Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Biology Important Questions Chapter 7 Evolution Important Questions and Answers.
PSEB 12th Class Biology Important Questions Chapter 7 Evolution
Very short answer type questions
Name the scientist who disproved spontaneous generation theory.
Louis Pasteur disproved the theory of spontaneous generation.
What did Louis Pasteur’s experiment on ‘killed yeast’ demonstrate? Name the theory that got disproved on the basis of his experiment.
Louis Pasteur demonstrated that life comes only from pre-existing life. The theory of spontaneous generation was disproved on the basis of his experiment.
Write the hypothetical proposals put forth by Oparin and Haldane.
Or List two main propositions of Oparin and Haldane.
Or State two postulates of Oparin and Haldane with reference to origin of life.
Oparin and Haldane proposed that life originated from pre-existing non-organic molecules and the diverse organic molecules were formed from these inorganic constituents by chemical evolution.
When we say “survival of the fittest”, does it mean that
(a) those which are fit only survive, or
(b) those that survive are called fit. Comment. [NCERT Exemplar]
Those individuals which survive and reproduce in their respective environment are called fit.
Why are analogous structures a result of convergent evolution?
They are not anatomically similar structures though they perform similar functions.
Identify the examples of convergent evolution from the following:
(i) Flippers of penguins and dolphins
(ii) Eyes of octopus and mammals
(iii) Vertebrate brains
(i) Flippers of penguins and dolphins
(ii) Eyes of octopus and mammals
What does Hardy-Weinberg equation p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 convey?
Hardy-Weinberg equation convey genetic equilibrium, i.e., sum total of all allelic frequencies is 1.
What is founder effect? [NCERT Exemplar]
Sometimes the change in allele frequency is so different in the new sample of population that they become a different species. The original drifted population becomes founder and the effect is called founder effect.
State the significance of Coelacanth in evolution.
It is an ancestor of amphibians.
Name the first human like hominid. Mention his food habit and brain capacity.
Homo habilis was the first human-like hominid. Homo (man) habili (skilful) was carnivorous and hunted large animals. He had a brain capacity of 650-800 cc.
Name the common ancestor of the great apes and man.
By what Latin name the first hominid was known?
Short answer type questions
Describe the experiment that helped Louis Pasteur to dismiss the theory of spontaneous generation of life.
Louis Pasteur (1864) boiled broth in flasks having bent swan or S-shaped necks. No microorganisms were observed in broth after keeping for several days though broth was connected to air through the bent neck. It is because the dirt carrying microorganisms got settled in the bent part of neck. When the neck was broken, colonies of microorganisms soon developed over the broth showing the microorganisms have come from air.
Mention the contribution of S.L. Miller’s experiments on Origin of Life.
S.L. Miller created an environment in laboratory similar to the one that existed before life originated. In a closed flask containing CH4, H2, NH3 and water vapour at 800°C, electric discharge was created. The conditions were similar to those in primitive atmosphere. After a week, they observed presence of amino acids and complex molecules like sugars, nitrogen bases, pigments and fats in the flask. This provided experimental evidence for the theory of chemical origin.
How does the study of fossils support evolution? Explain.
Different aged rock sediments contain fossil of different types. Early rocks contain fossils of simple organisms while recent rocks contain fossils of complex organisms, e.g., dinosaur.
By studying fossils occurring in different strata of rocks, geologists are able to reconstruct the geological period in which they existed and the cause of evolutionary change. Hence, new forms of life originated at different times in the history’ of earth.
Explain “fitness of a species” as mentioned by Darwin.
“Fitness of a species” according to Darwin means reproductive fitness. All organisms after reaching reproductive age have varying degree of reproductive potential. Some organisms produce more offspring and some organism produce only few offspring. This phenomenon is also called as differential reproduction.
Hence the species which produces more offsprings are selected by nature.
While creation and presence of variation is directionless, natural selection is directional as it is in the context of adaptation. Comment. [NCERT Exemplar]
Creation and variation occur in a sexually reproducing population as a result of crossing-over during meiosis and random fusion of gametes. It is however the organisms that are selected over a period of time which are determined by the environmental conditions. In other words, the environment provides the direction with respect to adaptations so that the organisms are more and more fit in terms of survival.
Branching descent and natural selection are the two key concepts of Darwinian theory of evolution. Explain each concept with the help of a suitable example.
Branching Descent : Different species descending from the common ancestor get adapted in different habitats, e.g., Darwin’s finches-varieties of finches arose from grain eaters; Australian marsupials evolved from common marsupial.
Natural Selection: It is a process in which heritable variations enable better survival of the species to reproduce in large number, e.g., white moth surviving before the industrial revolution and black moth surviving after industrial revolution; long-necked giraffe survived the evolution process; DDT-resistant mosquitoes survive.
Explain the salient features of Hugo de Vries theory of mutation.
Salient features of Hugo de Vries theory of mutation are as follows:
- Mutations cause evolution.
- New species originate due to large mutations.
- Evolution is a discontinuous process and not gradual.
- Mutations are directionless.
- Mutations appear suddenly.
- Mutations exhibit their effect immediately.
What does Hardy-Weinberg Principle of equilibrium indicate? List any two factors that could alter the equilibrium. What would such an alteration lead to?
Hardy-Weinberg principle states that in a given population, the frequency of occurrence of alleles of a gene is supposed to remain fixed and even remains same through generations. This is also called genetic equilibrium. Sum total of all the alleles is 1. Hence, p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 (p, q represent the frequency of gene A and allele a).
Factors affecting Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are gene migration or gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, genetic recombination and natural selections.
(i) Gene Flow/Migration: The movement of a section of population from one place to another, results in the addition of new alleles to the local gene pool of the host population. This is called gene migration. Migration causes variations at the genetic level.
(ii) Genetic Drift: The random changes in gene frequency in a population occurring by chance alone rather than by natural selection is called genetic drift. The effects of genetic drift are more prominent in small populations.
Long answer type questions
(a) Differentiate between analogy and homology giving one example each of plant and animal respectively.
(b) How are they considered as an evidence in support of evolution?
Differentiate between homology and analogy. Give one example of each.
(a) Analogy is the phenomenon where different structures evolving for the same function and hence having similarity are the result of convergent evolution. These structures are called analogical structures. Example are
(i) Tendril of pea (leaf-let modified) and grapevine/ cucurbita (stem modified),
(ii) Flippers of penguins (wing modified) and dolphin (fore arm modified) both help in swimming.
Homology is the phenomenon where same structure developed along different lines due to adaptation to different needs/habitats as a result of divergent needs/habitats are a result of divergent evolution. These structures are called homologous structure.
Examples: (i) Thorns of Bougainvillea and tendrils of cucurbita represent homology as both are modified stems, (ii) Forelimbs of man, cheetah, whale and bat.
(b) Analogy and homology of the structures represent anatomical and morphological evidence of evolution. Analogy shows that similar habitat result in the selection of similar adaptive features in different groups of organisms but toward same function. This is a result of convergent evolution.
Homology include the same structures developed to have different forms to perform different functions in different animals. It is a result of divergent evolution. It indicate towards common ancestory. The comparative anatomy of forelimbs in all the mammals show similarities in the pattern of bones and pentadactyl organisation.
The evolutionary story of moths in England during industrialisation reveals, that ‘evolution is apparently reversible’. Clarify this statement. [NCERT Exemplar]
The peppered moth occurs in two forms, i.e., light coloured (Biston betularia typoica) and dark coloured (Biston betrularia carbonaria). Before Industrial Revolution : Only light coloured moths were prevalent. Light coloured moths camouflaged well with the lichens that covers tree trunks, on the contrary dark moths were easy prey on the tree trunks and were very rare.
During the Industrial Revolution: The population of dark coloured moth increased. While, that of light coloured moth decreased. This change was due to the burning of coal in factories.
The smoke from the factories killed the lichens and the tree trunks turned black due to the deposition of soot. The black moths had an advantage against soot, therefore, escaped predation of birds while on the other hand, white moths were identified in sharp contrast and become easy prey.
With the Progression of Industrial Revolution: The coal was replaced by oil and electricity.
This resulted in reduction of soot deposits on the tree trunk. Gradually, the population of black moth decreased and that of light moth began to increase.