This PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 15 Invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali and Disintegration of Mughal Rule in the Punjab will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 15 Invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali and Disintegration of Mughal Rule in the Punjab
Causes of Ahmad Shah Abdali’s Invasions:
- Ahmad Shah Abdali wanted to conquer Punjab and other parts of India to expand his empire.
- He wanted to plunder the unlimited wealth of India.
- The unstable political condition of India too was inviting Abdali.
- Shahnawaz Khan, the Governor of Punjab also sent an invitation to Abdali to attack India.
Invasions of Abdali:
- The first invasion of Abdali in 1747-48 A.D.
- Here he had to face defeat at the hands of Muin-ul-Mulk alias Mir Mannu.
- Abdali defeated Muin-ul-Mulk in 1748-49 A.D. during his second invasion.
- It was during his third invasion in 1752 A.D. that he annexed the whole of Punjab to his empire.
- During his fourth invasion in 1756 A.D., Abdali took strict action against the Sikhs in Punjab.
- In 1757 A.D, Baba Deep Singh, Ji attained martyrdom while fighting against the Afghans.
- During his fifth invasion, Abdali terribly defeated the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat.
- This battle was fought on 14th January 1761 A.D.
- It was during the sixth invasion that on 5th February 1762 A.D. that the incident of Wadda Gallughara (Great Holocaust) took place.
- Approximately 25,000 to 30,000 Sikhs were killed in this battle.
- Abdali undertook two more invasions after this to crush the power of the Sikhs but was unsuccessful.
Causes of Failure of Abdali:
- The Sikhs of Punjab displayed great tenacity.
- The Sikhs used guerilla war tactics.
- The representatives appointed by Abdali in Punjab were incapable.
- The people of Punjab gave the Sikhs every possible support.
- Those leaders who led the Sikhs were highly capable.
- Abdali did not have much interest in Punjab.
- The numerous repeated revolts that took place in Afghanistan also were responsible for his failure.
Effects of Abdali’s invasions on the Punjab:
- The Mughal rule came to an end in Punjab.
- The defeat inflicted on the Marathas by Abdali in the Third Battle of Panipat led to the end of the Maratha power in Punjab.
- The Sikhs started emerging as a new power.
- There was chaos and disorder in Punjab everywhere.
- A change came about in the character of the people of Punjab and they became more fearless and extravagant in nature.
- There was a great loss of trade in Punjab.
- It also dealt a severe jolt to Punjabi art and literature.