This PSEB 11th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 11th Class Sociology Notes Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship
→ Every society forms a few institutions to fulfill the basic needs of its member.
→ The institution is a structure of the social system which directs the individual behaviour of a community.
→ It fulfills a few basic needs which are very much necessary for social existence.
→ There are certain features of institutions such as they fulfill particular needs.
→ They are collections of rules, they are abstract, universal, social, and permanent. They cannot be changed very easily.
→ Marriage is one such institution that exists in every society. It is one of the basic social institutions.
→ With marriage, two individuals of opposite sexes are permitted to live with each other as husband-wife.
→ They establish sexual relations, produce children and contribute to the continuation of society.
→ Many types of marriages exist in our society but monogamy and polygamy are quite famous.
→ Polygamy is further divided into two parts, polygamy, and polyandry. Polyandry type of marriage exists in tribal society and polygamy existed in our society some time ago.
→ Many rules of mate selection prevail in our society out of which endogamy and exogamy are quite common.
→ In endogamy, one needs to marry within a particular group and in exogamy, one needs to marry out of a particular group.
→ During the last few decades, many changes have come in the institution of marriage.
→ Many reasons are there behind these changes such as industrialisation, urbanisation, modern education, new laws, freedom of women, the impact of western societies, etc.
→ Family is one such universal institution that exists in almost all societies.
→ Individual life is greatly affected by family and one cannot live without one’s family.
→ Family is having many features such as it is a universal institution, it is small in size, it is both permanent and temporary, it controlling individual behaviour.
→ There are many types of family that can be divided on the basis of authority, place of living, members, etc.
→ During the last few decades, changes have also taken place in the institution of the family such as small in size, breaking up of families, change in the status of women, changes in functions, etc.
→ Kinship is a system of human relationships and many relations are included in it. Kinship can be divided into two bases—affinal and consanguinity.
→ On the basis of nearness and distance, there are three types of kins-primary, secondary and tertiary.
→ Primary relatives are father, mother, brother, sister.
→ Secondary kins are primary kins of our primary kins such as the father of father- grandfather.
→ Tertiary kins are primary kins of our secondary relatives such as the son of uncle-cousin.
→ Patriarchal: The family in which authority and control are in the hands of the father.
→ Matriarchal: The family in which authority and control are in the hands of the mother.
→ Nuclear Family: The family in which husband, wife, and their unmarried children live.
→ Joint Family: The family in which members of more than two generations live under one roof and eat in a common kitchen.
→ Endogamy: Marriage within a particular group i.e. caste.
→ Exogamy: Marriage out of a particular group, i.e. family, gotra, etc.
→ Monogamy: Marriage of one male with one female.
→ Polygamy: Marriage of one male or female with many females or males.
→ Affinal kinship: This type of kinship is made after marriage such as son-in-law.
→ Consanguineous kinship: This type of kinship is made due to blood and right after birth i.e. son, brother, sister, etc.
→ Kinship: Social relations, real or imaginative, made according to marriage or blood.