum of their loan from Rs. 40 lakhs to less than Rs. 27 lakhs. If the Lahore Darbar did not repay the entire amount of its loan, the responsibility for it lay on the British Resident who was answerable for the administration of Lahore.

6. The whole Sikh Army and the people did not Revolt: Lord Dalhousie had charged that the entire Sikh army of the Punjab-in collusion with the people had revolted against the British. It necessitated the possession of the Punjab by the British. But there is not an iota of truth in this statement of Lord Dalhousie. The revolt against the British had taken place only in Multan and Hazara provinces of the Punjab. Most of the Sikh army and the people remained loyal to the British. To punish the whole of Punjab under such circumstances, was totally wrong.

7. Annexation of Punjab was a Breach of Trust : The annexation of Punjab by the British was a breach of trust. According to the Bhairowal treaty of Dec. 1846 A.D., the British had taken over the administration of Punjab entirely in their own hands. After banishing Rani Jindan, the Britishers had taken over the patronage and upbringing of Dalip Singh till 4th September, 1854 A.D. The British had kept their army in Lahore for the purpose of maintaining peace in the Punjab, and had also begun to charge 22 lakh rupees annually from the Lahore Darbar. Under such situation, the whole responsibility of suppressing the revolts of Multan and Hazara lay with the British Resident.

This was not the responsibility of Dalip Singh by any stretch of imagination. If anybody failed in suppressing the revolts, then it was none else, but the British Resident. To penalise Dalip Singh for their own fault was wholly unjustified. If it was not a breach of trust then what was it? It becomes clear from the details given above that the annexation of the Punjab to the British Empire was wholly unjustified from the political and moral point of view. In the end we agree with these words of Major Evans Bell, “It was, in fact, no conquest, but a violent breach of trust.”

Question 1.
Explain in brief the causes of Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
Give a brief description of the main causes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
What were the three main causes for the Second Anglo-Sikh War?
Or
Describe any three main reasons of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.

• The Sikhs were defeated in the First Anglo-Sikh war, so they wanted to take revenge for their defeat,
• The British ill-treated Maharani Jindan, the widow of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Her insult infuriated the Sikhs,
• Diwan Moolraj, raised the banner of revolt against the British,
• Lord Dalhousie became the new Governor-General of India in 1848 A.D. He wanted to annex the Punjab to the British Empire.
• The revolts of Chattar Singh and Sher Singh precipitated the crisis.

Question 2.
Write a note on the revolt of Diwan Moolraj of Multan.
Diwan Moolraj was appointed the Nazim (Governor) of Multan in 1844 A.D. The amount of revenue paid by him was raised. As a result he resigned from the post of Nazim. Kahan Singh was appointed as the new Governor of Multan. Two British officers Agnew and Anderson were sent to assist him. But on April 20, some soldiers murdered both the British officers. The British blamed Moolraj for this which compelled Moolraj to revolt against the British.

Question 3.
What do you know about the revolt of Chattar Singh?
Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala was the Nazim of Hazara. Instigated by Captain Abbott, the Muslims of Hazara attacked the residence of Chattar Singh on 6th August, 1848 A.D. On seeing this Sardar Chattar Singh ordered Col. Canora to take action against the rebels. Col. Canora who was in league with Captain Abbott, refused to comply with the orders of Chattar Singh. Capitain Abbott dismissed Sardar Chattar Singh from his office. As a result, Chattar Singh raised the banner of revolt against the British.

Question 4.
Write a brief note on the battle of Chillianwala.
The battle of Chillianwala was an important battle of the Second Anglo- Sikh War. Lord Hugh Gough who was commanding the British forces was waiting for more military assistance to face the forces of Sher Singh. Well before Chattar Singh could reach Hugh Gough attacked the forces of Sher Singh at Chillianwala on January 13,1849 A.D. In this pitched battle the Sikhs fought like devils and their artillery took a heavy toll.

Question 5.
What was the importance of the battle of Gujarat in the Second Anglo-Sikh War?
The battle of Gujarat was the last and the most decisive battle of the Second Anglo-Sikh War. It was fought on February 21, 1849 A.D. In this battle the number of Sikh troops was 40,000. They were jointly led by Chattar Singh, Sher Singh and Bhai Maharaj Singh. On the other hand, the number of British troops was 68,000. They were commanded by Lord Hugh Gough. After the British victory in this battle on March 29, 1849 A.D., they annexed Punjab to their Empire.

Question 6.
What were the results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War?
Or
Study in brief the results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
Explain the three effects of the Second Ahglo-Sikh War.
Or
What were the consequences of the Second Anglo-Sikh War?
Or
Discuss about the three main results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War?

• The most important outcome of the Second Anglo-Sikh War was that the Punjab was annexed to the British Empire on March 29, 1849 A.D.
• The last ruler, Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned. It was decided to give him annual pension of £ 50,000.
• The world famous Kohinoor diamond was taken away from him and was presented to Queen Victoria.
• Diwan Moolraj and Maharaj Dalip Singh were exiled,
• A Board of Administration was constituted to run the administration of Punjab.

Question 7.
Was it proper for Lord Dalhousie to annex Punjab to the British Empire? Give arguments in support of your answer.
Or
“Annexation of Punjab was a violent breach of trust”. Explain.
Or
Was the annexation of Punjab justified? Give reasons.
The annexation of Punjab to the British Empire cannot be justified on any ground. The British had taken many important regions of the Punjab according to the Treaty of Lahore. Most of the army of Lahore kingdom was disbanded which created resentment among the Sikhs against the British. The British divested Maharani Jindan of all her power. Diwan Moolraj, the Governor of Multan and Chattar Singh, the Governor of Hazara were forced to revolt.

Question 8.
Give arguments in favour of Dalhousie’s annexation of the Punjab to the British Empire.
Or
Give any three arguments in favour of Dalhousie’s policy of the annexation of Punjab.

• After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, anarchy and lawlessness had prevailed in Punjab,
• The British had established peace in Punjab after annexing it to their Empire.,
• Punjab had violated the terms of the treaty,
• Diwan Moolraj, Sardar Chattar Singh and his son Sher Singh had raised the banner of revolt against the British.
• Punjab could pose a big danger to the British Empire at any time.

Question 9.
Write a brief note on Maharaja Dalip Singh.
Maharaja Dalip Singh was the youngest son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He became the ruler of Punjab.on September 15, 1843 A.D. Maharaja Dalip Singh appointed Lai Singh as the Prime Minister of Punjab. He was already in league with the British. Consequently, the Sikhs had to face defeat in the Anglo- Sikh Wars. The British dethroned Maharaja Dalip Singh. Maharaja Dalip-Singh died in Paris bn October 22, 1893 A.D.

Question 10.
Write a brief note on Maharani Jind Kaur’(Jindan).
Or
What do you know about Maharani Jindan?
Maharani Jindan was queen of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. When Dalip Singh became the new king of the Punjab on September 15, 1843 A.D., Maharani Jindan was appointed his regent. She was dispossessed of all her powers through the Treaty of Bhairowal. Maharani Jindan succeeded in reaching Nepal in disguise in April 1849 A.D. The English did not allow Maharani Jindan and Dalip Singh to live together. On August 1, 1863, she died broken-hearted.

Question 11.
Write a note on Bhai Maharaj Singh.
Bhai Maharaj Singh was the disciple of famous Naurangabad saint Bhai. Bir Singh. He was in favour of indepenence of Punjab. He inspired Diwan Moolraj of Multan, Sardar Chatar Singh Attariwala of Hazara and his son Sher Singh to raise the banner of revolt against the British. He himself took the leading part in all the battles of Second Anglo-Sikh War. He died in Singapore jail of 5th July, 1856 A.D.

Objective Type Questions:

Question 1. When was the Second Anglo-Sikh War fought?
1848-49 A.D.

Question 2.
Who was the Governor-General of Punjab at the time of Second Anglo- Sikh War?
Lord Dalhousie.

Question 3.
Mention any one cause of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
The Sikhs wanted to take revenge of their defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War.

Question 4.
Who was Maharani Jindan?
Widow of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and mother of Maharaja Dalip Singh.

Question 5.
Who was Diwan Moolraj?
Nazim (Governor) of Multan.

Question 6.
Give any one cause of Diwan Moolraj’s revolt against the British.
The British had greatly enhanced the amount of land revenue to be realised from Diwan Moolraj.

Question 7.
Who was Chattar Singh Attariwala.
Nazim of Hazara.

Question 8.
Who was Sardar Sher Singh?
Son of Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala.

Question 9.
Why did Sher Singh start revolt against the English?
Because of the ill-treatment done to his father by the English.

Question 10.
Who was Bhai Maharaj Singh?

Question 11.
As a result of whose revolt, the Second Anglo-Sikh War start?
Diwan Moolraj.

Question 12.
When was the battle of Ram Nagar fought?
Nov. 22, 1848 A.D.

Question 13.
When was the battle of Chillianwala fought?
January 13, 1849 A.D.

Question 14.
Which was the last battle of the Second Anglo-Sikh War?
Battle of Gujarat.

Question 15.
When was the battle of Gujarat fought?
February. 21, 1849 A.D.

Question 16.
Name the battle of Second Anglo-Sikh War which is known as the battle of Cannons in History.
The battle of Gujarat.

Question 17.
Mention any one important result of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

Question 18.
When did the English annex Punjab?
Or
When was annexation of Punjab to British Empire done?
Or
When was Punjab annexed to the British Empire?
29th March, 1849 A.D.

Question 19.
Name one argument extended by Lord Dalhousie for annexing Punjab to the British Empire.
The annexation of Punjab to the British Empire was beneficial for the people of Punjab.

Question 20.
Give any one arguement against Lord Dalhousie’s annexation of Punjab to the British Empire.
A false allegation of violating the treaty of Bhairowal was levelled against the Sikhs.

Question 21.
Who was the last King of Punjab?
Or
Who was the last Sikh Maharaja of Punjab?
Or
Who was the last Sikh Maharaja of the Sikhs?
Maharaja Dalip Singh.

Question 22.
Where did Maharaja Dalip Singh did?
In Paris.

Question 23.
When did Maharani Jindan die?
In 1863 A.D.

Question 24.
Write any one cause of the downfall of Sikh Kingdom.
The successors of Maharaja Ranjit Singh were incompetent and weak.

Fill in the blanks :

1. The Second Anglo-Sikh war took place in …………….. A.D.
1848-49

2 was the Governor-General of India at the time of Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Lord Dalhousie

3. At the time of Second Anglo-Sikh War the Maharaja of Punjab was ……………
Maharaja Dalip Singh

4. Maharani ………….. was the mother of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Jindan

5. ……………. became the Nazim of Multan in 1844 A.D.
Diwan Mool Raj

6. Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala was the Nazim of ……………..
Hazara

7. The battle of ………………… was the first battle of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Ram Nagar

8. The battle of Ram Nagar was fought on ……………
November 22, 1848 A.D.

9. The battle of Chillianwala was fought on ……………
January 13, 1849 A.D.

10. The battle of Gujarat is known as the Battle of ……………… in history.
Cannons

11. The English annexed Punjab to British Empire on ……………..
March 29, 1849 A.D.

True or False:

1. The Second Anglo-Sikh War was fought during 1848-1849 A.D.
True

2. Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General of India at the time of Second Anglo-Sikh War.
True

3. Maharaja Dalip Singh was the Maharaja of Punjab during the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
True

4. Maharani Jindan was the mother of Dalip Singh.
True

5. Diwan Moolraj became the Nazim of Multan in 1846 A.D.
False

6. Second Anglo-Sikh War started with the battle of Ram Nagar.
True

7. The battle of Ram Nagar took place on 12th November, 1848 A.D.
False

8. The battle of Chillianwala was fought on January 13, 1849 A.D.
True

9. In the battle of Chillianwala, the British army got a worst defeat.
True

10. The Second Anglo-Sikh War ended with the battle of Gujarat.
True

11. The battle of Gujarat was fought on February 21, 1849 A.D.
True

12. Punjab was annexed to the British Empire on March 29, 1849 A.D.
True

13. Maharaja Dalip Singh was the last Sikh ruler.
True

14. Last Maharaja of Sikhs was Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
False

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. When was the Second Anglo-Sikh War fought?
(a) 1844-45 A.D.
(b) 1845-46 A.D.
(c) 1847-48 A.D.
(d) 1848-49 A.D.
(d) 1848-49 A.D.

2. Who was the Governor General of Punjab ar the time of Second Anglo-Sikh War?
(a) Lord Lytton
(b) Lord Ripon
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Lord Hardinge.
(c) Lord Dalhousie

3. Who was the ruler of Punjab at the time of Second Anglo-Sikh War?
(a) Maharaja Sher Singh
(b) Maharaja Ranjit Singh
(c) Maharaja Dalip Singh
(d) Maharaja Kharaj Singh
(c) Maharaja Dalip Singh

4. Who was Maharani Jindan?
(a) Mother of Maharaja Dalip Singh
(b) Sister of Maharaja Kharak Singh
(c) Wife of Maharaja Sher Singh
(d) Daughter of Raja Gulab Singh.
(a) Mother of Maharaja Dalip Singh

5. Who was Diwan Moolraj?
(a) Nazim of Gujarat
(b) Nazim of Multan
(c) Nazim of Kashmir
(d) Nazim of peshawar
(b) Nazim of Multan

6. When did Diwan Moolraj revolt against the English?
(a) 1844 A.D.
(b) 1845 A.D.
(c) 1846 A.D.
(d) 1848 A.D.
(d) 1848 A.D.

7. Chattar Singh Attariwala was the Nazim of which place?
(a) Hazara
(b) Multan
(c) Kashmir
(d) Peshawar
(a) Hazara

8. With which battle started the Second Anglo-Sikh War?
(a) Battle of Multan
(b) Battle of Chillianwala
(c) Battle of Gujarat
(d) Battle of Ram Nagar.
(d) Battle of Ram Nagar.

9. When was the battle of Ram Nagar fought?
(a) November 12, 1846 A.D.
(b) November 15, 1847 A.D.
(c) November 17, 1848 A.D.
(d) November 22, 1848 A.D.
(d) November 22, 1848 A.D.

10. When was the battle of Chillianwala fought?
(a) November 22, 1848 A.D.
(b) January 3, 1848 A.D.
(c) January 10, 1849 A.D.
(d) January 13, 1849 A.D.
(d) January 13, 1849 A.D.

11. When was the Battle of Multan ended?
(a) January 22, 1849 A.D.
(b) January 23, 1849 A.D.
(c) January 24, 1849 A.D.
(d) January 25, 1849 A.D.
(a) January 22, 1849 A.D.

12. With which battle ended the Second Anglo-Sikh War?
Or
Name the battle of Second Anglo-Sikh War which is known as battle of Cannons in History.
(a) Battle of Multan
(b) Battle of Ram Nagar
(c) Battle of Gujarat
(d) Battle of Chillianwala.
(c) Battle of Gujarat

13. When was the battle of Gujarat fought?
(a) November 22, 1848 A.D.
(b) January 13, 1849 A.D.
(c) January 22, 1849 A.D.
(d) February 21, 1849 A.D.
(d) February 21, 1849 A.D.

14. When was Punjab annexed to the British Empire?
(a) March 10, 1849 A.D.
(b) March 14, 1849 A.D.
(c) March 29, 1849 A.D.
(d) March 29, 1850 A.D.
(c) March 29, 1849 A.D.

15. Who was the last Sikh Maharaja of Punjab?
(a) Maharaja Dalip Singh
(b) Maharaja Ranjit Singh
(c) Maharaja Kharak Singh
(d) Maharaja Sher Singh.
(a) Maharaja Dalip Singh

16. When did Maharaja Dalip Singh die?
(a) 1857 A.D.
(b) 1893 A.D.
(c) 1849 A.D.
(d) 1892 A.D.