PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Agricultural Development in India Textbook Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
“Agriculture is the main source of employment in India.” Write a short note on it.
Answer:
A big part of our total labour force is engaged in agriculture. According to 2017-18, 46,2 percent of India’s working population is engaged in agriculture. In other countries like in England only 2% and in America only 2% of the working population is engaged in agriculture. It indicates their economic development.

Question 2.
What are the main lands reforms of India?
Answer:
Following are the main land reforms of India:

  • Abolition of zamindari system.
  • Acts have been passed to improve land tenure system.
  • Maximum ceiling on land holdings.
  • Consolidation of holdings.
  • Co-operative farming.
  • Bhoodhan Movement.

Question 3.
What do you mean by Green Revolution?
Answer:
The revolution that aims at raising the agricultural produce by adopting the latest and scientific methods of cultivation is called the green revolution. “Green Revolution refers to an extraordinary increase in agricultural production especially in wheat and rice which was made possible due to the adoption of new techniques of H.Y.V. seeds.”

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 4.
How has Green Revolution helped in solving the Indian food problem?
Answer:
After the year 1965-66, there has takeh place a tremendous rise in the production of foodgrains due to green revolution. In the year 1966-67, the year of green revolution, the production of foodgrains increased to 950 lakh tonnes. In 2017-18, the production of foodgrains was 2775 lakh tonnes. This resulted in increased per capita availability of food. It also helped in the reduction of imports of foodgrains. Thus green revolution helped a lot in solving the food problem in India.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the importance of agriculture in Indian economy.
Anwer:
1. Contribution to National Income. Agriculture gives an importänt contribution to national income. During 1950-51, 59% of the total domestic production was produced in agriculture. Agriculture has been the basis of Indian economy. At present agriculture contributes about 15.3% to the national income.

2. Source of Employment. A big part of our total labour power is engaged in agriculture. According to 1991 census, 65.5% of the total working population was engaged in agriculture. In 2017-18, 46.2% people are directly engaged in this sector. In other countries, only 3% in England, 4% in America and 20% people in Russia are engaged in agricultural works. It indicates towards their economic developitient.

3. Helpful for Industrial Development. Agricultural development contributes to industrial development too. Agriculture provides raw material to many other fields. Low agricultural products have adverse effect on industrial development. If the production of cotton, sugarcane, jute etc. is low, the industries depending on them will not work properly.

4. Helpful in Internal and External Trade. Agricultural goods are used in internal and external trade. Cotton, jute, tea, foodgrains, tobacco, jaggery are the major parts of internal trade. Agricultural goods are exported too. Tobacco, tea, coffee, dry fruit etc. are exported. Half of the total foreign currency comes by exporting agriculture goods.

5. Basis of Means of Transport. Means of transport help in carrying agricultural products from one market to another, from market to the consumers or to the industries. Manufactured industrial goods like chemical fertilizers, machine-tools etc. can be carried to the agricultural field with the help of means of transport. Means of transport carry foodgrains from one state to the other. So the development of means of transport depends on agricultural development.

6. Income to the Government. Govt, earns income from different types of taxes such as land revenue, irrigation tax, market fee etc. As the agricultural sector develops, it helps in increasing the govt, income.

7. Source of Food. Food is the basis of life. Most of the people in India are vegetarian because of influence of the religious views. So they get their food from agriculture.

8. Helpful in Capital Formation. The increase in agricultural income leads to an increase in saving and if further helps in capital formation and capital is a necessary condition for economic development.

Question 2.
Describe the main problems of Indian Agriculture.
Answer:
Indian agriculture is quite backward. It has so many problems. These problems can be divided into following three categories:

  1. Human Problems
  2. Institutional Problems
  3. Technical Problems.

1. Human Problems. Heavy pressure of population on agriculture is one of the major
causes of backwardness of Indian agriculture. This pressure has resulted in the problem of subdivision, fragmentation and disguised unemployment.

Social atmosphere has been a great obstacle in the development of agriculture. Indian farmers are illiterate, fatalist, superstitious and conservative. On account of ignorance and casteism, Indian farmers are used to fight on petty issues.

2. Institutional Problems. Small size of holidings, land tenure system are the main institutional problems. Most,of the farms are very small in India. The average size of farms is 2-3 hectares. In Punjab the average holding is of 3.77 hectares.

3. Technical Problems. Inadequate irrigation facilities, old agricultural implements, traditional technique of cultivation, lack of improved seeds, lack of manure, defective agricultural marketing system, diseases of crops and attacks of pests, lack of credit facilities and weak cattle are the main technical problems in the developmental path of Indian agriculture.

Question 3.
Explain the contribution of government in the development of Indian agriculture.
Answer:
The role of the govt, in agricultural development may be summarised as follows :

  1. Land Reforms. Land reforms play an important role in the development of agriculture. After the independence, the following land reforms have been implemented :
    (a) Abolition of Zamindari System
    (b) Tenancy reforms
    (c) Consolidation of land holdings.
    (d) Ceiling on land holdings.
    (e) Development of Co-operative farming.
  2. Increase in irrigation facilities.
  3. Improvements in the distribution system.
  4. Special emphasis has been laid on agricultural research and development.
  5. Improvement in agricultural marketing.
  6. Increase in credit facilities.
  7. Emphasis on mechanization of agriculture.
  8. Development of high-yielding varieties.
  9. New measures to conserve water and soil.

Moreover, special agricultural programmes are arranged over the radio and television for the benefit of the farmers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 4.
Write the main elements of success of the Green Revolution.
Answer:
There are various factors responsible for Green Revolution in India. The important among them are:
1. Wonder Seeds. Agricultural revolutipn is primarily due to the miracle of new wonder seeds which have raised agricultural yield per acre to incredible heights.

2. Chemical Fertilisers. The increasing use of chemical fertilizers has played a key role in the breakthrough. Fertilizer consumption increased from a mere 2.92 lakh tonnes in 1960-61 to 34.1 lakh tonnes in 2007-08 and more spectacularly to 255.76 lakh tonnes in 2017-18.

3. Multiple Cropping. Thanks to new seeds maturing early, it has become possible to obtain three and even four crops instead of two from the same plot in a year.

4. Modern Equipment and Machinery. Modern machinery and implements like tractors, harvesters, pumping sets, tube-wells, etc. are being increasingly used and are replacing the bullocks wherever possible.

5. Price Incentives. The Government has taken care to offer support prices to the
growers so that minimum reasonable returns for their labor and investment are assured to them. –

6. Extension of Irrigation. The irrigation system of the country is being speedily
extended to assure adequate water supply, especially in areas where new agricultural strategy is being applied. .

7. Processing, Storage and Marketing Facilities. These facilities are being improved and extended so that the increased agricultural production is put to profitable use.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Agricultural Development in India Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one word or one line :

Question 1.
What is Agriculture?
Answer:
It is the art and science of production of crops.

Question 2.
State any one land reform of India.
Answer:
Tenancy reforms.

Question 3.
State the full form of HYV.
Answer:
High Yeilding Variety.

Question 4.
Which country is the largest producer of pulses?
Answer:
India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 5.
Name the input which is used in commercial farming.
Answer:
Modern technology.

Question 6.
Suggest one measure to develop Indian Agriculture.
Answer:
Increase in irrigation facilities.

Question 7.
Name any one .cause responsible for backwardness of Indian Agriculture.
Answer:
Small size of land holding.

Question 8.
Name the persons responsible for bringing green revolution in India.
Answer:
Dr. Norman Verlog and Dr. M.N. Swaminathgh.

Question 9.
Name any one factor responsible for green revolution in India.
Answer:
Use of modern agricultural tools.

Question 10.
Name any one advantage of green revolution.
Answer:
Increase in the production of foodgrains.

Question 11.
Name any one defect of green revolution.
Answer:
Limited to a few crops only.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 12.
When was green revolution started?
Answer:
1966-67.

Question 13.
Write down the main source of irrigation in India.
Answer:
Underground water.

Question 14.
What is the present share of agriculture in national income of India?
Answer:
24 %.

Question 15.
How much share of agriculture was in GDP in 2014-15?
Answer:
17.4%.

Question 16.
What is Green revolution?
Answer:
It is an agricultural strategy used to increase the yield of crops.

Question 17.
How much percentage of population of India depends upon agriculture for livelihood?
Answer:
About 46.2 percent.

Question 18.
What is the place of agriculture in the national economy?
Answer:
Agriculture forms the backbone of the Indian economy.

Question 19.
Highlight the contribution of agriculture in the industrial development.
Answer:
Indian agriculture has been the source of supply of raw materials to our leading industries.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 20.
What is meant by excessive pressure of population On land?
Answer:
By excessive pressure of population on land we mean that each year the new labour force unable to get employment elsewhere becomes dependent on agriculture.

Question 21.
Name any two causes responsible for the backwardness of Indian agriculture.
Answer:

  1. Shortage of irrigation facilities.
  2. Shortage of good seeds and chemical fertilizers.

Question 22.
Suggest two measures to develop Indian agriculture.
Answer:

  1. Emphasis on scientific farming.
  2. Land reforms.

Question 23.
Name any two land reforms in India.
Answer:

  1. Abolition of intermediaries.
  2. Consolidation of landholdings.

Question 24.
Name any two factors responsible for green revolution in India.
Answer:

  1. Use of high-yielding variety of seeds.
  2. Use of chemical fertilizers.

Question 25.
Name any two advantages of green revolution.
Answer:

  1. Increase in the production of foodgrains.
  2. Improvement in the living standards of farmers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 26.
Name any two defects of green revolution.
Answer:

  1. Increase in regional imbalances.
  2. Benefits to big farmers only.

Question 27.
What is meant by land reforms?
Answer:
Land reforms means deliberate change introduced into system of land and the farming structure.

Question 28.
What is meant by agriculture?
Answer:
Agriculture is the art of production of crops and livestock on a farm.

Question 29.
What is green revolution?
Answer:
Green revolution is an agricultural strategy used to increase the yield of crops,

Question 30.
Expand HYV seeds.
Answer:
High yielding variety seeds.

Question 31.
Which country is the largest producer of pulses?
Answer:
India.

Question 32.
Name the inputs in commercial farming.
Answer:
Modem technology, HYV seeds, etc.

Question 33.
Why is the land productivity low in shifting agriculture?
Answer:
Because the manure and fertilizers are not used.

Question 34.
On which two factors, primitive agriculture depends?
Answer:
Monsoon and natural fertility of soil.

Question 35.
How much percentage of population of India depends upon agriculture for livelihood?
Answer:
About 48.9 percent.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 36.
Name three activities which besides cultivation are included in agriculture.
Answer:

  1. Animal husbandry
  2. Forestry
  3. Pisciculture.

Question 37.
How many shares of agriculture was in GDP in 2011-2012?
Answer:
13.9 percent.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
_________ is the art and science of production of crops. (Agriculture / Mining)
Answer:
Agriculture

Question 2.
Green Revolution was started in India in _________ year . (1948-49/ 1966-67)
Answer:
1966-67

Question 3.
Agriculture contributed _________ percent of the national income in 1950-51. (48/59)
Answer:
59

Question 4.
___________ is the largest producer of pulses. (Pakistan / India)
Answer:
India

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 5.
_________ is the main source of irrigation in India. (Underground water/Tubewell)
Answer:
Underground water

Question 6.
_________ is responsible for green revolution in India. (J.L. Nehru/Dr. Norman Verlog)
Answer:
Dr. Norman Verlog

Question 7.
At present agriculture contributes about _________% to the national income. (14.6 / 15.3)
Answer:
15.3.

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
State any one land reform of India.
(a) Tenancy reforms
(b) Abolition of zamindari system
(c) Ceiling of landholding
(d) All of the above.
Answer:
(d) All of the above.

Question 2.
How much share of agriculture Was in GPD in 2067-08?
(a) 14.6%
(b) 15.9%
(c) 17,1%
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) 14.6%

Question 3.
Which country is the largest producer of pulses?
(a) India
(b) Pakistan
(c) Sri Lanka
(d) Nepal.
Answer:
(a) India

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 4.
When was green revolution started?
(a) 1966-67
(b) 1969-70
(c) 1985-86
(d) 1999-2000.
Answer:
(a) 1966-67

Question 5.
What is the present share of agriculture in National Income of India?
(a) 12.6%
(b) 14.8%
(c) 14.2%
(d) 15.3%.
Answer:
(d) 15.3%.

Question 6.
HYV stands for :
(a) Haryana Youth Variety
(b) Huge Yield Variety
(c) High Yielding Variety
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) High Yielding Variety

True / False:

Question 1.
Green revolution in India came into existence in 1947.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Indian economy is agricultural economy.
Answer:
True.

Question 3.
The father of Green Revolution in India is Dr. Norman Berlog.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 4.
Consolidation of holdings is a type of land reform.
Answer:
True.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
“Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy.” Discuss.
Answer:
Agriculture forms the backbone of the Indian economy and despite concerted industrialisation in the last four decades, agriculture occupies a place of pride. Being the largest industry in the country, agriculture is the source of livelihood for over 46.2 per cent of population in the country. About 15.3 per cent of national income of the country is contributed by agriculture. In 2017-18, 46.2 per cent of India’s working population was engaged in agriculture. Moreover, Indian agriculture has been the source of supply of raw materials to our leading industries. It is blear, therefore, that agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy and prosperity of agriculture can also largely stand for the prosperity of the Indian economy.

Question 2.
Name the different factors responsible for low agricultural productivity in India.
Answer:
The different factors responsible for low agricultural productivity in India are :

  • Heavy dependence on rainfall.
  • Excessive pressure of population on land.
  • Lack of improved seeds.
  • Lack of manures and plant protection.
  • Out-of-date implements.
  • Lack of irrigation facilities.
  • Lack of adequate finance.
  • Lack of marketing facilities and price incentives.
  • Poor implementation of land reforms.
  • Neglect of agricultural research.
  • Ignorance and illiteracy of farmers etc.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 3.
Write a short note on green revolution.
Answer:
Agricultural production during five-year plans has increased tremendously. There are many causes for this rapid increase. India had experienced this increase in production in 1966-67. It is known as green revolution.

Factors responsible for Green Revolution. The different factors responsible for green revolution in India are :

  • High yielding varieties of seeds.
  • Chemical fertilizers.
  • Irrigation.
  • Multiple cropping.
  • Agricultural machinery.
  • Credit facilities.
  • New techniques.
  • Research.
  • Plant protection.
  • Marketing facilities.
  • Institutional reforms.
  • Price-incentives etc.

All these factors contributed in bringing green revolution in India.

Question 4.
Give suggestions to make green revolution successful.
Answer:
Following suggestions can be offered to render Green Revolution successful:
1. Expansion of Green Revolution. Green Revolution should be expanded by bringing under its purview new crops like sugarcane, pulses, oilseeds etc.

2. Development of Means of Irrigation. Means of irrigation should be further developed in Punjab. Thein Dam Project and Ravi-Beas Project should be further expanded. Poor farmers should be given subsidies for installing pumping-sets or tubewells.

3. Help to small farmers. Small and marginal farmers should be brought within the scope of Green Revolution. They should be provided with cheap facilities to enable them to buy HYV seeds, fertilizers, machines etc. They should be enrolled in Cooperative Farming Societies.

4. Growth of Commercial Crops. Green Revolution should include in its ambit such commercial crops as oilseeds, sugarcane, cotton, pulses, potatoes etc. Special efforts should be made in this respect.

5. Integrated farm policy. To make green revolution a success integrated farm policy should be adopted. Farmers should get fertilizers, seeds, pesticides and machines at reasonable price and in reasonable quantity.

Question 5.
What is meant by irrigation? Why is it necessary?
Answer:
Providing water to land by human made resources is called irrigation. Irrigation is necessary in order to increase the productivity of agriculture. Irrigational facilities have been extended. Several major and minor irrigation projects were launched in the country. In 1951 hardly 17% of total land was covered by irrigational facilities which has now extended up to 34% of land. Multiple crop system will be possible only through irrigational facilities.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 6.
Write down the main sources of irrigation in India.
Answer:
The main sources of irrigation in India are :
1. Water above the land. It includes rain water, rivers, canals, ponds, lakes etc.

2. Underground water. This water is obtained by digging wells and tubewells. These sources of irrigation in India are divided in the following categories :

  • Big Irrigation Projects. More than 10 thousand hectares of land is irrigated under these projects.
  • Medium Irrigation Projects. These projects irrigate 2 thousand to 10 thousand hectares of land.
  • Small Irrigation Projects. These projects irrigate less than 2 thousand hectares of land.

Question 7.
How has green revolution helped in solving the Indian food problem?
Answer:
Following are the main reasons:

  1. Increase in production. As a result of green revolution production of many crops has increased rapidly from 1966-67 onwards.
  2. Reduction in imports of foodgrain. As a result of green revolution, imports of foodgrains have considerably fallen down in India.
  3. Increase in Trade. Because of green revolution, agriculture production has increased. It has increased the market surplus of agro products, which in turn has expanded domestic and foreign trade. Now surplus agriculture products are even exported.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the problems of agriculture in India?
Answer:
Even after seven decades of Independence, the agricultural sector is not completely developed. There are so many problems which are responsible for its backwardness. The problems are as follows:
1. Problem of Marketing. The marketing system of agricultural products is quite poor in India. As a result, farmers are unable to get fair prices of their crops. They sell their products in villages at lower prices and therefore, they remain poor. Urban markets are far away from the villages and transportation facilities are not developed there.

2. Problem of Credit Facilities. Credit is one of the main problems of Indian farmers. Farmers are unable to get easy loans from banks and co-operative societies. This forces them to get loans from local moneylenders at exorbitant rate of interest. Thus they are caught in debt trap.

3. Problem of Rural Indebtedness. Indebtedness is also the main problem of Indian agriculture. Indian farmers always remain in debt. They take loans for cultivation and even for the sale of their produce.
In the words of M.L. Darling, “Indian peasant is born in debt, lives in debt and dies in debt.”

4. Problem of Weak Cattle. Due to the lack of modernisation in the agricultural sector, the problem of weak cattle is responsible for the low productivity. Cattle used in Indian agriculture are not given required fodder and their death rates are also high due to overwork. As a result, farmers have to buy more cattle, which increases their expenditure along with the cost of production.

5. Problem of Illiteracy. Indian famers suffer from illiteracy on a large-scale. They have no knowledge to increase production and yield.

6. Problem of Disguised Unemployment. A larger number of Indian population is engaged in agriculture because the industrial and service sectors do not absorb them. The productivity of disguised unemployed remains low. Farmers are unable to gain surplus yield from their fields due to disguised unemployment.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India

Question 2.
Explain the need and type of land reforms implemented in the agriculture sector.
Answer:
Land Reforms. Equity in agriculture is called land reforms. Land reforms refer to the change in the ownership of land holdings.
There were three types of land tenure systems prevailing in the country at the time of Independence:

  1. Zamindari System
  2. Mahalwari System
  3. Ryotwari System.

The basic difference between these three was regarding the mode of payment of land revenue. The land revenue was collected from the farmers by the zamindars in Zamindari System. In the Mahalwari System, the land revenue was collected by the village head on behalf of the whole village. While in Ryotwari System, the land revenue was directly paid to the State or Government by the farmers. In all these systems, the land was cultivated by tenants. The Zamindars and Jagirdars thus collected rent from the actual tillers of the soil without contributing to making improvements on the farm. As a result of it, the productivity of Indian agriculture was low which forced India to import food from the United States.

In 1948, a year after Independence, steps were taken to abolish Zamindari (Jagirdari), Mahalwari and Ryotwari System and to make the tenants or tillers the owners of land.

Agricultural Development in India PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Agriculture. It is the art or science of production of crops and livestock on a farm.
  • Importance of Agriculture in India. Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. It contributes much in national income, it is the Source of food supply to the masses. Its importance is also in employment, industry, source of livelihood, foreign trade, transport, government income and in capital formation.
  • Main problems of Indian Agriculture. The main problems of Indian agriculture are :
    (i) Human problems which constitute pressure of population on land and social atmosphere.
    (ii) Institutional problems, such as small size of holdings, land tenure system.
    (iii) Technical problems such as inadequate irrigation facilities, old agricultural implements, traditional techniques of production, lack of improved seeds, lack of manure, defective agriculture marketing system, diseases of crops and attacks of pests, lack of credit facilities and weak cattle

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Agricultural Development in India Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.