Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Biology Important Questions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health Important Questions and Answers.
PSEB 12th Class Biology Important Questions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
Very short answer type questions
Reproductive health refers only to healthy reproductive functions. Comment. [NCERT Exemplar]
Reproductive health refers to the total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, behavioural, psychological and social.
The present population growth rate in India is alarming. Suggest ways to check it. [NCERT Exemplar]
- By increasing marriageable age.
- By promoting use of birth control measure.
- By educating people about consequences of un- controlled population growth.
Why do intensely lactating mothers not generally conceive? [NCERT Exemplar]
Due to suppression of gonadotropins, ovulation and menstrual cycle do not take place.
Name an IUD that you would recommend to promote the cervix hostility to sperms.
The hormone releasing IUD’s, e.g. progestasert, LNG-20 are , recommended to promote the cervix hostility to sperms.
Mention any tvgo events that are exhibited by the intake of oral contraceptive pills to prevent pregnancy in humans.
Two events that are exhibited by the intake of oral contraceptive pills to prevent pregnancy in humans are ovulation and implantation.
Why is tubectomy considered a contraceptive method?
Tubectomy involves cutting a piece of the fallopian tube and tying its ends. This way, the sperms are not able to reach the egg and it acts as a contraceptive method.
Mention the primary aim of the ‘Assisted Reproductive Technology’ (ART) programme. [NCERT Exemplar]
‘Assisted Reproductive Technology’ (ART) is the collection of certain I1 special techniques. The primary aim of the ART programmes is to assist infertile couples to have children through certain special techniques (like ZIFT, IUT, GIFT, ICSI, AI, etc.), when corrective treatment for infertility problems is not possible.
Expand GIFT and ICSI.
GIFT: Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer.
ICSI: Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection.
Short answer type questions
Comment on the RCH programme of the government to improve the reproductive health of the people. [NCERT Exemplar]
The basic aims of the RCH programmes are creating public awareness f regarding reproduction-related aspects and providing facilities to build up a healthy society with added emphasis on the health of mother and child.
(a) List any four characteristics of an ideal contraceptive.
(b) Name two intrauterine contraceptive devices that effect the motility of sperms.
(a) An ideal contraceptive should be:
- user friendly,
- easily available,
- reversible with no or least side-effects,
- non-interfering with the sexual drive/desire and/or the sexual act of the user, (any four)
(b) Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): Lippes loop, copper releasing IUDs (Cu-T, Cu-7, multiload 375).
Name two hormones that are constituents of contraceptive pills. Why do they have high and effective contraceptive value? Name a commonly prescribed non-steroidal oral pill.
Hormonal preparations (progestogens or progesterons and estrogens) are highly effective contraceptive because they inhibit ovulation and implantation, e.g., Mala-D, Mala-L. Morning after pills are used as emergency contraceptives, to avoid pregnancy due to rape or casual unprotected intercourse.
“Saheli”, a new oral pill is used “once-a-week” a non-steroidal preparation With very less side effects and high contraceptive value developed by CDRI in Lucknow, India.
Name and explain the surgical method advised to human males and females as a means of birth control. Mention its one advantage and one disadvantage.
In the males-Vasectomy. In this method, a small part of the vas deferens is removed or tied up through a small incision on the scrotum. In the females-Tubectomy. In this method, a small part of the fallopian tube is removed or tied up through a small incision in the abdomen or through vagina.
Advantage: Highly effective
Disadvantage: Reversibility is very poor
A childless couple has agreed for a test tube baby programme. List only the basic steps of the procedure would involve to conceive the baby.
IVF is the technique used in the case of childless couple. In IVF or In Vitro fertilisation, fertilisation is carried out in a glass container outside the body of the mother. Purified semen is poured over the mature retrieved oocytes. The fertilised eggs are separated and allowed to remain in culture medium, maintained in incubator for 48-72 hours. During the period, the fertilised egg undergoes cleavage and reach 4-8 celled stage, 2-3 fertilised 4-8 celled embryos are transferred or implanted .into the uterus of the recipient surrogate mother, for further development up to delivery.
Note: Excess fertilised oocytes are cryopreserved for use in case of implantation failure.
Why is medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) carried out?
MTP is carried out to get rid of unwanted pregnancies. It is also essential when the foetus is suffering from an incurable disease or when continuation of the pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal to the mother and/or foetus.
Long answer type questions
Your school has been selected by the Department of Education to organise and host an interschool seminar on “Reproductive Health-Problems and Practices.” However, many parents are reluctant to permit their wards to attend it. Their argument is that the topic is “too embarrassing.”
Put forth four arguments with appropriate reasons and explanation to justify the topic to be very essential and timely.
The selection of your school, to host a seminar on “Reproductive Health-Problems and Practices” is a matter great pride for the prestigious institute. The students will have an opportunity to listen to the diverse ideas, suggested by the learned speakers.
It is sad that many parents are reluctant to permit their wards to attend the seminar assuming that the topic is too embarrassing. The following arguments will justify the relevance of the topic in the present time:
(i) Introduction of sex education and the proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes will protect the youth from social evils like sex-abuse and sex-related crimes.
(ii) Right information about safe, healthy and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) would help the people to lead a reproductive healthy life.
(iii) Decline in sex-ratio is a matter of great concern. The Govt, has put a I statutory ban on female foeticide. Both girls and boys have equal rights and equal opportunities in all spheres of life.
(iv) India is facing another problem of population explosion. It is eating, almost all the benefits of overall development. The benefits of development are not trickling down to the poor at lower strata. There is need for family planning, socially conscious healthy families of desired size i.e., Hum Do Humare Do.