This PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 22 First Anglo-Sikh War: Causes and Results will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 22 First Anglo-Sikh War: Causes and Results
Causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War:
- With a view to occupying Punjab, the British started encircling it.
- The unstable political condition of Punjab also invited the British.
- The British occupation of Sind in 1843 A.D. further enhanced the bitterness in the relationship between them – The British began great military preparations.
- The newly elected political agent of Ludhiana Major Broadfoot conducted several activities that infuriated the Sikhs.
- The new Wazir of Lahore, Lai Singh also started instigating the Sikh army against the British.
Events of the War:
The first battle fought between the Sikhs and the British went through the following course of events:
Battle of Mudki:
- This battle was fought on 18th December 1845 A.D.
- In this, the Sikh army was led by Lai Singh and the British army was led by Lord Hugh Gough.
- In this battle, the Sikh army was defeated because of Lai Singh’s treachery.
Battle of Ferozeshah:
- This battle was fought on 21st December 1845 A.D.
- In this battle, there was a situation when the British decided to give up unconditionally.
- But because of Lai Singh’s treachery, the Sikh army was defeated again.
Battle of Baddhowal:
- The battle of Baddhowal took place on 21st January 1846 A.D. led by Ranjodh Singh.
- The British had to face defeat in this battle.
Battle of Aliwal:
- The Battle of Aliwal was fought on 28th January 1846 A.D.
- In this, the British army was led by Harry Smith.
- The Sikhs lost this battle because of Ranjodh Singh’s treachery.
Battle of Sobraon:
- The battle of Sobraon was the last battle of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
- In this battle, the Sikh army was led by Lai Singh and Teja Singh, and the British army was led by Lord Hugh Gough and Lord Harding.
- This battle was fought on 10th February 1846 A.D.
- Lai Singh and Teja Singh’s treachery again led to Sikh defeat.
- Sham Singh Attariwala displayed great feats of bravery in this battle.
- The British were victorious in this battle in the end.
Results of the War:
- As a consequence of this war, the ‘Lahore Treaty was signed between the Lahore court and the British government on 9th March 1846 A.D.
- According to this, the Maharaja of Lahore had to give away his control over all the regions to the South of the Sutlej river.
- The British demanded Rs. 1.50 crores as war indemnity.
- The British acknowledge Dalip Singh as the Maharaja of Lahore, Rani Jindan as his regent, and Lai Singh as their Prime Minister.
- The British handed over the control of the state to the council of Regency on 16th December 1846 under the Bhairowal Treaty.
- Maharani Jindan was removed from this post.