Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class English Book Solutions English Reading Skills Note-Making Exercise Questions and Answers, Notes.
PSEB 10th Class English Reading Skills Note-Making
Note-making का अर्थ है किसी पैरे की मुख्य बातों को संक्षिप्त और साफ-सुथरे ढंग से प्रस्तुत करना। अच्छे Notes में निम्नलिखित विशेषताएं होती हैं
1. वे संक्षिप्त होते हैं।
2. केवल प्रासंगिक बातें ही उनमें दी जाती हैं।
3. केवल शब्दों या वाक्यांशों का प्रयोग ही किया जाता है। पूरे वाक्यों की आम तौर पर आवश्यकता नहीं होती।
अन्य शब्दों में हम कह सकते हैं कि Notes बनाते समय प्रयुक्त भाषा व्याकरण की दृष्टि से पूरी तरह सही नहीं भी हो सकती।
4. सूचना को सूचीबद्ध ढंग से प्रस्तुत किया जाता है। इसे विभाजित व उपविभाजित किया जाता है। विभाजन निम्न प्रकार से हो सकता है
मुख्य खण्ड : 1, 2, 3, इत्यादि।
उपखण्ड : a, b, c, इत्यादि।
5. पूरे शब्दों के स्थान पर संक्षिप्त शब्दों या चिन्हों का प्रयोग भी किया जा सकता है।
आम प्रयोग में आने वाले संक्षिप्तीकरण शब्दकोशों में दिए होते हैं। इसके अतिरिक्त, प्रत्येक व्यक्ति अपने स्वयं के संक्षिप्त शब्द या चिन्हों का प्रयोग कर सकता है।
उदाहरणार्थ_ ‘Parliament’ के स्थान पर ‘Parlt’ या ‘Par’ या ‘P’ का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है। परन्तु इस बात का ध्यान रखना चाहिए कि एक संक्षिप्त-रूप शब्द एक से अधिक शब्दों के लिए न प्रयोग किया जाए।
Question : On the basis of your reading of the given passage, make notes on it in points only.
Good manners occupy a unique place in our life. They are to be acquired? and cultivated. The sooner it is done, the better it is. Childhood is the best period for learning and imbibing good manners. It is obvious that it is in the formative years that good conduct, behaviour and manners are to be developed and cultivated. As Milton said, “The childhood shows the man as morning shows the day.” Good manners help us to make friends and to gain appreciation. Manners make men and morals.
Word-meanings : 1. acquire-अर्जित करना; 2. cultivate-पैदा करना; 3. imbibe ग्रहण करना; 4. formative-रचनात्मक।
1. Good manners in life
(A) have unique place in life
(B) are to be acquired and cultivated
(C) sooner the better.
2. Best period for learning good manners
- childhood shows the man as morning shows the day – Milton.
3. Good manners helpful
- make friends
- win over people
- gain appreciation.
The Importance Of The Freedom Of Thought
The most important thing is that we should have freedom of thought. This is not as easy as it sounds, for everyone likes to have this freedom for himself, but is not ready to give it to others when they express different opinions. This is particularly the case when differences of opinion arise on such important matters as religion and politics. But if we refuse to let other people hold their opinion on these matters and especially, if we try to force them to accept our own, progress is impossible. If everyone went on thinking the same things as his ancestors thought, progress would come to an end because as the Buddha said, “What a man thinks, he becomes.” So if we think exactly what our forefathers thought, we shall remain in the condition in which they were.
Word-meanings : 1. sounds-प्रतीत होता है; 2. opinions-विचार, मत; 3. particularly – विशेष रूप से; 4. progress-प्रगति; 5. ancestors-पूर्वज; 6. exactly-बिल्कुल वैसा; 7. forefathersपूर्वज।
A Freedom of thought
- each one loves to have
- not willing to give to others
- especially in matters of religion and politics.
B. Progress impossible
- without the freedom of thought
- no progress if we think as our forefathers did.
The Tissue Culture Of Plants
Man has depended on plants ever since life began. The reasons are various for food, shelter and clothing. The destruction of plants has been a cause of tremendous concern to him. Hence he tries to preserve plants from both man-made and natural calamities3. He adopts4 various methods to overcome these calamities. To do so, the scientists have evolved the process of tissue culture whereby complete plant can be developed from just a part of the plant. This has proved to be a boon. This technique involves a process in which small pieces of different parts of a plant body are grown on a nutritional media under completely sterile conditions. This concept dates back to 1878 when German botanist6 Vochting said that from a small plant piece, a whole plant could be regenerated. Later, Haberlandt in 1902 postulated that the cultivation of artificial embryos is possible depending on the nutritional media.
Word-meanings : 1. destruction—तबाही; 2. tremendous—अत्यधिक; 3. calamities – विपदाएं; 4. adopts – अपनाता है; 5. sterile – कीटाणुओं से मुक्त; 6. botanist-वनस्पति-विज्ञानी; 7. postulated — प्रमाणित किया
1. Man’s dependence on plants for the……….
2. Causes of destruction
(a) man-made calamities
(b) natural calamities
3. Way to overcome the loss – tissue culture
(a) involves taking pieces of plant body and growing under sterile conditions
(b) suggested by German botanist Vochting (1878)
(c) Haberlandt (1902) postulated the cultivation.
The Functioning Of Newspapers
A newspaper is usually owned by one or by a group of proprietors. They provide the capital and usually decide the policy of the paper, though they do not normally take part in the day-to-day running of it. This is the responsibility of the editor, whose job is to make sure that the paper comes out every day and that it contains the information that readers expect to find in it. He has a large staff to help him do this, of course. The actual news comes from two main sources the paper’s own reporters, and the news agencies. Most papers subscribe to one or more agencies, i.e. they pay a certain sum of money each year and in return, they are allowed to make use of the news which the agency sends them every day. Naturally, they do not use all this news they select from it what they need.
Word-meanings : 1. proprietor – किसी व्यापारिक संस्थान का मलिक ; 2. provide – प्रदान करना; 3. capital – पंजी; 4. subscribe – ग्राहक बनना
1. Ownership of newspapers = one or a group of proprietors.
2. Day-to-day working – an editor helped by a large staff.
3. Collection of news –
- own reporters
- news agencies.
Gandhiji’s childhood was a solemn one and lacking strangely in the frivolities with which we surround our children today. Children of those days had a curiously grown-up status, maybe because of the early marriage to which they had to submit, but they soon learned to take up and acquaint themselves with responsibilities and Gandhiji was no exception’ to this. Though the youngest in the family, he acquired grown-up wisdom by consorting with his elders, particularly his. mother, imbibing her wisdom and sound common sense. From the earliest days, his love for truth at any cost dominated his mind and he was free from the tiring little lies that fill the life of any child.
Word-meanings :1. solemn – पवित्र; 2. frivolities – ओछी बातें; 3. acquaint – परि करवाना; 4. exception-अपवाद;
5. consorting – साथी बनना; 6.imbibing-धारण करना, सीखना।
(b) no frivolities
2. No different from the children of his age
(a) early marriage
(b) conscious of responsibilities
3. Gandhiji imbibed
(a) his mother’s wisdom
(b) love for truth.
Advantages Of Early Rising
Early rising leads to health and happiness. The man who rises late, can have little rest in the course of the day. Anyone who lies in bed late is compelled to work till a late hour in the evening. He has to go without the morning exercise which is so necessary for his health. In spite of all efforts, his work will not produce as good results as that of the early riser. The reason for this is that he cannot take advantage of the refreshing hours in the morning. Some people say that the quiet hour of midnight is the best time for working. Several great thinkers say that they can write best only when they burn the midnight oil. Yet it is true to say that few men have a clear brain at midnight when the body needs rest and sleep. Those who work at that time soon ruin their health. Bad health must, in the long run, have a bad effect on the quality of their work.
Word-meanings :1. efforts-प्रयत्न; 2. advantage-लाभ; 3. refreshing-ताज़गी प्रदान करने वाले; 4. ruin-नष्ट करना।
1. Advantages of early rising
2. Disadvantages of late rising
(i) work till late in the evening
(ü) go without morning exercise
(iii) work not done properly.
3. (i) Burning midnight oil bad for health.
(ii) Bad health, poor quality of our work.
Sportsmanship is a noble attitude of mind. It is a noble principle which great men observe and everyone should keep in mind. Sportsmanship does not mean art in games according to the set rules. Rather, it means observing all those rules in life which the players have been taught to observe while playing games. Games and sports are to mould the character of the players by the training they are given in the field. Sportsmanship implies fair dealing. In games if a player plays foul, the side to which he belongs is penalised Exactly in the same manner, in the bigger game of life, one must be fair in one’s dealings with others. Fairness, honesty, integrity, openness of heart and frankness are the qualities of a sportsman.
Word-meanings: 1. sportsmanship-खिलाडीपन; 2. observe – पालन करना; 3. to mould – ढालना ; 4. implies-का अर्थ है; 5. fair dealing-न्याय-संगत व्यवहार; 6. play foul-नियम विरुद्ध खेलना ; 7. penalise – दण्डित करना; 8. integrity-ईमानदारी; 9. frankness-निष्कपट ढंग।
(a) noble attitude of mind
(b) moulds character
(c) implies fair dealing
Qualities of sportsman :
(d) openness of heart