This PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 7 Guru Hargobind Ji and Transformation of Sikhism will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 7 Guru Hargobind Ji and Transformation of Sikhism
- Guru Hargobind Ji was born on 19 June 1595 A.D. at village Wadali in Distt. Amritsar.
- The name of his father was Guru Arjan Dev Ji and the name of his mother was Ganga Devi.
- Five sons and one daughter were born to him He assumed the Gurgaddi in 1606 A.D.
New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji:
The main features of the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji are as follow:
- The Mughal emperor Jahangir could not tolerate the flourishing of any other religion except Islam.
- Jahangir got Guru Arjan Dev Ji martyred in 1606 A.D.
- Guru Arjan Dev Ji himself had instructed Guru Hargobind Ji to adopt the New Policy.
- Guru Hargobind Ji wore the two swords known as Miri and Piri.
- Guru Hargobind Ji organized an army.
- He instructed the Sikhs to bring him offerings of arms and horses.
- He undertook the construction of the Akal Takht Sahib.
- He adopted several paraphernalia of sovereignty and assumed royal symbols.
- The city of Amritsar was fortified The fort of Lohgarh was constructed.
- Guru Ji made several changes in his daily life.
- The Sikh saints became soldiers.
- The Sikhs were united.
- The propagation and preaching of Sikhism were enhanced.
- The relations between the Sikhs and the Mughals were strained.
- The New Policy established the basis of the Khalsa Panth.
Guru Hargobind Ji and Jahangir:
- Jahangir took Guru Hargobind Ji as a prisoner in 1606 A.D.
- He was kept in the fort of Gwalior.
- There is a diverse opinion among the historians regarding the period of imprisonment of Guru Ji.
- When Guru Ji was freed, then he insisted on the freedom of the other 52 imprisoned kings.
- For this reason, Guru Hargobind Ji began to be called Bandi Chhod Baba.
- After the release, the relations between Guru Hargobind Ji and Jahangir took a friendly turn.
Guru Hargobind Ji and Shah Jahan:
- In 1628 A.D., when Shah Jahan became the Mughal emperor, the relations between the Mughals and the Sikhs got strained again.
- Shah Jahan’s fanaticism sent a wave of resentment among the Sikhs.
- In 1634 A.D., the first battle between the Mughals and the Sikhs was fought at Amritsar.
- The Sikhs were victorious in the battle.
- The battles fought between the Sikhs and the Mughals at Lahira, Kartarpur, and Phagwara were won by the Sikhs.
- These victories spread the fame of Guru Hargobind Ji far and wide.
Immersed in Eternal Light:
- In 1635 A.D., Guru Hargobind Sahib built a new town called Kiratpur Sahib.
- He spent the last ten years of his life here.
- Before his death, Har Rai Ji was nominated by him as his successor.
- Guru Hargobind Ji was immersed in Eternal Light on March 3, 1645 A.D.