Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education Important Questions and Answers.
PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. There are ……………. elements of state.
2. The means to achieve State’s objectives is …………….
3. Who elects the government?
4. Which of these is an organ of government?
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
5. Who strengthens the economy of country?
6. Which of these is an economic institution?
(a) Private property
(b) Division of labour
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
7. ……………….. class owns all the means of production and which exploits the labourer class.
(a) Labour class
(b) Capitalist class
(c) Middle class
(d) Lower class
(b) Capitalist class
8. From where did religion originate?
(a) Human beliefs
(d) Spiritual power
(a) Human beliefs
9. Who said this, “Religion is the faith in supernatural powers?”
10. Who wrote the book, “Elementary Forms of Religious Life.”?
11. What is the function of religion?
(a) To break society
(b) To maintain social unity
(c) To not to maintain social control
(d) None of these
(b) To maintain social unity
12. One who have faith in religion is known as ……………
13. One who doesn’t have faith in religion is known as …………….
14. In India, who is a literate preson?
(a) One who can read and write in any Indian language
(b) One who has passed 8th class
(c) One who has clear matric exam
(d) One who has passed graduation
(a) One who can read and write in any Indian language
15. Who prepares syllabus for schools in India?
(d) State Board of Education
16. Ancient educational system was based on ……………
(d) Religious education
17. Modern educational system in India is based on …………..
(b) Western education
(d) Social education
(b) Western education
18. In 2011, literacy rate in India was
Fill in the Blanks:
1. Weber gave three types of ………………
2. There are four essential elements of ……………
3. …………… gave the theory of Animism.
4. …………… gave the difference between sacred and profane.
5. ……………. gave the theory of Naturism.
6. Marx explained about two classes i.e ……………… and ………………
7. ………….. education is that which we get in school, college etc.
1. Indian citizens are given eight fundamental rights.
2. Half of the total seats in Panchayats are kept reserved for women.
3. Indian Constitution was implemented on 26th November, 1949.
4. India is a religious country.
5. Population, geographical area, government and Sovereignty are the essential elements of State.
6. Ideas of Communism and Socialism were given by Durkheim.
7. In 2011, literacy rate in India was 74%.
One Word/Line Question Answers:
When was the Indian Constitution passed?
The Indian Constitution was passed on 26 Nov. 1949 by the constituent Assembly and implemented on 26 Jan. 1950.
How many fundamental rights are given in the Constitution?
Six fundamental rights are given in the constitution.
When was Panchyati Raj Scheme passed?
It was passed in 1959.
How many seats are kept reserved for females in Panchayati Raj?
One third of the total seats are reserved for females in Panchayati Raj.
According to Gandhiji, which state is not right?
According to Gandhiji, that state is not right which uses force or which is made with the help of force.
How is state formed?
State is formed with conscious efforts so that it could be used for political objectives.
Who attains the objectives of state?
The government attains the objectives of state.
Name the most important function of state.
The most important function of state is to protect itself from any internal or external attack.
Who arranges for justice in society?
State arranges for justice through Judiciary.
What are the essential elements of state?
Population, geographical area, government and sovereignty are the four essential elements of state.
What are the economic institutions?
Such institutions which care about production, consumption, distribution etc. are the economic institutions.
Give examples of economic systems.
Capitalism, Communism, Socialism are the examples of economic systems.
Give examples of economic institutions.
Private property, division of labour, exchange etc. are the examples of economic institutions.
How many classes are there in Capitalism?
Mainly there are two classes in Capitalism—Capitalist class and Labour class.
Who controls the means of production in communism?
In communism, everything is controlled by- the state.
Who gave the views of communism and socialism?
The views of communism and socialism are given by Karl Marx.
Is India a religious country?
No, India is a secular country.
What is Religion?
Religion is an organisation of beliefs and rituals which regulate and control our lives.
Who originated religion?
Religion was originated by humans.
Which sociologists studied religion?
Durkheim, Weber, Tylor etc. studied religion.
Who is an educated person in India?
One who can read and write in any Indian language is an educated person.
Who prepares school curriculum in India?
N.C.E.R.T. prepares school curriculum in India.
On what Indian education system is based?
Indian education system is based upon western educational system.
On what ancient Indian education system was based?
It was based on religion or religious books.
In 2011, what was the literacy rate in India?
In 2011, literacy rate in India was 74%.
Who established educational system in India?
The British established educational system in India.
What is Formal education?
The education which we get from school, college, university etc. is known as formal education.
What is Informal education?
The education which one gets from his daily life experiences is known as informal education.
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
What were Gandhiji’s views on the powers of state?
According to Gandhiji, powers of state should be decentralised or divided among different levels or powers must not be centralised at one level. If they will be divided among different levels, they will not be misused.
Give any two features of state.
- State works for the welfare of its people.
- If required state can use force.
- State is having its own geographical area, population and sovereignty .
What is meaht by the Capitalist Class?
Capitalist class is the class which owns all the means of production and money and it exploits labour class. It invests its money to earn more money.
What is Labour Class?
Labour class is the class which does not own any means of production. It is always exploited by the capitalist class and earns its livelihood only by selling its labour. It does not have any money or means of production.
What is Communism?
Communism is a type of economic system where the main objective is to make society a classless society, means to form a society in which there is no class available. In this, all the means of production are controlled by the state.
What is Socialism?
According to Karl Marx, the system in which every one will get according to his needs and ability from the state. This system will have every type of equality and every one will get equally from the state.
How religion keeps social control?
Religion is a faith in a supernatural power which no one has seen. An individual is afraid of this power and never tries to work against it. So he controls himself. In this way religions keeps social control over an individual.
What is Education?
Education is the system which develops an ability in an individual to maintain balance with circumstances and society. It is the impact which present generation uses on the future generation to convert them into good citizens.
How does education affect the development of children?
Education affects the development of children because its main objective is their allround development. After getting education, child gets good life and it helps in shaping his future.
Give any two functions of education.
- Education controls and regulates our lives.
- Education tells us how to maintain balance with society.
- Education develops moral values among individuals.
What is a state?
State is a group of people which is situated in a geographical area having its own population, government and sovereignty. It has physical force to control its citizens which it often uses from time to time.
Short Answer Type Questions:
What is State?
State is a group of people which has a definite territory, which has its own population, government and sovereignty. It has the physical power to control its territory and its people. According to Gilchrist, “The State exists where a number of people living on a definite territory are unified under a government which in internal matters is the organ for expressing their Sovereignty and in external matters is independent of other governments.”
Four characteristics of State.
- The state protects the public interests.
- The state is abstract.
- State membership is necessary.
- The state has the. actual authority and sovereignty.
- The state has only one government.
Four essential functions of State.
- The state maintains internal peace and security.
- State gives Justice to the people.
- The state protects the rights of citizens.
- State saves the country from external aggression.
Four optional functions of State.
- The state tries to develop means of transport and communication.
- State uses natural resources for its welfare.
- The state gives education to the people.
- The state takes care of the health of the people.
- The state regulates the business and commerce of the country.
What is Government?
Government is an organization that has the power to control and to give orders which helps in maintaining peace in the State. Government is the means of State to achieve its objectives. The government has got the sanctions because it has the support of the majority of the people. Government is a means which tries to achieve the goals of the State.
Four characteristics of Government.
- Government is elected by the people.
- Government is concrete in nature.
- Government has many parts.
- Government is temporary.
- Government is the means of State.
Parts of Government.
Government has three parts—Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. Legislature means Parliament or State Legislative Assemblies which make the laws. Executive means who excutes or doing work like Prime Minister, Ministers etc. Judiciary means courts, Judges which implement the laws.
Four functions of Government.
- Government spreads education among the masses.
- The government tries to remove poverty.
- Government takes care of public health,
- The government encourages businesses and industries and makes rules for them.
- Government strengthens the economy of the country.
- It makes the appointments,
- It makes the laws.
What is Political Party?
Political Party is a group which is tied by some rules. It is an association of the people whose only aim is to achieve political authority for which every one is doing a lot of efforts. Views of its members are common because all of them belong to one party.
Characteristics of Political Party.
- Every Political Party has different policies,
- Members of every party are organized and controlled in a proper way.
- All of its members believe in same policies,
- All of its members have common plan of action,
- Every political party takes care of welfare of the country.
The meaning of sovereignty is that the state is without any internal or external pressure. It should be independent and should take its own decisions. It is of two types-Internal and External Sovereignty. Internal sovereignty is that state is above all other institutions of the state and alljhe institutions under its territory should obey its orders. Existence of other institutions depends upon state. External sovereignty is that the State is free from any external power of the country. It is free and independent to make its internal and foreign policy.
Democracy is a form of government in which people govern themselves. The representatives of the people, who represent the masses, are elected by the people on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise. Concepts like liberty, equality and fraternity are the basis or foundation of democracy. There is social, economic and political equality in democracy. Every one has freedom of expression and association within the framework of the constitution. There is maximum scope for individual and collective development of society and personality.
Society is generally divided into classes and humans are given status and roles according to these classes. Each person has different status and roles. This division of society into different classes is known as stratification. When a person gets any position in society while performing his role and status then we can say that he has achieved the power. In this way, power is a process of contract in which decisions are taken in relation to preferences.
What is Private Property?
By Private Property we mean by that property which is under complete control or authority of one person or group and with that the person or group should use that property for his personal profits.
Production is that process with which everything is made to fulfil every need of a person. It can be defined in the form of using anything. Many things are required to make any thing like natural resources, human force, labour, technology, entrepreneur etc. In this way production is a process in which man makes anything to statisfy his needs and uses that thing.
Consumption is also necessary with production because without consumption, production is not possible. Consumption means to use any thing and to use means that quality which makes any thing able to satisfy the needs of the person. It is the main function of every society to regulate and control the consumption for society.
Giving and taking of anything is known as exchange. It means that to give another thing in place of one thing. Exchange is not a concept of modem society but is coming from ancient societies. Exchange is of many types like thing for thing, thing for service, service for service, money for thing, money for service, money for money. Exchange is of two types, direct and indirect. Direct exchange is of thing for thing, thing for service and service for service. Indirect Exchange is the exchange of gifts.
For a laymdn the meaning of distribution is to take any thing from one place to another and by selling that thing. But in economics, Distribution is that process with which the actual and complete value of any thing is distributed in those persons who have contributed in the production of that thing. Different persons and groups have their own specific contribution in the production of any thing and they should be rewarded for that. In this way the money or reward given to them is Distribution. For example, rent to owner of land, wages to labourer, interest to the person who has invested money, tax to government. All these are getting their share in this form.
Capitalism is an economic system in which private property is of great importance. Production in capitalism is on a large scale and we can see stiff competition among different capitalists. Capitalist tries to get more profit because of which he invests his money. This money and credit are of great importance in capitalism. The biggest feature of capitalism is the exploitation of labourers.
Division of Labour.
According to Emile Durkheim, meaning of division of labour is dividing functions among people on the basis of their ability so that the work could be completed in the best possible way. Division of labour is a social fact, moral system and automatic universal phenomenon which existed in all societies and in all ages. It connot be originated but it develops with time.
What is Religion?
Religion is the name of respect of humans towards the all powerful God or the experience of standing in front of God. In religion man believes that he has established the contact with the supernatural power. So Religion is an experimental encounter with the holy God.
Give any four Characteristics of Religion.
- Belief in Supernatural power is there in religion.
- Many rituals are there in religion.
- Many religious methods are there in religion.
- Every religion has its symbols of religion.
Functions of Religion.
- Religion gives stability to social organization.
- Religion gives definite form to social life.
- Religion organizes social life.
- Religion plays an important role in maintaining social control.
- Religion helps in removing differences.
- Religion motivates to do functions of social welfare.
- Religion also plays an important role in the development of man.
- Religion also helps in the socialization of man.
Demerits of Religion.
- Religion becomes an obstacle in social progress.
- A person lives on the basis of fate.
- Religion is against the National Unity.
- Religion increases the social problem.
- Religion is an obstacle in the process of change.
- Religion divides society.
Panchayati Raj Institutions.
There are two ways for the development of local areas in our country. Local governments are there for the development of urban areas and Panchayati Raj institutions are there for the development of rural areas. 70 % of the total population in our country lives in rural areas. That’s why the institutions which have been made for the development of rural areas are known as Panchayati Raj Institutions. It has three levels. Panchayat is there for the development at the village level, Block Samiti is there for the development at the block level and Zila Parishad is there for the development at the district level. Its members are nominated as well as elected.
All the adult persons of the total population, of the village, are the members of Gram Sabha and it is the complete unit of the whole population of the village. This is the basic unit on which the whole structure of our democracy rests. Gram Sabha can be made in that village whose population is more than 250. If the population of one village is less than 250 then two villages can jointly make the Gram Sabha. Every adult of the village is a member of Gram Sabha, who has the right to vote. There is one chairman and some members of every Gram Sabha. It is elected for 5 years.
Every Gram Sabha elects one Gram Panchayat from its area. In this way, the Gram Sabha is an executive institution that elects members for the Gram Panchayat. It has one Sarpanch and 5-13 panches. There are certain places in panchayats that are reserved for backward classes and females. It is generally elected for 5 years but the state government can dissolve them even before 5 years if it will try to misuse its power. Government officials and mentally ill persons can not fight the elections. Gram Panchayat solves the problems of the village and develops many things like industries, agriculture, cleanliness, means of recreation, and means of transport.
Functions of Panchayat.
- The first function of the Gram Panchayat is to uplift the social and economic life of the people.
- Village Panchayat tries to open schools in the village and motivates the people to send their children to schools.
- Gram Panchayat also arranges for the means of a recreation like films, festivals and opening up of library in the village.
- Panchayat tells the people about new techniques of agriculture and it arranges for new seeds and developed fertilizers.
- For the industrial development of the village, it also tries to establish any industry in the village.
Panchayat Samiti or Block Samiti.
Panchayats, coming in one block are the members of Panchayat Samiti and Sarpanches of these Panchayats are the members of Panchayat Samiti. Members of Panchayat Samiti are also elected. Panchayat Samiti takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which are coming in its area. It checks the developmental functions of the village and directs the Panchayat for the welfare of the village. It is the second level of Panchayat Raj.
The highest level of Panchayati Raj is Zila Parishad which takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which are coming in the district. It is an executive institution. Chairman’s of Panchayat Samiti, elected members, members of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, and Legislative Assemblies are the members of Zila Parishad. All these take care of the developmental functions done in the villages of the district. Zila Parishad does many functions like improvement of agriculture, improvement-of land, irrigation, rural electrification, arrangement of seeds and fertilizers, education, industries, etc.
Long Answer Type Questions:
What are the major functions of Economic Institutions?
Main functions of economic institutions are given below
(A) Production. Production means that action which a human does to make any thing to fulfil his needs. That’s why it can be defined in the form of use of anything. We need many things to make anything which are given ahead:
(1) First of all we need natural resources to produce anything from which thing can be made and generally natural resources are in limited quantity. All those things which are necessary to make anything are known as resources. In resources, material things and the human force used for them are included. For the production of material things we need good fertile land and good climate. To make alloy we need raw iron and to make electricity we need coal or water so that the machines can run. In this way for the production of things we need natural resources.
(2) Next turn after the natural resources is the human force. Human labour is used for the production of money. Whenever man makes anything then he uses his
labour and this labour can increase the usefulness of anything. How the labourer will get the fruit of his labour, will depend upon the economy. Like in ancient times in villages people used to work for others and they were getting food grains instead of money as their labour. But today person gets pay or daily wages in the form of money. In this way human labour plays a very important role in the production.
(3) For the production of anything we need resources and labour. Absence of one of these will lead to non-production of anything. With the help of these two and with the help of machines and other things of industry, anything produces in the factory. Whatever thing is produced is known as capital. In this way capital is that thing which is made by using labour on natural resources and which further can be used for the production of further capital.
(4) Except natural resources, labour and capital many things are there which help in the production of things. First of all comes technology. Technology is the collection of knowledge and complete art of society. The good and better knowledge and art of society will lead to the good quality of production in that society. With technology another important factor in production is ‘time’ which is necessary for the production of anything. If we want to produce anything then it should be produced within time unless it’s cost will be increased. Then next turn of way of functioning because the best method of functioning is to produce more in minimum resources and less time. It will increase the profit of a person.
(5) In the end the thing which is necessary for the production is capitalist or entrepreneur. In every process of production we need a definite direction and definite planning. In today’s modern and big industries, these industries are taken care by any group of people called management or by owner himself. Different persons contribute towards the process of production. Some people have natural resources, some have labour, some have money and some have tools. Entrepreneur collects all these things and produces a new thing with which he earns hig profit.
In this process of production, profit is distributed between all of them. With entrepreneur a number of other things are also necessary for the production like’ governmental policies, laws, wages of labourers, solution of their problems, regulation of business and commerce, formation of laws related with work etc. In this way because of these things anything is produced in the country. So the first function of economic institutions is to produce anything to satisfy the needs of the society and persons.
(B) Consumption. With production, consumption is also necessary because without consumption production is not possible. The meaning of consumption is to consume anything and meaning of consume is that quality which makes anything usable to fulfil needs of a person. In simple societies there is no problem of consumption because whichever thing is produced can be distributed and consumed very easily. Like it was happening in ancient societies where man was producing the food and was consuming it. But problem actually is in modern and complex societies where humans are developing some extra needs except their basic needs which are not necessary to live. For example good house, cars, things of pleasure etc. These things are consumed in a great number in complex societies because with them economy increases.
The main function of every society is to regulate consumption for society. Regulation of consumption can be done in many ways like by controlling production. Control on production can be done in many ways like to save the accumulation of natural resources and less use of natural resources even in high production. In this way export can also control this. We can affect the consumption by advertisement. Like if any new thing has been made then we can advertise about that thing in radio, T.V, newspaper so that people can come to know about that thing. In this way the consumption of any thing can be increased or decreased by advertisement.
Except this by legal restriction, consumption can be affected like to ban anything because of its bad effects, to give relaxation to anything and because of this consumption can be increased or decreased. In this way we can say that in every system one institutional system of rules is working like definition of property and distribution of rights, system of division of labour, control over the systems of production and consumption etc. In this way to regulate consumption is the another main function of economic institutions.
(C) Exchange. Giving and taking of anything is known as exchange. It means that to give another thing instead of any economic thing. Exchange is not a concept of today but is coming from the ancient societies. Exchange is of many types like thing for thing, thing for service, service for service, money for thing, money for service, money for mon’ey. Johnson keeps this exchange in two classes direct and indirect. Direct exchange firstly is done with the give and take of thing for thing, thing for service and service for service.
In this systematic business is also there and it happens at that time when the values of the things will be determined by political authority but can be changed with time. In this exchange of moftey is also there or we can say that things can be taken for money. Because of this exchange facility of exchange comes in people. In indirect exchange the exchange of gift is the general form in which one side is doing contract with other side to take any specific benefit from that and exchange of gift is done without anything or service. Except this group distribute the things in the members by collecting the produced things.
What do you know about capitalism? Write in detail.
What is capitalism? Give its features.
Capitalism is an economic system in which private property is of great importance. Capitalism has not reached its advanced stage at once but it is being developed slowly and slowly. To see its development we have to study it from ancient societies. In ancient societies system of exchange of goods was there. There was no existence of concept of profit at that time. People were not collecting things for the profit but were collecting for those days when those things will become unavailable or even for social prestige they were collecting things. Business system was generally dependent upon the exchange of service and goods. No one was aware of economic factors like labour, investment, individual’s profit in ancient societies.
In middle aged societies business and commerce developed little bit. Yet at the start business was based on the system of exchange but slowly and slowly money became the medium of business. It has given a type of motivation to business and commerce because of which the importance of money, gold, silver and coin was increased. Money was yet not the property, but was the symbol of property. It has complete effect on the production forces and features. According to Simmel, the institution of money has affected the all parts of life when it became systematic in modern western society. It has given freedom to owner and servant and also affects the things and services and buyers and sellers because with this formal relations came into being in both sides of business. According to Simmel, money has brought a lot of changes in the philosophy of our life. It has made us practical because now we are measuring every thing in money. Social relationship and social contact become informal and formal. Human relationships become cold.
At the start of modern times economic activities were regulated by governmental forces. In this we can see the shadow of moving forward of European people under their monarchs. At this time economic activities were regulated by political authority so that the king’s profit and treasure should be increased. Country was running under the supervision of businessman and the business men were engaged in earning money like an economic organization. Production forces were also regulated by business laws. ‘
After this industrial revolution came which has changed the ways of production. Business policies were unsuccessful in doing welfare of the people. For the production of more things policy of ‘Laissez Faire’ was adopted. According to this policy there will be no interference in economic matters. According to this any person can see his individual interests. There was no pressure and burden on him. State has stopped interfering in the economic matters. According to Sumner, State should remove all the restrictions which were put on business and commerce and it should remove all the restrictions which were put on production, exchange and accumulation of money.
Features of Capitalism:
1. Large Scale Production. The most important feature of capitalism is the increase of production. With the advent of industries, production was started on a large scale. Capitalism came into being because of industrial revolution and because of which large scale production became possible. With the increase of big factories, division of labour and specialization, production was also increased. The meaning of more production was the use of capital on large scale and too much profit.
2. Private Property. Private property is the basis of modern societies and modern economic life. It is also the base of capitalism. In capitalism every person has the right to earn money and to keep property. Right of keeping property is seen as the personal right. Because of private property big industries, factories, corporations came into being and capitalism was increased.
3. Competition. One of the important features and results of capitalism is increase of competition. We can see lot of competition in big capitalists in capitalism. Demand is artificially increased and supply is decreased. With this capitalists area competing with each other. In this competition small capitalists are loosing and big capitalists are winning because of their money.
4. Profit. According to Marx, capitalism cannot stay without the profit. Capitalist invests on a large scale so that he can earn a lot of profit. In capitalism people are doing work and are producing things to earn profit not for social welfare.
5. Price System. The main aim in capitalism is to earn more and more profit. Value of any thing does not depend upon the cost of that thing but depends upon the base of demand of that thing. In this way labour of a labourer also depends upon its demand. Demand of that work is more whose demand is more in market. Value of the thing is determined on the base of demand of that thing in a market. In this way labour, value of labour is also determined in factory according to their demand.
6. Currency and credit. In the capitalist economy money and credit are of the great importance. Capitalists are taking credits and are increasing their business. This credit is given by money lenders, banks, credit institutions etc. With this credit they increase their production and are also increasing their profit and capital. They have to give interest on that credit.
7. Wages. The condition of labourers is very pitiable in capitalism. The main aim of capitalist towards labourers is to take more work in less wages. Labourers are exploited in capitalism.
What do you mean by State? Explain wjith definitions.
The main subject of Political Science is State but the word State had been used in many forms because of which a layman is unable to know the exact meaning of State. Generally the meaning of State, society, government and country has been taken as same. In the same way word ‘State’ is used “instead of country. But from political science’s point of view it is wrong. The U.S.A. is known as State and its different units are also known as States. In the same way India is also krfown as State and its different units like Punjab, Haryana, H.P., U.P., etc. are also known as State. But actually these are the units of State but not the State. That’s why it is necessary to know the exact meaning of the word State.
Etymology of the word State. The word ‘State’ has been taken from the Latin word ‘Status’. Meaning of word Status is the social level of any person. In ancient times there was hardly any difference between State and Society. That’s why this word was used to tell social level. In its modern meaning this word was used first time by Italian politician ‘Machiaveli’. He has used this word for Country State. In his book ‘The Prince’ he has written that “All the powers which had and have authority over man are State and are either monarchies or republics.”
So State is a part of whole society. It is right that it affects all the parts of social life but still it cannot take place of society. State is an agency which controls the social institutions. State affects all the aspects of society and it plays an important role in maintaining balance among them.
According to ancient philosopher Aristotle, there was no difference in State and Society because at that time, State and society were not in complex form and they were quite different from today’s State and society. Development of society is the result of those efforts which can be done for the fulfilment of specific aims. State is a means of administration which administers and controls the people. State has direct physical authority with which it can punish the people if they will try to break the Laws. State is a complete Sovereign unit which has every type of authority. It regulates the actions of different persons and institutions and makes a balance in their opposite aims. The main aim of State is the welfare of the people.
1. According to Maclver, “The State is an association which acting through law as promulgated by a government endowed to this end with coercive power, maintance, within a community territorially demarcated the universal external conditions of social order.”
2. According to Max Weber, “The State is an association that claims of monopoly of the legitimate use of the violence and cannot be defined in any other manner.”
3. According to Holland, “Numerous assemblage of human beings, generally occupying a certain territory among whom the will of the majority of an ascertainable class of persons, by the strength of such a majority is made to prevail against any of their number who oppose it.”
4. According to Anderson and Parker, “A State is that agency in a society that is authorised to exercise power control within a given territory.”
In this way from these given definitions we can say that State is a collection of people which live in a definite geographical area. It means it has its own geographical area, which has one government with whose help State does its functions, it controls its population and asks the people to obey its rules and it has its own sovereignty. By sovereignty means that it is free from any external pressure. It doesn’t come under any pressure. State protects its boundary from any external aggression and if there is any rebellion in it then it uses the physical force, in the form of police, which it has.
Elements Of State:
Explain in detail the elements of state.
State is collection of persons who live in a definite land under an organised government which is sovereign. These fines contain four elements of State—population, land, government and sovereignty. It is right that different writers have given emphasis on different elements like some have emphasised on population which is united from social point of view. (2) Government or one political system in the form of administration. (3) Written or unwritten rules which can determine the limits of duties and authority of administrative officials. That’s why according to Willougby there are three elements of state-people, government and constitution. Sizwick has also given three elements. But according to modem writers, State cannot be made without 4 elements. According to Garner and Gattel there are 4 elements of State which are given below:
1. Population: The main element of a State is Population. State is not a group of animals. It is a political institution of people. Without population we cannot even imagine the establishment of State. The way in which we cannot imagine family without husband-wife and cloth without thread, in the same way we cannot imagine State without population. How much should be the population of State, there are no definite rules of that. Ten-twenty people cannot make a State. According to Plato the population of an ideal State should be 5040. According to Aristotle the population of the State should neither be 50-60 because with this it would not be able to make itself self-dependent nor it should be one million because it would not be able to control this much population. Rousseau has favoured a small State and that’s why he has given this number to ten thousand.
After looking at the population of modern States we can say that it is impossible to determine the population of State. But still we can accept the views of Aristotle that its population should be this much that it should be able to make itself self-dependent and its population should live a happy life. Administration should be made on it and a permanent government should be established.
2. Fixed Territory: The way in which population is a necessary element for a State, in that same way definite territory is also a necessary factor for a State. But according to some scholars, it is not a necessary element for a State. It was the Cluber who had accepted it as a necessary element for State in 1817. Seelay, Willoughby and Duguit had also not accepted a definite territory for State. According to Willoughby, “The State itself then is neither the people, the government, the Magistracy, nor the constitution. Nor it is indeed the territory over which the authority extends. It is a given community of given individuals viewed in certain aspect namely as a political unity.” According to Duguit, “Territory -is not an indispensible element in the formation of the State.” But according to him, there are many associations which exist in modern age these days. That’s why he accepts that the State should generally have its territory.
But modern writers are not accepting this view. According to them, without definite territory State’s existence is not possible. If population is the soul of State then territory is its body. According to Bluntschli, “As the State has its personal” basis in the people so it has its material basis in the land. The people do not become a State untill they have acquired a territory.” Until the group of people do not get any definite territory, State cannot be established till that time. Nomadic tribes are moving from one place to another that’s why they cannot establish a State because they don’t heve definite territory. Before 1948, Jews were scattered everywhere but they were without any State because they were not living at any definite territory of Isreal. Then Isreal became a State. Actually this element of State differentiates it from other communities.
3. Government. After the population and State we need the government to establish a State. The community of persons made on a definite territory, cannot be called a State till it is not organised from political point of view. Government is an agency with which State’s wish can be expressed and can be practically imagined. Without a government the group of people cannot be organised. Government regulates the mutual relations of humAnswer: It maintains peace and system of society and saves the people from external aggression. It establishes friendly relations with other countries. According to Garner, “Without a government the population would be an incoherent, unorganised anarchic mass with no means of collective action.”
Government in the State can be of any type. Democracy exists in India, U.S.A, U.K, Switzerland, Canada, France, Germany, Newzealand etc.. Dictatorship of communist party is there in China, North Korea, Vietnam, Cuba etc. In Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Monarchy is there. In many countries like Japan, England, India, Parliamentary government is there. In U.S.A Presidential type of government is there. In U.S.A., India and Switzerland Federal government is there. In Japan and U.K. Unitary government is there. It doesn’t matter that which type of government is there in any State because governments are changing all the time and it hardly affects its functions of making laws, welfare of the people.
Every government has three main functions
- To make law
- To implement law and
- To explain law. For these functions of government, three parts of Legislature, Executive and Judiciary are there. Government should be so powerful that it should be able to maintain peace in the country and should be able to protect the country from external aggression.
4. Sovereignty: Sovereignty is the fourth important element of State. For the State, a definite area and government are not necessary for the group of people. Without sovereignty State cannot be established. Word sovereignty is the supreme power of State. State has many supreme rights and no one can stand against them. Because of sovereignty State has full control on its citizens and all its institutions. It is not under any pressure outside its territory.
Characteristics Of State:
What are different characteristics of state?
1. Permanence: It means that the State is a Permanent Organization. In the words of Garner, “People once organised as a State remain always under some State organization.” If any State will merge in any other State or will cut-off from one State then it hardly affects the Legal personality of the State. With the treaties of war many States come to an end and can be included in any other State. But this affects the sovereignty. It means sovereignty of the State goes in the hands of other State but people live in the State. For example, Bangladesh was made separate from Pakistan. In this sovereignty went to Bangladesh and people were started to call as citizens of Bangladesh. From this it is clear that change of rule cannot change the State. That’s why State is always permanent.
2. Continuity: The State is not a static institution. It always stays in continuity. If the government will be changed then it hardly affects the nature of the State. In the government of people the State would be changed from monarchy to Republic then the rule will be of the people but it will hardly affect the international relations of the St&te. This theory is the theory of continuity of State and because of this the theory of heritage of State came into being. So all in all State never comes to an end. Government can be changed and comes to an end but State never comes to an end.
3. State is a powerful institution of the society: State is the most powerful institution of the entire society because it has all the means to force the people to obey its rules. Yet these means are formal like police, law, government etc. but with the help of these means it keeps control over all the other institutions. It binds all of them in one thread of order.
4. State takes care of public interest: One of the important elements of State is its population. It is necessary for the State to keep its people happy irrespective of their number. If the population is not happy then that State is useless. That’s why it is necessary for a State to do functions for the welfare of the people and in fact they do so. State never takes care of the interests of any specific person or group but it protects the interests of common man and tries to do welfare works for them.
5. State is abstract: State is an abstract word. We cannot touch or see the State but we can feel the power of the State. We even can’t imagine that what type of State it is. For example, we can imagine about the ‘Bharat Mata’ but we have not seen her that’s why we cannot touch her. That’s why State is abstract but it means the government is concrete because we can see our government and its form.
6. Membership of State is necessary: Membership of the State is not an optional subject which is dependent upon the wish of the person. All those persons who are living in its specific geographical territory are its members. No one can become member of more than one State at a particular time. Even Aristotle has written that, “Any one who is not the member of the State is either animal or god.” Without State, the needs of humans cannot be fulfilled. Without State, society was never a reality. It was just an imagination.
7. State has the actual Power and Sovereignty: It is the State which has the actual powers yet these powers are further divided but these are related to State. Actually all the powers of State are used by government in the name of State. Government cannot do anything which would go against the State. State has its own sovereignty. Government is also free but actually the State is free in itself and cannot function under the influence of any external pressure.
8. State is an aim in itself: State is an aim in itself and government is the means to achieve this aim. Power and authority of the State is supreme and no one is higher than State. Governments are coming and changing but State stands at the same position.
Functions of State:
Explain different functions of State.
The main aim of modem state is the welfare of the people. State works for the development of the people. That’s why prof. Gattel and Willobi have divided the functions of State in two parts i.e. compulsory functions and optional functions. All these are given below:
1. Protection of Life and Property: Protection of Life and property of the people is a very necessary function of the State. The State should make a system in which every one’s life should be safe and should not be in danger. State should make definite laws related to property. For the protection of life and property, State maintains police which protects the common people from thieves, robbers and criminals.
2. Maintenance of Law and Order: The most important function of the state is the establishement of system of law and order. State forms or makes the laws to stop the criminals, to punish the criminals and to prOtet the life and property of the people. System of Police is established so that the police can catch the law-breakers and they can be punished.
3. Protection from External Aggression: State protects its citizens from external aggression. If any State is unable to protect its citizens from external aggression then that State will come to an end. If the life of the people is not secured from the external aggression, then they would not be able to try to develop their life. State maintains military for the maintenance of its existence. For the maintenance of internal peace and security, military can also be used.
4. Administration of Judiciary: That State is known as the best whose judicial system is the best. The meaning of best judicial system is that there should be no difference in rich-poor, literate-illiterate, and powerful-weak. It means that every one should be equal in front of Law. Every state establishes its system of judiciary. Independence of judiciary is necessary. Only independent Judiciary can give unbiased decisions. So the establishment of independent judiciary is a necessary element of State.
5. Maintenance of relations with other States: The way in which every person is dependent upon other to fulfil its basic needs, in that same way every State is also dependent upon other States, for the fulfilment of its needs. No state is self-dependent. Every state establishes its business, social and political relations with other states. To maintain world peace, it is necessary that every country should have friendly relations with other countries. Every state sends its representative to other country and gives permission to the representatives of other countries to live in its territory. Developed states are giving a lot of help to underdeveloped countries.
6. Taxation: According to Gattel to determine’currency, to keep taxation system and the collection of tax is a necessary function of a state. Without taxes government cannot do any thing. Less income of the state will lead to the less facilities to the people. A good state should have good income but only those taxes will be collected which are necessary.
7. Protection of Civil Rights: Every citizen of a State has certain basic rights like right of living, right of earning, right to keep property, right to get education etc. Even United Nations also promotes these rights. In the absence of these rights the life of the person will become a type of hell. In this way it is the duty of the state that it should protect those rights of its citizens and should make necessary laws for that. If any one will try to snatch away those rights then the government should punish that person. Optional Functions
1. Spread of Education. An important function of the present state is to spread the education. In ancient times the function of spreading education was being done by religious institution. But no state can leave this function in the hands of religious school. Education tells us about our rights and duties. Without education no one can become an ideal citizen and no one can develop his personality. Education is of great importance in democracy because the success of democratic government depends on the people. Every state establishes schools, colleges and universities for the spread of education. Scholarships are given to poor students and poor students are given better facilities of education.
2. Social and moral reforms. Present state also works to uplift the social and moral level of the people. In India many social evils like Sati system, child marriage, untouchability etc. were there;. All these have been abolished by the Law. In earlier times people used to eat opium and drink alcohol. That’s why these are restricted in many states. In earlier times people of China used to eat opium but now it has been reduced due to restrictions of Law.
3. Development of agriculture. Present state also works for the development of agriculture. Shortage of foodgrains will create a lot of problems. Then a country has to depend upon other countries for its requirements and sometimes it has to accept unacceptable demands of other state. That’s why government provides the facilities of good quality seeds, fertilizer, tractors, machinery, loan etc. Government also provides means of irrigation.
4. Development of the means of communication. Citizens cannot develop the means of communication themselves. That’s why the means of communication are being developed by state. State establishes railways, roads, telegraph offices, post offices etc.
5. To provide recreational facilities. Present state also arranges recreational facilities for the people. That is why it establishes cinemas, art centres, museums, parks, hotels etc. State also gives reward to literate persons and to good artists.
6. Public utility works. Present state also works for the Public Utility. State makes new roads and takes care of old roads. It also arranges for electricity. State also arranges for aeroplanes and ships. Telephone system is also arranged by the state.
7. Development of natural resources. One of the most important optional functions of the state is to develop natural resources. With the development of natural resources, country’s economy also progresses and national, income also increases. That’s why modern state takes complete care of protection and development of forests, finds mineral resources and their proper use and tries to get maximum profit from water resources.
What do you know about Panchayat? Write in detail.
Discuss the features and functions of village Panchayat with special reference to 73rd Amendment Act.
Panchayat is an ancient institution of local self government which remains permanent even after many social and political changes came in country. Charles Metcalf says, “Rural communities are smaller republics which are living in their limits, can do anything according to their wish and are independent from external interference. They are coming from ancient times. Many revolutions came, families came to an end, but rural community has greatly helped the country for maintaining society and culture and a different state.”
Composition of Panchayat:
Number and Election of Members of Panchayat: Members of the Panchayat are known as the Panch and its head is known as the Sarpanch. Members of panchayat in every state are elected by those adult members of Gram Sabha whose names are there in the voter list of state legislative assembly. They all have the right to give vote in the election of members of panchayats. In this way members of panchayat are directly elected. The number of members of panchayat depends upon the population of the village. Number of members of village panchayat is different in different states.
Reservation of Seats: According to the 73rd constitutional amendment 1992, some seats are reserved in Panchayati Raj Institutions for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward classes and women.
Qualifications for the Members of a Panchayat:
- He should be the resident of India and he should possess the necessary qualification to contest as the member of state legislative assembly.
- He should be the resident of area of Panchayat.
- He should not be any official of State or Central government.
- He should not be declared bankrupt.
- He should not be a criminal.
Sarpanch or Chairperson: Head of the Gram Panchayat is known as Sarpanch or Chairperson. He is known by different names in different states. Election process of Sarpanch is not the same everywhere. He is generally directly elected in most of the states by those adults of the village who have the right to vote in the election of members of village Panchayat;* This system prevails in Bihar, Gujarat, Goa, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, U.P., Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. Sarpanch is also indirectly elected in some states. It means members of Gram Panchayat elect one of them as Sarpanch. This system prevails in Karnataka, Kerala, Sikkim, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Tripura, Orissa and Arunachal Pradesh. Seats of Sarpanch are also reserved for SCHEDULED CASTES, TRIBES AND BACKWARD CLASSES according to the ratio of their population in the total population. One third seats of Sarpanch are also reserved for women.
Functions of Gram Panchayat:
There are many functions of gram panchayat which are given as follows:
- To take care and repair of roads in its area.
- Cleanliness of village.
- Arrangement of wells, ponds, taps, etc.
- Arrangement of light in streets and markets
- Taking care of funeral places.
- Keeping record of birth and death.
- Efforts for primary education.
- Security of buildings related to gram sabha.
- Arrangement of markets of animals and to take steps in the improvement of breed of animals.
- To celebrate social festivals except for fairs and festivals.
- To control the change and the spread of construction of new and old houses.
- To give help in the development of agriculture, business and village industries.
- Establishment of buildings related to the public and taking care of them.
- Establishment of women and children welfare centers.
- Establishment of hospitals for animals.
- To determine the place to keep manure at one place.
- Giving help in controlling fire and security of life and property at the time of fire.
- Arrangement of libraries, reading rooms and game grounds.
- Giving help to poor people.
- Construction of bridges according to needs etc.
Sources of Income:
1. Taxes. First source of income of panchayat is tax. It can collect only those taxes which are sanctioned by government like property tax, animal tax, occupational tax, token tax, road tax, octroi tax etc.
2. Fees and Fine Tax. Second source of income of panchayat is the fine and fees imposed by it. For example fees for the use of panchayat rest house, tax of lighting of streets and markets, water tax etc. These are imposed only by those panchayats which give these facilities.
3. Government Grants. The main source of income of panchayats is the grants given by government. Government gives different types of grants to implement the plans related to development made by them. Generally some part of land tax collected by government is given to panchayats like 15% in Punjab, 12.5% in U.P. etc. Panchayats of Bihar, Maharashtra and Gujarat even collect land revenue on behalf of government.
4. Mixed Sources. There are many other sources of income of panchayats like income by selling the waste of the village, income from panchayat land (shamlat), income from fairs, income from the property of the village etc. Panchayats have special source of income fishery in Andhra Pradesh and Punjab.
5. Borrowing. Except these sources, panchayats can borrow money with the approval of government.
What do you know about the Panchayat Samiti? Write in detail.
Panchayat Samiti is the most important institution in the three tier structure of the Panchayati Raj. It is the intermediate tier of three tier system. It is established at the block level and it acts as a bond between panchayat and Zila Parished. It is established at Taluk level in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka. It is called by different names in different states. It is known as Panchayat Samiti in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. In Assam it is known as Anchaik panchayat, Panchayat union council in Tamilnadu, Kshetra samiti in U.P., Taluk panchayat in Gujarat and Taluk development board in Karnataka. In this way the heads of the panchayat samiti are also called by different names in different states. He is known as President in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. He is known as Chairman in Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Orissa, Haryana, Punjab, Pradhan in Rajasthan and Pramukh in U.P. and Bihar.
Composition of Panchayat Samiti:
Elected members. Members of Panchayat Samiti are directly elected by the voters of that area. Number of members of Panchayat Samiti depends upon the population of that area and is different in different states. After every 10,000 persons one member is elected in Karnataka, 5000 in Bihar, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, 8000 in Tripura, 3000-4000 in Andhra Pradesh, 3000 in Himachal Pradesh, 2000 in U.P. and 15,000 in Punjab. In Haryana if the population of Panchayat Samiti is 40,000 then one member is elected after every 4,000 people. But if population is more than 40,000 then one member is elected after 5,000 persons.
Number of members of Panchayat Samiti is different in different states. It is 15 in Gujarat, 10-15 in Madhya Pradesh, 8-15 in Kerala and 6-10 in Punjab. If the population of Panchayat Samiti in Rajasthan is one lakh then it is divided in 15 areas but if it is more than one lakh then 2 member’s are elected after every 15,000 people. In Assam, one member from gram panchayat is elected for Aanchalik Panchayat. Number of members of Panchayat Samiti is not determined in Orissa and Maharashtra. –
Reserved seats. Some seats in every state are reserved for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and women. Number of reserved seats for Scheduled castes and tribes are according to their ratio of population in the total population of that area.
One third seats of the total seats of Panchayat Samiti will be kept reserved for women (including the reserved seats for women of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes). Some states have kept some reserved seats for backward classes as well. Their population is kept in mind while keeping, seats reserved for them. Like in Punjab, if the population of backward classes is more than 20% of the total population then one seat will be kept reserved for them in Panchayat Samiti. In this way one seat is also kept reserved for backward classes in Panchayat Samiti in Haryana.
Chairman: The elected members of the Panchayat Samiti elect one chairman and one deputy chairman among themselves. This election takes places under the supervision of the officer appointed by deputy commissioner. Because the term of Panchayat Samiti is 5 years, that’s why the term of chairman and deputy chairman is also of 5 years. Seats of chairman are also kept reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes according to their population’s ratio in total population and one third of the total seats are kept reserved for women.
Functions of the Panchayat Samiti:
1. Community Development: The Panchayat Samiti is given the responsibilities of development functions in all the states. It implements the plannings of community development. It prepares the plans at block level and applies them in the block.
2. Functions regarding irrigation and agriculture: The special power related to the development of agriculture is given to Panchayat Samiti in almost all the states. It distributes the good seeds and fertilizers. It also tries to spread scientific techniques of agriculture. It also arranges for soil conservation and making the soil more fertile. It also tries to get self-dependence in procuring green fertilizer and fertilizar. It encourages the people to grow more and more fruits and vegetables. It also arranges wells, ponds and other smaller means of irrigation.
3. Animal Husbandry and Fisheries: Panchayat Samiti spreads the better ways of animal husbandry and arranges for their treatment to save them from any problem. It tries to improve the breed of animal, tries to spread fishries and determines the place for fisheries.
4. Primary Education: The responsibility of primary education is given to Panchayat Samiti in Ahdhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu, U.P., Rajasthan and Punjab. Except this Panchayat Samiti also arranges for information centre, recreation, youth clubs, women organizations, farmer unions, fairs etc.
5. Functions related to health and sanitation: Generally the function related to health is given to the Panchayat Samiti in almost all the states. It arranges for the injections of Cholera, Malaria etc. It takes care of hospitals, women and children welfare centres in the block. It arranges drinking, water, cleanliness, sanitation etc.
6. Municipal Functions: It always constructs new roads in the block and arranges for the repair of old roads. It also arranges for cleanliness of the block, sanitation and drinking water for the block.
7. Cooperation: Panchayat Samiti motivates the people to establish industrial and agricultural cooperative societies and helps them in obtaining loans from the government.
8. Planning and Industries: Panchayat samiti, in some states, has been given the power to make plans for the development of block at block level. It also helps in establishing small scale industries at lower level.
Sources of Income of Panchayat Samiti:
1. Taxes imposed by Panchayat Samiti. Panchayat Samiti can impose many taxes under the panchayat samiti and the Zila Parishad Act 1961 and these taxes are occupation tax, property tax, toll tax, token tax etc.
2. Income from property. Panchayat Samiti also has the income from that property which is in its control.
3. Fees. Income from the services provided by the Panchayat Samiti. Panchayat samiti can impose many types of fees, with the sanction of Zila Parishad, like fees of fairs, fees from the exhibition of agriculture etc.
4. Government Grants. State government gives many types of grants to Panchayat Samiti for the plans of community development and many other functions.
5. Land Revenue. Some part of land revenue is given to Panchayat Samiti in almost all the states and this land revenue is collected from the block. For example 10% of land revenue collected by Punjab government is given to Panchayat Samitis.
6. Loans: Panchayat Samiti can take loans from governmental and non-governmental institutions but with the permission of Zila Parishad and Government. But it cannot take loan more than 5 lakhs from non-governmental institutions.
What do you know about Zila Parishad? Write in detail.
Zila Parishad is the third and the highest level of Panchayati Raj. It is established at district level in all the states. It is known as Zila Parishad in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Sikkim, Orissa, Assam, Rajasthan, Haryana, Manipur, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tripura, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh and Arunanchal Pradesh, Zila Panchayat in Karnataka, Goa and U.P. and District Panchayat in Gujarat, Tamilnadu and Kerala.
Composition: Zila Parishad has some elected and some other members. Elected members are directly elected by the people by dividing district into different constituencies. But the numbers of elected members are different in different states. No such number of fleeted members is fixed in Tripura, Sikkim, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and West Bengal. After the population of 50,000 one member is elected in Bihar, Punjab, U.P. and Madhya Pradesh. After 40,000 people one member is elected in Assam, Haryana and Karnataka, one member after 20,000 people in Himachal Pradesh and one member is elected after every 15,000 people in Manipur.
Minimum of 17 members are elected in Gujarat and.20 in Goa. Number of elected members is 10-35 in Madhya Pradesh, 40-60 in Maharashtra, 10-20 in Kerala, 10-35 in Punjab and 10-30 in Haryana. If the population under the area of Zila Parishad in Rajasthan is 4 lakh then 17 members are elected but if the population exceeds the 4 lakhs then 2 members are elected after every one lakh increased population. Except Maharashtra, in all the other states, M.P.’s and M.L.A.’s are the ex-officio members of Zila Parishad. M.L.A.’s of Gujarat are called in the standing committees of Zila Parishad but they don’t have any right to vote. Except these the chairman of District Cooperative Marketing Society, Chairman of District Cooperative Central Bank, Deputy Commissioners of the district and chairman of Zila Grandhalaya Sanstha are the ex-officio chairman of Zila Parishad. If there is no member from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes then it can be nominated by the government.
Reservation of Seats for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Women: Provisions have been made for reserving seats in the Zila Parishad for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and women. Reserved seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are in the same ratio with total seats which their population have with total population of the districts. One third seats of the total seats of Zila Parishad are kept reserved for women. It includes the reserved seats of women of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
Chairman: Every Zila Parishad has one chairman and one vice-chairman. They are directly elected by the members of Zila Parishad out of themselves.-Chairman and vice-chairman are being called by different names in different states. Provisions have been kept for reservation of chairman’s post for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and women. One third seats are reserved for women and for S.C.s’ and S.T.’s. It is according to ratio of their population in total population. Chairman and deputy chairman Can be removed from their posts by passing no-confidence motion against them. But 2/3rd majority is necessary for their removal.
Functions of Zilla Parishad:
The actual function of Zila Parishad is to bring conformity and balance in the functions of different Panchayat Samitis. Its functions are given below:
- It gives its sanction to the budgets of Panchayat Samitis of district.
- It directs the Panchayat Samiti’s to work with their full strength.
- It can give advice to the government on any issue if the government asks for it.
- It organizes developmental plannings made by different panchayat samitis.
- It relates the related plans made by two or more then two panchayat samitis.
- Government can ask Zila Parishad to complete any developmental work through notification.
- Zila Parishad can give advice to the government for the development of district or for local development.
- It gives advice to panchayat samitis to co-ordinate their different programmes.
- It can collect some money from Panchayat S&miti with the permission of government.
- State government can authorize the Zila Parishad to supervise and control the panchayats.
Source of Income:
Some of the sources of income of Zila Parishad are given below:
- Funds kept by the central or state government for Zila Parishad.
- Grants given by All India Institutions For The Development Of Large And Small Scale Industries.
- Share of taxes given by state government from land revenue and other taxes.
- Income from its own property.
- Other means of income determined by state government.
- Grants given by public and panchayat samitiis.
- Money taken by Zila Parishad from panchayat samitis with the permission of state government.
- Grants given by state governments related to developmental functions.
- Some states have given permission to Zila Parishad to collect certain types of taxes.
- Zila Parishad can take loan from governmental and non-governmental agencies. But the permission of state government is required for this.