Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 11 Social Change Important Questions and Answers.
PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 11 Social Change
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. The nature of social change is ……………..
2. Change in the culture of a particular society is known as
(a) social change
(b) collective change
(c) cultural change
(d) none of these
(c) cultural change
3. If change comes into the lives of most of the people in society, it is known as ………………
(a) social change
(b) collective change
(c) cultural change
(d) none of these
(a) social change
4. The change which comes suddenly to change social system is known as …………..
5. The change which comes according to our wish and creates fruitful situation is known as …………….
6. When change comes in a definite direction and traits and structure of anything changes, it is known as …………..
7. Who gave the concept of cultural lag?
8. Give one feature of Revolution.
(a) Sudden result
(b) Symbol of power
(c) Quick change
(d) All of these
(a) Sudden result
Fill in the Blanks:
1. ……………. is law of nature.
2. The meaning of ………………. is sequal change from internal point of view.
3. ………………. brings sudden and fast change in society.
4. ……………., ………………… and …………………. are the basic sources of social change.
Innovation, discovery, diffusion
5. ……………… is the process in which cultural traits spread from one culture to another.
6. When we move towards achieving our desired objectives, it is known as …………….
1. Revolution brings sudden change in society.
2. Cultural traits do not spread with diffusion.
3. No social change comes with innovation.
4. Increase or decrease in population brings social change.
5. Revolution is not a type of social change.
6. Whole of social structure changes with revolution.
One Word/Line Question Answers:
What is social change?
The change which comes in social relations is called social change.
Give one reason of social change.
Geographical factors such as earthquake, flood can cause social change.
Can we predict about social change?
No, we cannot predict about social change.
In how many parts, can we divide the factors of social change?
The factors of social change can be divided into two parts—natural and human factors.
What is the nature of Social Change?
The nature of social change is social. It means change comes in the most part of society.
What is cultural change?
Change in culture of a particular society is called cultural change.
What is evolution?
When change comes in a definite direction and even it comes in the traits and structure of an element, it is called evolution.
hat is progress?
The changes which come according to our aspirations and always create a fruitful situation, it is called progress.
What is revolution?
When a sudden change comes to change present social system, it is called revolution.
What reason of social change is given by Karl Marx?
According to Karl Marx, economic reason is the only reason of social change.
Give one feature of revolution.
A sudden and quick change comes due to revolution.
What are the factors of social change?
Geographical factor, demographic factor, biological factor, technological factor etc.
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
Give one definition of social change.
According to Jones, “Social change is a term used to describe variations or modifications of any aspect of social process, social pattern, social interactions or social organization.
Give two features of social change.
- Social change is a universal process because no society is completely static and change is the law of nature.
- No definite prediction can be done about social change because social relations are not definite.
Social change is comparable. How?
When we talk about change, we generally compare the present situation with the earlier situation to see what change has taken place. This difference is only visible after comparing the two situations. So we can say that social change is comparable.
What are the factors of social change?
- Social change comes due to geographical factors.
- Biological factors also bring social change.
- Demographic factors are one of the reasons for social change.
- Cultural and technological factors also bring change in society.
Short Answer Type Questions:
Meaning of Social Change.
Change is the law of nature. With this, we can come to know about differences. Social change is not related with all the changes which come in our society but the meaning of social change is that change that comes in our social system, social institutions, processes, relations, behavior, social structure etc. In this way, social change is related to social life of social individuals.
Characteristics of Social Change.
- Social change is universal. It is the need of every society. That’s why this is a continuous process. We cannot find any society in history where change has never come. Change was there in ancient society and is also in modern society.
- Rate of social change is not uniform. Yet social change is universal but its rate is different in different societies.
- We cannot predict definitely about social change because social relations, which exist in society, are not definite.
- Social change is the result of influence of many factors. It cannot come because of one factor because our society is complex in nature.
- Social change is law of nature because we cannot control the natural forces and they bring changes with them.
Social change is unpredictable.
It is impossible to predict exactly about social change. Whenever we are giving definite views about solution of any problem then we cannot definitely keep the system of social relations. For example, we can say that caste system or unemployment in India will come to an end. But because of non-static nature of social relations, it is not necessary that our prediction would be right. So we can say that exact prediction is not possible in social change.
Main factors of social change.
- Technological factor
- Cultural factor
- Biological factor
- Demographic factor
- Psychological factor
- Educational factor
- Economic factor
Social Change is one of the types of social change. Word Evolution is an English word that has come out of the Latin word ‘Evoluere’ whose meaning is to expand externally. With the evolutionary change, not only everything increases but knowledge of structural change also comes. In this way evolutionary change is that change in which continuous change comes in a definite direction. It is a process that moves from simplicity to complexity.
Three characteristics of Evolution.
- Social evolution is a continuous process in which change comes about continuously.
- With continuity, definite direction is also there in social evolution because it not only comes in size but also comes in structure.
- Social evolution doesn’t have any external pressure because internal features of everything comes out in it.
- Evolutionary change always goes from simplicity to complexity and it comes in definite direction.
Revolution is also a type of social change. Through revolution change in society comes in a way that it not only affects the present time but it affects the future also. Actually sometimes situation arises in society that society goes on the way of disorganization. To remove this type of situation, revolutionary change comes in society. This revolutionary change comes at once and very quickly. It is also affected by external forces. At once change comes in revolution with which social structure changes at once.
Three characteristics of Revolution.
- In revolution, at once change comes in social system because of which very quick results come out.
- Very quick change comes in both parts of culture, material or non-material, with revolution with which society changes completely.
- Revolution is a conscious process, not an unconscious process in which conscious efforts are being done for a long time and authority of the state changes with this.
- In revolution, old system is generally thrown out of power with peaceful or violent method and a new system is established after this.
Social development is a process in which many things are moving forward towards their larger and bigger size. It means that development is that type of change in which specialization and differentiation are increased and that thing, which is being evaluated by us, always moves towards progress.
Characteristics of Development.
- Development is a universal process.
- One thing in development changes from one position to another position.
- Development is a process moving from simplicity to complexity.
- Development comes in all the aspects of life.
- Continuous efforts are always there for development.
Three measurements of Social Development.
- When equality in front of the law increases then this is a symbol of development.
- When all the adults of the country will get the right to vote and country becomes democratic then it is the symbol of political development.
- When every male and female of the society will get equal rights then it is the symbol of social development.
- When there will be equal distribution of wealth and money in the society then it is the symbol of economic progress.
Any two changes due to the result of technological factor.
- Urbanization. With the development of industries, people living at far-off places started to accumulate at industrial places for employment. Later on, they started to live at those places. Many cities like Tata Nagar, came into being because of this.
- New Methods of Agriculture. New methods of agriculture came into being because of new discoveries and inventions. It has resulted in more production and improvement in the lifestyle of the people.
Technology and Urbanization.
Big industries came into being because of technique with which in dustrialization was started in India. Because of industrialization big cities were developed around these industries. In the beginning, people from villages came to these centres and with that small shops and markets were opened to take care of the needs of those people. Then hotels for people, school, business companies were opened, offices came into being. With this, slowly and slowly cities were developed and urbanization was increased. So, in this way technology has played an important role in increasing urbanization.
Effects of technology on the change in condition of women.
Technology has also contributed a lot in improving the condition of females. With the increase in technology, education started to spread and females started to get education. After getting education they started to move fory$r4.m economic sector. Now they are going to offices, factories and are earning a lot of money. With the advent of machines, burden of household work over females has reduced. They are doing almost every work with machines. All this has happened because of technology.
Effects of technology on marriage.
Marriage was a religious sacrament in ancient times. Because of advent of technology in modem societies, marriage is not a religious sacrament but has taken the form of social contract. Now, base of the marriage is contract and in case of problem this contract can be broken. Now area of selection of marriage has been increased. Person can marry in any caste with his wish. Partners can be separated with divorce. Now females are standing equally with males in economic sector. That is why now marriage is a contract which can be broken at any time.
Demographic factor puts a lot of effect on social organization, traditions, institutions, customs etc. Increase and decrease of population, change in ratio of male and female affect the social relations. Change in demography becomes an obstacle in economic progress of society and produces many social problems.
Two effects of Demographic factor.
- Effects on Economic Life. Demographic factor’has a lot of effect on means of production, ownership of property, economic progress etc. With the increase in population production of agriculture should be increased.
- Effects on Social Life. More population and unemployment create the condition of starvation with which corruption and conflicts are increased in society.
Meaning of Educational factor.
The socialization of man can happen due to education and it affects the ideals, views, values etc. Progress of a person depends upon education. It makes the person literate and removes the superstitions of the person. Educational factor is important in bringing change in every aspect of life.
Two effects of Educational factor.
- Change in caste system: Illiteracy makes a person useless and humans are bounded in superstitions, traditions etc. Caste system has weakened due to modern education. This education is secular. It gives stress upon values like liberty, equality and fraternity.
- Change in status of women: Condition of women has improved due to educational factor. She has come out of four walls of the house and now is aware about her rights and duties. They are also motivated towards economic self-dependence.
Literal meaning of Education.
Education is an English word which has come out of Latin word ‘Educere’ whose meaning is to bring up. Meaning of education is not only related with giving bookish knowledge but to make a future person by making good habits in him. According to Anderson, “Education is the social process by which an individual learns the things necessary to fit him to the life of his society.”
Effects of Education on Family.
Educational factor has a great effect on family. With education people start to develop and awareness comes in them. They start to live according to new values. Now they start to do different functions according to their wish and ability with which fiuclear families come into being instead of joint family. Now people have started to move out of the village for jobs in cities. Now people have become individualistic and materialistic. Children have started to get formal education because of which they have started to go to schools, colleges, universities. Now smaller family is known as good for society. Education plays an important role in socialization of child because he spends most of his time in educational institutions.
Long Answer Type Questions:
What do you know about Social Evolution? Write in detail.
What is Evolution?
Social Evolution is one of the kinds of social change. Evolution is an English word which has come out of Latin word ‘Evolvere’. Evolutionary change is not only development but structural knowledge also increases with this change. In this way evolution is a change which happens in continuous and definite direction. Maclver and Page are of the view, “When there is not only the continuity of change but direction of change, we mean Evolution.”
At another place Maclver has written, “As the purpose of men grew, the social structure within which they are realized, changes in accord with these and that is the meaning of Evolution.” According to Herbert Spencer, “Evolution is the integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion during which matter passes from an indefinite incoherent homogeneity to a definite coherent heterogeneity.”
So from these definitions it is clear that social evolution is not the change due to external pressure but is the change due to internal forces. According to Auguste Comte, social evolution passes through three stages and these are:
1. Theological stage, 2. Metaphysical stage, 3. Scientific stage. Morgan was of the view, “Development of civilization and society has happened in same sequence. To understand social evolution we should know about the different stages of development of social institutions, organizations etc.”
Spencer gave four rules of evolution:
- Social evolution is the physical and cultural form of the rule of developments of universe.
- Social evolution comes in same way as the other developments of the world.
- Process of social evolution is very slow.
4. Social evolution means development from earlier situation. Maclver was of the view, “Wherever in the history of society, we can see increasing specialization in different parts of society, we call it social evolution.” In short, we can say that the change which comes due to internal hidden forces is called evolution. In this development is there from earlier situation. On the basis of given explanation of evolution, we can give certain features of evolution and these are given below:
Characteristics or Features:
1. Evolution is related with the change in living beings or with humAnswer: Spencer gave it the name of biological evolution. This development comes in same way in all the societies. For example, Amoeba is an organism whose all the bodily functions are being done only by cell. Human body is the more developed form of organism whose different functions are being done by different parts. The way in which biological development of organism increases, in that same way its nature also becomes complex.
2. Social evolution is a continuous process which always goes on continuously.
3. With continuity, definite direction is also there in the evolutionary change because it not only comes in size but it also comes in structure. This development signals towards definite direction.
4. There is not any type of external pressure on social evolution but its internal traits come out, Many elements exist in changing things. That’s why change in it comes due to these elements.
5. Change in internally existed elements comes with a very slow speed. It is so because we cannot come to know easily about the internally hidden elements. Every changing element has some internal traits.
6. Evolutionary change is from simplicity’to complexity. In earlier times human society was very simple. With the pessage of time, division of labour and specialization were developed in society with which human society became complex in nature. In this way we can say that social evolution is the change from unclarity towards clarity. The way in which after some time of birth, the body parts of child become clear and bigger, in that same way in evolution society becomes complex and clear. This type of change has definite direction and it is so because of internal elements of any thing.
What is Revolution? Write in detail.
What is Revolution? Explain its definitions, characteristics and stages.
Define Revolution. What are its characteristics?
Revolution is also a type of social change. With this the society changes in a way that not only present time is affected by this but future is also affected by this. Actually sometimes in society, some conditions occur because of which society starts to move on the way of disorganization. So to remove this type of situation, revolutionary changes come in society. These revolutionary changes come at once and at a great pace and it is affected not only by internal factors but by external factors as well. Change, with revolution, comes at once with which social structure changes very quickly. According to famous sociologist Karl Marx, “Society goes through the results of the process of revolutionary change in different stages. That’s why one social structure takes place of other social structure.”
Society changes collectively with revolution. Society comes out of one condition and enters in other condition with this change. Speed of this type of change is very quick. We can never imagine about what will happen in near future. Our social organization also changes with this. Elements of both advantages and disadvantages are included in revolutionary change. Sometimes, society gets advantage from this change and it starts to do progress, but some times society changes towards the course of disorganization. New social structure takes place in society and nothing can be found of old social structure. This change generally comes due to the wish of the people. According to Maclver, at once and quick change comes in its complete form in society.
1. According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “Revolution is a rapid change of some magnitude in culture?
2. According to Guy Rochar, “Revolution means a fierce and violent popular uprising whose aim is to overthrow an authority or a regime to modify a situation.”
3. According to Kimball Young, “Revolution is an abrupt shift to new forms of power or authority within a nation state.”
4. According to Crane Brintindtion, “In sociological terms revolution is transvaluation of attitudes and the values towards the existing social structure.”
So on the basis of given definitions we can say that revolution is a change which comes with great speed, very quickly in social structure. Present authority, in revolution, is generally thrown out of power and revolutionaries establish new authority in the state. Revolution can be full of blood-shed. So the use of violence is necessary in it. Whichever power will be obtained with power, that also comes to an end with power.
1. Contingency Results. Revolution is that means in which violence is used. It can take any form like religious, economic or political. Result of this revolution is that social system and structure changes at once. That’s why social revolution is a very important means of change in the social values.
2. Rapid Change. Revolution has one feature and that is that change comes in both aspects of culture, material and non-material, with this. Whatever change comes due to revolution, it comes with the great speed. That’s why society changes in its complete form.
3. Means of Invention. Revolution is a means with which society breaks completely. New classes come into being due to breaking up of system. New rules are
formed to maintain the existence of new classes. In this way many new classes and rules come into existence due to revolution.
4. Symbol of Power. Use of Power is necessary in revolution. Political revolution only depends upon blood-shed and killing of humAnswer: For example, the French Revolution of 1789 and the Russian Revolution of 1917. Violence is used as a method to overthrow the existing authority of the state. Power or Force has a very big hand in the success or failure of revolution. If the power of revolutionaries is more then they will over-throw the authority of the state unless their revolution is suppressed by the state.
5. Revolution is a Conscious Process. Revolution is not an unconscious process but is a conscious process. Conscious efforts are being done in it and the authority of the state is overthrown by revolutionaries. Efforts of revolution start from a long time and at the end they do revolution with full strength. Revolutionaries are aware of the fact that what would be results of their revolution.
6. Revolution is because of Social Dissatisfaction. Revolution is the result of social dissatisfaction. Whenever dissatisfaction starts in society then it moves on slowly and slowly. It takes its speed with the passage of time and when this dissatisfaction goes out of control then it takes the form of revolution. A major portion of society stands against the present authority and this dissatisfaction throws present authority out of power by taking the form of revolution.
7. Establishment of New System. In revolution old system is thrown out of power with violent or non-violent means and new system comes in power. We can see many examples ofthis in the French revolution of 1789, the government of national assembly was made by throwing authority of Louis 16th out of power. In the Russian Revolution of 1917, authority of Czar was thown out of power and the authority of Bolshvic party was established. In this way old system comes to an end and new system takes its place.
Explain the causes of Revolution.
What are the reasons behind Revolution?
1. Social Causes. Many social reasons are responsible for revolution. Sociologists are of the view that if the prevailing customs, rituals etc. of society are not good then they can become the reason of revolution. There are some customs and traditions in every society which are totally against the unity and integrity of the society. For example in 19th century in India, Sati Pratha, Child Marriage, No Widow remarriage and in 20th century dowry system, untouchability etc. Sometimes the aim of revolution is to eliminate these customs. In this way some customs of the society produce disorganization in it. Morality of the person comes to an end due to prostitution, gambling, drinking etc. They hardy care about the prevailing values, traditions, customs etc. of the society. In this way the disorganization spreads in the society. When this disorganization crosses its limits then revolution comes in society. In this way there are many social reasons because of which revolution takes place in society.
2. Psychological Causes. Some times psychological causes become the main reasons of revolution. Some times people are unable to fulfil their basic wishes or needs. They try to eliminate these wishes in their mind. But wish has one feature that it cannot be eliminated or it never comes to an end. It remains there in any corner of ’the mind of the person. If any one tries to motivate him then that wish comes out very quickly. In this way these suppressed wishes produce the revolution in society.
Some sociologists are of the view that instincts accumulate within humAnswer: It means all the wishes of humans are unable to fulfil. They accumulate within the minds of humAnswer: With the passage of time they become instincts. In the end these instincts collectively become the reason of revolution. Except this some problems unconsciously come among humans and these problems shows their effect with the passage of time. Every person has some instinct of violence which unconsciously occurs within the minds of humAnswer: When time comes then this violence comes out of person with an explosion. When revolution takes place then people start to do violence. In this way reasons of revolution occur in the unconscious mind of person.
3. Political Causes. If we look at the history, then we will come to know that generally the political reasons were there behind revolutions and specifically these reasons were there against the existing authority of the state. Many times the authority of state becomes so authoritative that they start to work in their own way. They never take care of the wish of the people. They suppresses the wishes of common people. Dissatisfaction arises in common people due to suppression of their wishes. Slowly and slowly this dissatisfaction spreads in the whole society and this dissatisfaction becomes the reason of revolution. In this way sometimes it happens that corruption spreads among government servants. They use their status and post to earn more and more money and never take care of the problems of common people. Dissatisfaction spreads among people against those officers and they try to remove those corrupt officials from their posts. This effort takes place in the form of revolution.
Sometimes government in any country is based on any specific religion and the people of that religion are given special privileges. Because of this thing, dissatisfaction comes among the people of other religions and they start to think about removing this type of government. Their this type of thought takes the form of revolution. With this if government starts to interfere in the customs and traditions of common people then the people go for revolution against the government to save their customs and traditions. The Revolt of 1857 was also based on this type of reasons. Today’s age is of democracy. In democracy, one party is in the power and one is out of power. Whichever party is out of power, it tries to motivate the people to go against the other party and some times this motivation takes the form of revolution.
4. Economic Causes. Sometimes economic reasons are also responsible for revolution. According to Marxist ideology, history of society of humans is the history of class struggle. According to Karl Marx, there are always two types of classes in society. First is capitalist class and the other one is labour class. Capitalist class always exploits the labour class with the help of its money, wealth and political power. Labour class is unable to get a proper meal because of this exploitation. A very big gap or economic difference comes in labour and capitalist class. Capitalist class lives its life with all means of pleasure and labour class hardly gets the meal of two times. He wants to become free from the clutches of this type of life. That’s why slowly and slowly dissatisfaction spreads in the labour class because of which they go for revolution and throw away the capitalist class. In this way economic resources also force the people to go for revolution.
In this way we can see that revolution is a process which comes at once with which the structure and system of society changes at once. Revolution never comes due to one reason but it comes due to many reasons. Generally political causes are responsible for revolution but other reasons also contribute towards it.
What is Social development? Write in detail.
Social change has many types like evolution, progress, revolution, development etc. So development is also one of the types of change. All these processes are so much intermixed that it is very difficult to differentiate them. In modern age, development word is used for economic development. Increase in income of person, more use of natural resources, increase in capital, increase in production, increase in industries are some of the concepts which are used for complete development. But we cannot call development only to increase in these concepts. In society traditions, religion, structure, culture are also there. They also develop. If social relations expand then social structure, habits, values ideas etc. also change and develop. Independence of person, income of“group, morality, co-operation also increase. In this way, economic development is accepted as social development and it is easy to see different bases on this base.
According to Botomore, “Refer to the distinction between two types of present day societies, on the one hand, industrial societies, and on the other hand, all the societies of very different types in other respects which are predominantly rural and agricultural and have relatively low level of income.” According to Oxford Dictionary, “In ordinary usage development means a gradual unfolding, a further working out of the details of anything, the grown of what is the germ.” So in sociology the concept development shows that state in which person controls more and more over natural atmosphere with the help of his increasing knowledge and technical knowhow. With this person moves forward in every sector of social life. In other words he becomes better and develops from his earlier life.
Characteristics of Development:
- Development is a universal process which exists in every society. The process of development is going on in modern soceity. Todays modern society is the result of development of ancient society. Development took place in ancient societies and that is why today’s modern society came in front of us. Society from feudal times to industrial times has reached only because of development.
- One thing changes from one position to another position in development. This change can be right or wrong. That’s why it has been said that the relation of human development is with the change from one condition to another.
- Good and bad. both types of senses are there in development. It means that development never comes only in right direction. It can happen in a wrong direction also.
- Development is the process of moving from simplicity to complexity. If development will take place in any thing then that thing definitely becomes complex from simple. That’s why development is a complex process.
- In development, all those means should be kept in mind which can help in the process of development.
- Development never comes only in the economic sector but it comes in all sectors of life like social, political, moral etc.
- Process of development is that process in which the knowledge of social and gender change is necessary.
- Efforts of development are always going on.
Measurement of Social Development:
Many sociologists have given many measurements of social development. Their mixed form is given below:
- When the equality of people increases in front of law then it is the symbol of development.
- When any movement will start to increase literacy and to decrease illiteracy then it is the measurement of cultural development.
- When all the. adults of the country will get the right to vote and democracy will be established in a country then it is the indicator of political development.
- If females are given equal rights and all the persons of the society are given equal rights then it is the indicator of social development.
- When there will be equal distribution of money and capital in society then it is the indicator of economic development.
- When every member of the group or community are given the right of expression and right to do any work then it is the indicator of social freedom.
- When the sense of co-operation and service will increase among people then it is the indicator of social morality.Progress:
What do you know about Progress? Explain its features.
Progress on one side is related with material development and on another side it is related with the new ideas of knowledge. Progress is an English word which has come out of Latin word ‘progredior’. It means that to move forward. The word Progress is taken in the relative meaning. When we say that the family is moving forward or progressing then the meaning of this thing can be known at that time when we will come to know that in which direction it is moving. If it is moving from poverty to richness then from this direction we can come to know that this family is progressing. Here one thing should be kept in mind that if we find any one’s downward trend then it is not progress. For example if any rich businessman becomes poor after losing his business then it cannot be called as progress. Its reason is that progress is always related with the achievement of any aim. Whenever we achieve our aims then we can say that we have achieved the progress. In this way the achievement of our aims is known as progress like progress in the educational sector, progress in economic sector etc.
Different sociologists have given different definitions of progress which are given below:
- According to Groves and Moore, “Progress is movement towards a desired end in terms of accepted values.”
- According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “Progress means change for the better and hence implies a value judgement.”
- According to Park and Burgess, “Any change or adaptation to an existing environment that makes it easier for a person or a group of persons or other organized form of life to live may be said to represent progress.”
- According to Fairchild, “Movement in the direction of a recognized and desired goal or objective is progress.”
In this way on the basis of given definitions we can say that progress is the change in desired or approved and accepted direction. We can imagine about this change even before it comes.
Characteristics of Progress:
1. Progress is desired change. Progress is the desired change because whenever we want this change can be brought. Society always progresses with this change. Our desired aim can be any thing in progress and change which comes with progress is always useful. Actually no one wants to damage itself. That’s why this change is for social welfare.
2. Progress is always comparative. Meaning of progress is different in different societies. If any society has got advanatage from the progress then it is not necessary that other society will also get the same advantage from the progress. Actually every society has different desired aims because every society has different needs. Needs of people living in mountainous region are very much different from the needs of people living in plains. That’s why their aims are also different. In this way meaning of progress is used in comparative meaning. Different historical ages, places are defined in a different way.
3. Progress is changeable. Progress is always related with different countries and ages and it never remains same in all the ages. It is so because whatever we think today as a symbol of progress that can be taken as a symbol of downfall in any other country. It means that progress never remains the same. It changes according to the time, age, country, circumstances etc. It is quite possible that any thing which was known as the symbol of progress in ancient times, today it might not have any importance. In this way progress is always changeable and it changes all the times.
4. Progress is concerned with group. Progress is never personal. If some persons, in society, have achieved desired results then this process cannot be called as progress. Actually progress is a concept in which change comes in the life of most of the people. From sociological point of view when the whole group moves forward towards any desired direction then it can be called as progress.
5. More advantages are there in progress. We can see both advantages and disadvantages in progress but there are more advantages. If the quantity of disadvantages is more then it cannot be called as progress.