PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Food Security in India Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
To make available food at affordable prices to the poorer section, government has started __________ system.
Answer:
Public Distribution

Question 2.
A big famine occurred in 1943 in __________ State of India.
Answer:
West Bengal

Question 3.
The malnutrition prevails more among __________ and __________
Answer:
Women, Children

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 4.
__________ card is issued to the very poor people.
Answer:
Rations

Question 5.
__________ is the price announed by the government for agricultural products.
Answer:
Minimum Support Price.

II. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which card is issued to the people living below poverty line?
(a) Antyodoya Card
(b) BPL Card
(c) APL Card
(d) CPL Card.
Answer:
(b) BPL Card.

Question 2.
__________ is an indicator of food security.
(a) Milk
(b) Water
(c) Hunger
(d) Air.
Answer:
(c) Hunger.

Question 3.
What is the price announced by the government for agricultural products known as?
(a) Minimum Support Price
(b) Issue Price
(c) Minimum Price
(d) Fair Price.
Answer:
(a) Minimum Support Price

Question 4.
Besides Bengal Famine in which other state did famine occur?
(a) Karnataka
(b) Punjab
(c) Odisha
(d) Madhya Pradesh.
Answer:
(c) Odisha.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 5.
Which Cooperative provides milk and milk products in Gujarat?
(a) Amul
(b) Verka
(c) Mother Dairy
(d) Sudha.
Answer:
(a) Amul.

III. True/False :

Question 1.
Availability of food means there is no food production within the country.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Hunger is an indicator of food security.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Ration shops are also known as Fair Price shops.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 4.
Milk fed, Punjab is India’s largest marketing cooperative.
Answer:
False.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions :

Question 1.
What do you mean by food security?
Answer:
Food security means that food is available to every individual. All people should have access to basic food and they can afford to buy the food.

Question 2.
Explain the need for food security.
Answer:
The need for food security is due to continuous and rapid growth in population.

Question 3.
What do you mean by Famine?
Answer:
Famine means extreme scarcity of food.

Question 4.
Give two examples of epidemics.
Answer:

  1. Smallpox epidemic in India in 1974.
  2. Plague in India in 1994.

Question 5.
In which year Famine of Bengal occurred?
Answer:
In 1948.

Question 6.
How many people were killed during the Famine of Bengal?
Answer:
The famine killed thirty lakh people in the Famine of Bengal.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 7.
Who were the main sufferers during famine?
Answer:
Women and children were the main sufferers during famine.

Question 8.
Who gave the term ‘entitlement’?
Answer:
Dr. Amartya Sen.

Question 9.
Who are food insecure people?
Answer:
Landless people, traditional artisians, petty self-employed workers.

Question 10.
Name the states where food insecure people exist in large number.
Answer:
Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh etc.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by Green Revolution?
Answer:
The green revolution refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Buffer stock?
Answer:
Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains procured by the government through FCI. It is created in order to distribute foodgrains, in deficit areas and among weaker sections of society at an affordable price. In other words, a buffer stock is a system that buys and stores stocks at times of good harvests to prevent prices falling below a target range and release stocks during bad harvests .to prevent prices rising above a target range.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 3.
What do you mean by Public Distribution System?
Answer:
Public distribution system means the regulated and controlled distribution of essential goods among people. Under this system, essential consumer goods are provided to people at fair prices through government agencies. PDS ensures supply of essential commodities through a network of fair price shops. At present, there are about 4.50 lakh fair price shops in India, out of which about 3.60 lakh shops are operating in rural areas and 0.90 lakh shops are operating in urban areas.

Question 4.
What is Minimum Support Price?
Answer:
Minimum support price is the price at which government purchases crops from the farmers and not at the market price. The MSP helps to support the farmers and thus ensures that they produce the required foodgrains in the country.

Question 5.
What do you mean by seasonal hunger and chronic hunger?
Answer:
Seasonal hunger is related to cycles of food production. This happens in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities and in urban areas because of the casual labourers, who get less work during rainy season. On the other hand chronic hunger is a consequence of having persistently inadequate diet in terms of quantity and quality. Poor people suffer from chronic hunger because of very low income, and in turn, inability to buy food even for survival.

Question 6.
Why buffer stock is created by the government?
Answer:
Buffer stocks are created by the government to distribute foodgrains in the deficit areas and among the poorer sections of society at a price lower than the market price. This also helps in solving the problem of shortage of food during bad harvest season or during period of calamity.

Question 7.
What do you mean by Issue price?
Answer:
The price at which the procured and buffer stock foodgrains are sold through the PDS is called as issue price. The issue price is higher than MSP but lower than the market price of the grains.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 8.
Explain the role of cooperatives in providing food.
Answer:
The cooperative societies set up shops to sell low priced goods to poor people. Mother Dairy is providing milk and vegetables to the consumers at controlled rate while Amul is another cooperative in milk and milk products. Academy of Development Science has facilitated a network of NGOs for setting up grains banks in different regions.

VI. Intext Questions and Answers

Question 1.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India 1
What do you observe in picture?
Bengal Famine
Answer:
People are poor, unhealthy, and undernourished, without shelter and facing natural calamities like drought and famine.

Question 2.
Can you say that the family shown in the picture is a poor family? If yes then why?
Answer:
Yes, the family shown in the picture is a poor family because they have nothing to eat. They are facing acute hunger and ill health.

Question 3.
Discuss with your teacher about the source of livelihood of the people.
Answer:
In this situation only some government help or outside help can provide relief to these people for the livelihood.

Question 4.
What type of help can be given to victims of calamity at relief camps?
Answer:
Victims of calamity at relief camps can be given food, water, clothes, medicines and shelter first of all. After that rehabilitation programmes can be started.

Question 5.
Graph Production of foodgrains in India (Million Ton)
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India 2
Source: Economic Survey 2011-12, 2013-14 and Agriculture Estimates, a look 2004.

Study the graph and answer the following questions :

In which year did India achieve the target of producing nearly 200 million tonnes of foodgrains?
Answer:
In the year 2000-01, India achieved the target of producing nearly 200 million tonnes of foodgrains.

Question 6.
In which year did India have the highest production of foodgrains?
Answer:
India had the highest production of foodgrains in the year 2016-17.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 3.
Has the production of foodgrains continuously increased during 2000-01 to 2016-17?
Answer:
No, the production of foodgrains has not continuously increased during 2000-01 to 2016-17.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Food Security in India Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Which is the dimension of food security?
(a) Accessibility
(b) Availability
(c) Affordability
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 2.
Who are prone to food insecurity?
(a) SCs
(b) ST
(c) OBCs
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 3.
When was RPDS launched?
(a) 1991
(b) 1992
(c) 1994
(d) 1999.
Answer:
(b) 1992.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 4.
When was a famine of Bengal occur?
(a) 1948
(b) 1947
(c) 1951
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) 1948.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
__________ means accessibility, availability and affordability of food to all people at all times.
Answer:
Food Security

Question 2.
__________ has made India self-sufficient in wheat and rice.
Answer:
Green Revolution

Question 3.
__________ is the price announced by the government before the sowing season.
Answer:
MSP

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 4.
__________ hunger is related to cycles of food production.
Answer:
Seasonal

Question 5.
__________ emphasised the term ‘Entitlement’.
Answer:
Dr. Amartya Sen.

True/False:

Question 1.
Accessibility means food within the reach of every person.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Right to Food Act, 2013 provides food security.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
National food for work programme was started in 2009.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 4.
MSP is the price announced by the government.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is hunger?
Answer:
Hunger is another aspect of food insecurity. It is not just an expression of poverty. It brings about poverty.

Question 2.
On what factors does food security depend?
Answer:
Food security depends on the PDS.

Question 3.
When was Rationing System introduced in India?
Answer:
The rationing system was introduced in India in 1940s, after the disastrous Bengal famine occurred.

Question 4.
What is ‘Entitlement’?
Answer:
Entitlement would give a certain right to the citizens and place the state under obligation to meet the food needs of the hungry masses.

Question 5.
What is ADS?
Answer:
ADS means Academy of Development Science.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 6.
What are the dimensions of ‘food security’?
Answer:

  1. Availability of food,
  2. Accessibility of food,
  3. Affordability of food.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a short note on :
(i) Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS).
Answer:
Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS). It was launched in 1992 in 1700 blocks in the country to provide the benefits of PDS to remote and backward areas.

(ii) Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS).
Answer:
Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS). It was launched in June, 1997 to adopt the principle of targeting the poor in all areas. It was for the first time that a differential price policy was adopted for poor and non-poor.

Question 2.
Explain, what do you mean by :
(i) A Famine
Answer:
A Famine. A Famine is characterised by widespread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation.

(ii) Buffer Stock?
Answer:
Stock. Buffer Stock is the stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation of India. The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. The minimum support price is declared by the government every year before the sowing season to provide incentives, to the farmers for raising the production of their crops.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 3.
How is food security affected during a natural calamity?
Answer:
Due to a natural calamity, total production of foodgrains decreases. It creates a shortage of food in the affected areas. As a result, the prices go up and some people cannot afford to buy food. If such calamity happens in a very widespread area or is stretched over a longer time period, it may cause a situation of starvation. A massive starvation might make a turn of famine.

Question 4.
Who are food-insecure?
Answer:
A large section of people suffer from food and nutrition insecurity in India. The worst affected groups are landless people with little or no land to depend upon, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services, petty self-employed workers and destitutes including beggars. In the urban areas, the food insecure families are those whose working members are generally employed in ill paid occupations and casual labour market.

Question 5.
What is minimum support price? What is the impact of procurement of food at enhanced minimum support price?
Answer:
The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre announced price for their crops. This price is called minimum support price.

The increased foodgrains procurement at enhanced minimum support price is the result of the pressure exerted by leading foodgrain “producing states. Increase in MSP has induced farmers, particularly in surplus states to divert land from production of coarse grains, which is the staple food of the poor.

Question 6.
In which ways is ‘buffer stock’ used to ensure food security?
Answer:
Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation of India. It ensures food security by following ways :

  1. It distributes foodgrains in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price.
  2. It also helps resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during periods of calamity.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 7.
Explain the different categories of people in India who suffer from food and nutrition insecurity.
Answer:
A large section of people suffer from food and nutrition insecurity in India. The worst affected categories of the people include landless people with little or no land to depend upon, traditional artisans, petty self-employed workers and destitutes including beggars. In the urban areas, the food insecure families are those whose working members are generally employed in ill paid occupations and casual labour market.

Question 8.
What is the function of Co-operative Society? Give example of two Co-operative Societies and their contribution in ensuring food security.
Answer:
The Co-operative Societies set up shops to sell low priced goods to poor people. Mother Dairy and Amul Milk Products are examples of Co-operative societies. In Delhi, Mother Dairy is making strides in provision of milk and vegetables to the consumers at controlled rate decided by Government of Delhi. In Gujarat, Amul Milk Products has brought about the white revolution in the country.

Question 9.
What is Buffer Stock? Why is the buffer stock created by the government?
Answer:
Buffer Stock is the stock of foodgrains and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation of India (FCI).

  • To distribute foodgrains in the deficit areas.
  • To sell among the poorer strata of society at a lower price.
  • To resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during the periods of calamity.
  • To maintain food security.

Question 10.
Why was the rationing system revived?
Answer:
The introduction of rationing in India dates back to the 1940s against the backdrop of the Bengal famine. The rationing system was revived in the wake of an acute food shortage during 1960’s prior to the Green Revolution. In the wake of the high incidence of poverty levels, as reported by the NSSO in the Mid-1970’s, three food intervention programmes were introduced :

  1. PDS (Public Distribution System)
  2. ICDS (Integrated Child Development Services)
  3. FFW (Food-for-Work).

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 11.
Describe how the Public Distribution System in India has become more targeted over the years?
Answer:
The Public Distribution System in India has become more targeted over the years because it has failed to achieve its goals. Instances of hunger are prevalent despite overflowing granaries. FCI godons are overflowing with grains, with some rotting away and some being eaten by rats. PDS dealers are sometimes found resorting to malpractices like diverting the grains to open market to get better margin, selling poor quality grains at ration shops, etc.

Question 12.
Why self-sufficiency in foodgrains is necessary for every country?
Answer:
Self-sufficiency in foodgrains is necessary for every country due to the following reasons :

  1. In self-sufficient country, food security is not affected even during natural calamities.
  2. It will reduce the depending on foreign countries for the imports of food- grains.
  3. It will maintain price stability in the country and control black marketing.

Question 13.
What is subsidy? Should subsidies be continued in the country?
Answer:
Subsidy is an economic advantage to the people. Under subsidy, government provide goods and services below the market price. For the development of the country these subsidies must be curtailed as these are imposing very heavy burden on the government exchequer. These subsidies are misused in the country and deserving people are not getting it. Basically they are making great hindrances in the path of development So they must be stopped as soon as possible in the country.

Question 14.
State the role of cooperatives in food security.
Answer:
The cooperatives are playing an important role in food security in India especially in the southern and western parts of the country. The cooperative societies set up shops to sell low-priced goods to poor people. For example, out of all fair price shops running in Tamil Nadu, around 94% are being run by cooperatives. In Delhi, Mother Dairy is making strides in provision of milk and vegetables to the consumers at affordable rate decided by the Government of Delhi. These are a few examples of many more cooperatives running in different parts of the country ensuring food security to different sections of the society.

Question 15.
What is meant by the ‘National Food-for-Work’ programme?
Answer:
Food-for-Work was launched on 14 Nov. 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country with the objective of providing guaranteed wage employment to every household whose adult volunteers do unskilled manual work for minimum 100 days in a year. It is implemented as a 100 percent centrally sponsored scheme and the foodgrains are provided to the states free of cost. For the implementation of this program, the Parliament has passed a new bill known as ‘National Rural Employment Guarantee Bill 2005’ in August 2005.

The collector is the nodal officer at the district level and has the overall responsibility of planning. For 2004-05,₹ 2,020 crore had been allocated for the programme in addition to 20 lakh tonnes of foodgrains.

Question 16.
Differentiate between the two dimensions of hunger. Where is each type of hunger more prevalent?
Answer:
The two main dimensions of hunger are chronic and seasonal dimensions. Chronic hunger is a consequence of diets persistently inadequate in terms of quantity and quality. Poor people suffer from chronic hunger because of their very low income and in turn inability to buy food even for survival.

Seasonal hunger is related to cycles of food growing and harvesting. This is prevalent in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities and in urban areas because of the casual labour. Each type of hunger is prevalent in rural areas.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 17.
Explain briefly the measures adopted by India after Independence to achieve self-sufficiency in food grains.
Answer:
After independence, Indian policymakers adopted all measures to achieve self-sufficiency in food grains. India adopted a new strategy in agriculture, which resulted in the ‘Green Revolution’ especially in the production of wheat and rice. The increase in foodgrains was, however, disproportionate. The highest rate of growth was achieved in Punjab and Haryana, where foodgrain production jumped from 7.23 million tonnes in 1964-65 to reach an all time high of 30.33 million tonnes in 1995-96. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, on the other hand, recorded significant increases in rice yield.

Question 18.
How has the Public Distribution System (PDS) proved to be most effective in furthering food security in India?
Answer:
Public Distribution System is the most important step taken by the Government of India towards ensuring food security. In the beginning the coverage of PDS was universal with no discrimination between the poor and non-poor. Over the years, the policy related to PDS has been revised to make it more efficient and targeted. In 1992, Revamped Public Distribution System was introduced in 1,700 blocks in the country. The target was to provide the benefits of PDS to remote and backward areas.

Question 19.
Explain the dimensions of food security.
Or
Describe the dimension of food security.
Answer:
Food security, has the following dimensions :

  1. Availability of Food,
  2. Accessibility of Food
  3. Affordability of Food.

1. Availability of Food. It means food production within the country, food imports and the previous years’ stock stored in government granaries.

2. Accessibility of Food. It means food is within reach of every person.

3. Affordability of Food. It implies that an individual has enough money to buy sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet one’s dietary needs.

Question 20.
What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or a calamity?
Answer:

  • During the disaster or calamity food supply is adversely affected.
  • During disaster or natural calamity like earthquake, drought, flood, etc., there is widespread failure of crops.
  • During calamity/disaster the price goes up.
  • Black-marketing and hoarding is also one of major factors responsible for high price rise during calamity.
  • During calamity or disaster situation of starvation may appear.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 21.
What will happen if there is no food security?
Answer:
If there is absence of food security, following problems will arise :

  • Due to natural calamity there will be shortage of food and prices go up. At high prices, some people cannot afford to buy food. It may cause a situation of starvation.
  • It will increase black marketing and people will be exploited to a large extent.
  • The poorest section of the society might be food insecure most of times,
  • A massive starvation might take a turn of famine.

Question 22.
Why is food security essential? How is food security affected during disaster?
Answer:
The poorest section of the society might be food insecure most of the times while persons above the poverty line might also be food insecure when country faces a disaster like earthquake, drought, flood, tsunami, etc.

During the time of natural calamity, total production of foodgrains decreases, which creates shortage of food in the affected areas. Due to shortage of food, the prices go up. At a high price, some people cannot afford to buy food. If such disaster happens in a very wide area or is stretched over a longer time period, it may cause a situation of starvation.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the issue of Food Security in India.
Answer:
“Food security implies access by all people at all times to sufficient quantities of food to lead an active and healthy life.”
“Hunger is intolerable in the modern world in a way could have been in the past, because it is so unnecessary and unwanted.”-Amartya Sen and John Dreaze.

Good security is basically understood in terms of food availability, stability and accessibility. Ensuring availability of food implies efficient domestic production and internal trade to make enough food available for the entire population. It calls for taking appropriate preemptive measures to ensure stability during harmful seasonal and inter-annual instability of food supplies. However, despite food being abundantly available, it may not be within easy access to certain sections of society.

Hence enhacing people’s purchasing power to buy food where it is not produced or’making it available at subsidised rate through the public distribution system and employment programs provides a safety net and ensures accessibility to adequate and safe food given the critical situation in India, food security needs to be understood also in terms of vulnerability of certain sections of the society who are physically and mentally pre-occupied with getting the next meal. It entails intervening sensitivity to make opportunities available to such section so that they can overcome exploration, injustice and discrimination.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Question 2.
Explain Public Distribution System.
Answer:
The network of Public Distribution System (PDS) was introduced to supply essential commodities at the subsidised price and it was considered as an essential element of Government’s safety net to the poor. After Bengal famine in 1943, the system of rationing for equitable distribution of foodgrain was introduced in India. After independence, the Government of India decided to extend the system was gradually designed to meet to basic food requirements of all consumers. In order to distribute essential food items fair price shops were opened in all states.

The Public Distribution System (PDS) evolved as a system of management of scarcity and food distribution of foodgrains at affordable Prices. Over the years, PDS has become an important part of Government’s policy for management of good economy in the country. PDS is supplemental in nature and is not intended to make available the entire requirement of any of the commodities distributed under it to a household or a section of the society.

PDS is operated under the joint responsibility of the Central and the State Governments. The central Government, through FCI, has assumed the responsibility for procurement, storage, transportation and bulk allocation of foodgrains to the State Governments. The operational responsibility including allocation within State, identification of families below the poverty fine, issue of Ration Cards and supervision of the functioning of FPS, rest with the State Governments. Under the PDS, presently the commodities namely wheat, rice, sugar and kerosene are being allocated to the States/UTs for distribution. Some State/UTs also distribute additional items of mass consumption through the PDS outlets such as pulses, edible oils, iodized salt, spices, etc.

Food Security in India PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Food security: It is as essential for living as air is for breathing. It mainly means something more than getting two square meals.
  • Dimensions of Food Security:
    (i) Availability of food
    (ii) Accessibility of food
    (iii) Affordability of food.
  • Availability: Availability of food means there should be food production within the country.
  • Accessibility: Accessibility of food means that a sufficient quantity of food should be within the reach of people.
  • Affordability of Food: It means that a person has enough money to buy sufficient .food.
  • Buffer Stock: It is the stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice, procured by the government through Food Corporation of India. (FCI)
  • Calamity: A greater misfortune or. disaster, as a flood or serious injury, grievous affliction, adversity, misery; the calamity of war.
  • Green Revolution: A large increase in crop production in developing countries achieved by the use of artificial fertilizers, pesticides and HYV.
  • Self Sufficiency: It is the state of not requiring any aid, support or interaction for survival, It is a type of personal or collective autonomy.
  • Fair Price Shops: Fair price stops are distribution channels of Govt, making available the essential commodities like rice, kerosene, wheat etc to common man at controlled prices.
  • Public Distribution System: It is a govt, sponsored chain of shops, entrusted with the work of distributing basic food and non-food commodities to the needy sections of the society at very cheap prices.
  • Natural Disasters: A natural event such as flood, earthquake or hurricane that causes great damage or loss of life.
  • Ration Card: An official document entitling the holder to a ration of food, clothes, or other goods.
  • Revamped Public Distribution System: It is govt, programme started in 1992.
  • Minimum Support Price: It is a form of market intervention by the Govt, to agricultural producers against any shortfall in farm prices.
  • Issue Price: The price at which the procured buffer stock foodgrains are sold through the PPs.
  • Chronic Hunger: It is a consequence of having persistently inadequate diet in terms of quantity and quality.
  • Seasonal Hunger: It is related to cycles of food production.
  • Need for Food Security: It is due to poverty and higher prices, qualitative factor and quantitative factor.
  • Cooperative: It is a form of business organisation in which members voluntarily form a society for producing, procuring and marketing goods and services at rib profit no loss basis to their members.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.