This PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History
Different Names of the Punjab:
- The word Punjab is a combination of the two words of the Persian language: ‘Punj’ and ‘Aab’ which literally means, the land of five rivers.
- In the Rigvedic period, Punjab was called ‘Sapta Sindhu’, it was called Tanchnada’ in the Puranas, ‘Pentapotamia’ by the Greeks, ‘Lahore Suba’ in the medieval period, and ‘Punjab Province’ by the British.
Physical Features of the Punjab:
The main aspects related to the physical features of Punjab are as follows:
The Himalayas and Sulaiman Mountain Ranges:
- The Himalayas are situated to the north of Punjab.
- It stretches from Assam in the east to Afghanistan in the west.
- These mountain ranges have proved to be a great boon for Punjab.
- The Himalayas have made the land of Punjab fertile.
- The Sulaiman mountain ranges are situated in the northwest of Punjab.
- It is in these ranges that the Khyber, Bolan, Kurram, Tochi, and Gomal passes are located.
- This region is located between the Shivalik ranges and the plains of Punjab.
- It is also called the Tarai region. Hoshiarpur, Kangra, Ambala, the northern part of Gurdaspur, and some areas of Sialkot are located in this region.
- The plains constitute the largest and most important region of Punjab.
- This region is located between the rivers Indus and Jamuna.
- A bigger part of the plains is surrounded by the Five Doabs.
- These Doabs are called the Bist Jalandhar Doab, Bari Doab, Rachna Doab, Chaz Doab, Sind Sagar Doab.
- The vast plains located between the Sutlej and the Jamuna rivers also form a part of Punjab and are called Malwa and Bangar.
- The southwest region of Punjab is a desert. Hence, the density of the population is very low here.
Influence of Physical Features on the History of the Punjab:
- The geographical conditions of Punjab have greatly influenced the social, political, economic, religious, and cultural life of Punjab in many ways:
- As a result of its geographical location, Punjab has been the gateway of India for the conquerors for many centuries.
- All the important and decisive battles were fought here.
- The political importance of several towns of Punjab increased.
- Punjab had to suffer grave difficulties and atrocities for centuries.
- The Punjabis developed special traits of character like bravery, courage, hard work, sympathy, co-operation, social service, tolerance, and sacrificing the self for the country.
- There was an increase in the number of castes and sub-castes here.
- The art and literature of Punjab could not develop.
- Punjab is considered the birthplace of Hinduism.
- Islam was much propagated in Punjab as compared to the other parts of India.
- The development and growth of Sikhism are very closely related to the geographical features of Punjab.
- Due to the fertility of its soil, agriculture is the main occupation of the Punjabis.
- The domestic and foreign trade of Punjab was encouraged.
- Several commercial towns developed in Punjab.
- The Punjabis became quite prosperous.