This PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 10 Guru Gobind Singh Ji: The Foundation of Khalsa, His Battles and Personality will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 10 Guru Gobind Singh Ji: The Foundation of Khalsa, His Battles and Personality
- Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born on 22nd December 1666 A.D. at Patna.
- The name of his father was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and the name of his mother was Gujari Ji.
- Kirpal Chand, the maternal uncle of Guru Gobind Singh Ji was his virtual guardian when he was a minor.
- Before his martyrdom, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji appointed him as his successor.
- On 11th November 1675 A.D., he assumed Guruship according to the Sikh tradition.
- Guru Sahib was blessed with four Sahibzadas.
- Sahibzada Ajit Singh Ji, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh Ji, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh Ji and Sahibzada Fateh Singh Ji.
Battles of Pre-Khalsa Period:
- After assuming Guruship in 1675 A.D., Guru Gobind Singh Ji organized an army.
- Because of his activities, the Hill Chiefs started opposing.
- The first battle between Guru Sahib and the Hill Chiefs was fought on 22nd September 1688 A.D.
- It is also called the Battle of Bhangani.
- Guru Gobind Singh Ji convincingly won this battle.
- After the Battle of Bhangani, Guru Sahib constructed the forts of Anandgarh, Lohgarh, Fatehgarh, and Keshgarh.
- Guru Gobind Singh Ji defeated the Mughals- in the Battle of Nadaun fought on 20th March 1690 A.D.
- Aurangzeb sent several military expeditions to crush the growing power of Guru Gobind Singh Ji but remained unsuccessful.
Creation and Importance of the Khalsa Panth:
- To put an end to the Mughal atrocities and render a new shape to society, Guru Gobind Singh Ji established the Khalsa Panth on 30th March 1699 A.D. on the day of Baisakhi at Keshgarh in Sri Anandpur Sahib.
- Guru Gobind Singh Ji announced Bhai Daya Ram Ji, Bhai Dharam Das Ji, Bhai Mohkam Chand Ji, Bhai Sahib Chand Ji, and Bhai Himmat Rai Ji as the Panj Payaras Some special principles of the Khalsa were laid down.
- It led to the creation of an ideal society.
- It infused unprecedented courage and bravery among the Sikhs.
- The creation of the Khalsa Panth heralded a new era in the history of the Sikhs.
Battles of Post-Khalsa Period:
- The creation of the Khalsa in 1699 A.D. rendered sleepless nights to the Hill Chiefs.
- In 1701 A.D., the First Battle of Sri Anandpur Sahib was fought between the Hill Chiefs and Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
- The battle remained inconclusive.
- In 1704 A.D., the Second Battle of Sri Anandpur Sahib was fought.
- On the insistence of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh Ji left the fort of Sri Anandpur Sahib.
- In 1704 A.D. the Battle of Chamkaur Sahib was fought where the two elder sons of Guru Ji i.e. Sahibzada Ajit Singh and
- Sahibzada Jujhar Singh was martyred.
- The Battle of Khidrana fought in 1705 A.D. was the last decisive battle fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the Mughals.
- Guru Gobind Singh Ji came out victorious in this battle.
Immersed in Eternal Light:
- In 1708 A.D. Guru Gobind Singh Ji came to Nanded.
- Faujdar Wazir Khan of Sirhind who was Guru Ji’s sworn enemy sent two Pathans to Nanded, one of whom stabbed Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
- Guru Gobind Singh Ji succumbed to the wounds on 7th October 1708 A.D.
- Before he was immersed in Eternal Light Guru Gobind Singh Ji advised the Sikhs to regard Guru Granth Sahib Ji as their Guru thereafter.
Character and Personality of Guru Gobind Singh Ji:
- Guru Gobind Singh Ji is counted among the great personalities of the world.
- His personality was extremely impressive and attractive.
- He was an obedient son, a thoughtful father, and an ideal husband.
- He was a poet and writer of a high order.
- He was a great warrior and commander-in-chief of his times.
- Even during the times of battles, he did not forget his religious duties.
- He was a great social reformer and an organizer of a high order.