This PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 3 Urban Society will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 3 Urban Society
- That society where inequality, secondary relations, artificiality, mobility, and non-agricultural occupations prevail.
- These are large in size and people are progressive in nature.
- It is the progress of migration of rural people to urban areas which increases the size of cities.
- It is the process in which rural areas convert into urban areas.
- Urbanism expresses the urban way of living.
- It also tells us about the evolution of urban society and the expansion of urban culture.
- It is a situation in which people are unable to meet their basic needs of food, cloth, and shelter.
- The foremost need of every civilized society is housing because it gives an individual a place to live.
- A slum is a place of living in an urban area where people live in unhygienic conditions in temporary houses.
- Their size varies according to the size of the city and they lack sanitation, cleanliness, clean drinking water, electricity, and other basic facilities.
→ There is a continuous trend during the last few decades of migration of rural people to urban areas which led to an increase in the urban population. There exist many facilities in urban areas which attract the rural population.
→ According to the Census of 2011, the total Indian population was 121 crore out of which 37.7 crore or 32% population lives in urban areas.
→ According to this survey, all those areas are urban where there is a municipality, corporation, cantonment board, or notified town area committee.
→ When rural people start to migrate to urban areas, this process is known as urbanisation. This process has played an important role in the progress of urban society.
→ It is a two-way process in which not only do people migrate to an urban area and their occupations change but changes also come in their ways of living, eating habits, views, ideas, etc.
→ Urbanism is an important element of urban society which differentiates the identity and personality of the urban population from the rural and tribal people. It shows a way of living life.
→ There are many features of urban society such as more population, inequality, secondary means of social control, social mobility, main occupation except agriculture, division of labour, specialisation, individualism, etc.
→ We can find joint families in rural society but urban areas have nuclear families.
→ Due to individualism, people prefer to have nuclear families.
→ The urban economy is based on occupational diversity and mobility.
→ Different occupations depend upon each other and consequently, people depend upon each other.
→ Normally, we can find many problems in urban areas but problems of housing and slums are quite common. These are increasing with the increase in urbanization.
→ Rural people migrate to urban areas in search of occupation and a place of living.
→ They get employment over there but are unable to find any place of living which forces them to live in slums.
→ Due to such slums, urban areas face many problems.