Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Matter in Our Surroundings Important Questions and Answers.
PSEB 9th Class Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Matter in Our Surroundings
Long Answer Type Questions:
Give important characteristics of solid state.
Characteristics of solid state:
- The solids have definite mass, volume and shape.
- The particles in a solid state are closely packed and the empty spaces in them are negligible.
- The solids are rigid.
- A solid does not undergo a change in shape easily.
- The solids can have any number of free surfaces.
- There are large attractive forces between the molecules in a solid.
- Solids have high densities.
- A solid always tends to resist any change in its structure.
- The solids don’t show the property of diffusion.
Give important characteristics of the liquid state.
Characteristics of the liquid state:
- A liquid has a definite mass and volume but no definite shape.
- A liquid can take the shape of a container.
- Liquids have only one free surface.
- The vacant spaces between the molecules of liquid are more as compared to solids.
- The attractive forces between the molecules in a liquid state are lesser than in the solids.
- The liquids have lower densities as compared to solids.
- The liquids show the property of diffusion.
- On heating a liquid, the molecules of it move apart, hence the liquids can expand on heating.
Give important characteristics of gas.
Characteristics of a gas:
- A gas has definite mass but it has neither definite shape nor definite volume.
- The gases can occupy the whole space available to them.
- There are negligible attractive forces between the molecules of a gas.
- The gases have no free surface.
- There are large vacant spaces between the molecules of a gas.
- The gases show the property of diffusion.
- Gases have very low densities as compared to the solids and liquids.
- The molecules in a gas have high kinetic energies.
- There is no effect of gravity on the motion of the molecules of a gas.
- The gases exert equal pressure in all the directions on the walls of the container.
- The gases are highly compressible.
Give the main postulates of kinetic theory of matter.
The main postulates of kinetic theory of matter are:
- All matter is made up of a large number of extremely small particles called molecules (sometimes atoms or ions).
- The molecules are always in a state of rapid random motion.
- The molecules possess kinetic energy.
- There are attractive forces between the molecules.
- The attractive forces between the molecules of same kind are called cohesive forces and the attractive forces between the molecules of different kinds are called adhesive forces.
- The kinetic energy of the molecules increases with the increase in temperature.
- As the distance between the molecules increases, the magnitude of attractive forces between the molecules decreases.
Distinguish between solids, liquids and gases.
The main points of differences are:
|1. Packing of Particles||Most closely packed||Loosely packed||Large vacant spaces between the particles|
|2. Energy||Particles have least energy||Particles have higher energies than in solids||Particles have high energies|
|3. Shape||Definite||Take the shape of the container||Take the shape of container|
|4. Volume||Definite||Definite||No definite volume|
|5. Density||High||Low||Very low|
|6. Compressibility||Not possible easily||More than in solids||High|
|7. Number of free surfaces||Any number||One||No|
|8. Rigidity||High||Low||Not rigid|
|9. Fluidity||Don’t show||Show||Maximum fluidity|
|10. Intermolecular spaces||Very small||Small||Large|
|11. Thermal expansion||Very low||More than solids||Very large|
|12. Interparticle attractive forces||Very large||More than in gases||Negligible|
How will you explain the three states of matter on the basis of Kinetic Model?
Solid: In solids the constituent particles are closely packed and there are large attractive forces between them. Therefore, the particles have low kinetic energies and can’t move from one position to another but they have only vibratory motion. Hence solids have definite shapes and definite volumes.
Examples: Wood, rock, copper, iron, cement, stone etc.
Liquid: In liquids the molecules have higher kinetic energies, distances between the molecules are more and attractive forces between the molecules are small. Therefore, the molecules of a liquid can move from one position to another within the liquid. Hence the liquid can take the shape of the container. But the volume of the liquid remains fixed because the molecules can’t leave the liquid.
Examples: Alcohol, milk, benzene, kerosene oil, petrol etc.
Gas: In gases, the molecules have high kinetic energies, there are large vacant spaces between the molecules and there are negligible attractive forces between the molecules. Therefore, in gases, molecules can move randomly and occupy the whole space available to them. Hence, they don’t have definite volumes and shapes.
Examples: Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide etc.
Define the terms given below and answer the questions associated with them.
(a) Sublimation: Which of the following substances sublime?
Ice, mercury, dry ice, iodine.
(b) Solid: Why do not solids diffuse in one another?
(c) Liquid: Why do liquids flow?
(d) Freezing point: What is the freezing point of water?
(e) Gas: Why are gases compressible and show diffusion?
(a) Sublimation. It is the process in which a solid directly changes into vapour on heating and on cooling the gas directly changes into solid.
Dry ice and iodine sublime.
(b) Solid. It is that state of matter which has definite mass, volume and shape, e.g. sugar, rubber, table, stone etc.
The solids don’t diffuse because in the solid state the vacant spaces between the molecules are very small and molecules of a solid can’t move from one position to another.
(c) Liquid. A liquid is that state of matter which has definite mass and volume but has no definite shape, e.g. milk, petrol, kerosene oil, water etc. Liquids flow because the attractive forces between the molecules of a liquid are very small and the molecules can freely move within the liquid.
(4) Freezing point. It is the temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid state by giving out heat energy. For example, freezing point of water is 0°C.
(e) Gas. It is defined as that state of matter which has definite mass only but has neither definite shape nor definite volume. For example, carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrogen, ammonia etc.
Short Answer Type Questions:
What are the necessary conditions for a substance to be a
2. Liquid and
1. Solid: The melting point of a substance is above room temperature at the atmospheric pressure.
2. Liquid: The melting point of the substance is below room temperature and boiling point is above room temperature under atmospheric pressure.
3. Gas: The boiling point of the substance is below room temperature under atmospheric pressure.
What are the two new states of matter in addition to solid, liquid and gases states?
1. Plasma: It is produced in stars at very high temperature.
2. Bose-Einstein condensate: It is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density to super low temperature.
Heat, light, shadow, love, radio waves are not considered as matter, why?
This is because these are massless and do not occupy space.
Solids have definite shapes and volumes, why?
This is because:
- The vacant spaces between the constituent particles are very small.
- There are large attraction forces between the constituent particles.
List the factors which affect evaporation.
- Exposed surface area
- Humidity in the air
- Wind speed.
Why is sponge solid although it can be compressed?
This is because sponge has minute holes in which there is entraped air. When it is pressed, the air is expelled out.
Rubber band can change its shape, is it a solid?
Rubber band is a solid because it changes its shape under force and return to its original state when the applied force is removed.
Indicate which of the following don’t constitute matter?
Car, truck, heat, light, sound, TV waves, radio waves, cement, love, hate, cotton cloth, rock.
Heat, light, sound, TV waves, radio waves, love, hate.
What happens when the vacant spaces between the particles of a liquid decreases? How is this possible?
The liquid will change into solid. This is carried out by decreasing the temperature or cooling the liquid.
Why do we observe water droplets on the outer surface of a glass containing ice cold water?
This is because water vapour present in air, on coming in contact with glass containing ice-cold water lose energy and get converted into liquid state which appear as water droplets.
Why should we wear cotton clothes in summer?
This is because in summer, we perspire more and cotton being a good absorber of water, absorbs the sweat and exposes it to the atmosphere for easy evaporation.
Name the change of state during the following changes:
(a) Drying of wet clothes.
(b) Melting of wax when kept in sunshine.
(c) Melting of ice.
(d) Formation of clouds.
(e) Naphthalene balls become smaller when kept in air.
(a) Liquid to gaseous state.
(b) Solid to liquid state.
(c) Solid to liquid state.
(d) Liquid to gaseous state.
(e) Solid to gaseous state.
State your observations in the following cases:
(a) Ammonium chloride is heated in a hard glass test tube.
(b) Carbon dioxide is compressed to 70 times the atmospheric pressure.
(a) When ammonium chloride is heated in a hard glass test tube, dense white fumes of ammonium chloride fill the tube and deposit to give a white powder near the mouth of the tube (cooler parts).
(b) When carbon dioxide is compressed to 70 atmospheric pressure, it changes into solid state.
What is the difference between gas and vapour?
- A gas is a substance which exists in the gaseous state even at room temperature. e.g. oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen etc.
- A vapour is a substance which can exist in the gaseous state at a temperature lower than that of its boiling point, e.g. water vapour, iodine vapour etc.
Why does a gas fill the container completely?
The molecules in a gas are far apart and are in a state of rapid random motion in all possible directions with very high speeds. They move throughout the container in which they are put. Thus, a gas fills the container completely.
How is the liquid state different from the gaseous state?
The liquid state is different from the gaseous state in terms of magnitude of attractive forces between the molecules.
Complete the following statements:
(a) The process of liquid changing into solid is called
(b) The process of gas changing into liquid is called
(c) The process of liquid changing into gas is called
(d) The temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid is called
(b) Condensation or Liquefaction.
(d) Melting point.
What are the uses of interconversion of matter?
The uses of interconversion of matter are:
- Water is converted into steam by heating. Steam is used to run turbines and to generate electricity.
- Metals are melted by heating and these molten metals can be converted into alloys and cast into machinery parts.
- Water can be changed into steam as well as ice. Therefore, in nature, ice (or snow), liquid water and water vapour are available.
Give the important properties on the basis of which the three states of matter can be distinguished.
The three states of matter can be distinguished on the basis of shape, volume, compressibility, packing of molecules, number of free surfaces etc.
What is the importance of (a) melting point of solid and (b) boiling point of a liquid?
(a) A pure solid has a sharp melting point. The impurities decrease the melting point of a solid. Therefore, melting point is used to check the purity of a solid compound.
(b) A pure liquid has a sharp boiling point. The impurities increase the boiling of liquid. Therefore, boiling point is used to check the purity of a liquid.
Give two differences between boiling and evaporation.
|1. It takes place at a fixed temperature called boiling point of the liquid.||1. It takes place at all temperatures.|
|2. It is a fast process.||2. It is a slow process.|
Name five substances which are solids, five substances which are liquids and five substances which are gaseous at room temperature.
- Solids: Iron, copper, silver, glass and wood.
- Liquids: Water, milk, mercury, kerosene oil and petrol.
- Gases: Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium.
Represent interconversion of states by using a figure.
State what is observed when iodine is heated in a test tube as shown below.
When some crystals of iodine are heated slowly in a test tube, the shiny grey iodine changes directly into vapour without melting. The vapour deposit as grey particles called sublimate on the upper cooler parts of the tube.
Why do gases have neither a definite shape nor a definite volume?
(a) there are large spaces between the molecules of a gas.
(b) the molecules have high kinetic energies and
(c) there are negligible attractive forces between the molecules of a gas.
Hence the molecules in a gas have random motion. Therefore, gases have neither a definite shape nor a definite volume.
Give an experiment to prove that gases are more compressible as compared to liquids.
- Take a 100 ml syringe and close its nozzle by inserting it in a rubber cork or stopper. Remove the piston from the syringe so that whole of syringe is filled up with air.
- Apply a little vaseline to the piston and insert the piston. Compress piston and it moves downwards easily.
- Hence air is compressed to a very small volume.
- Now fill the syringe with water and repeat the above experiment. The piston moves hardly downwards, indicating that there is a negligible compression in volume.
- The above experiment indicates that gases are highly compressible as compared to liquids.
Which phenomenon occurs during the following changes:
- Size of naphthalene balls decreases
- Wax melts in the sun
- Drying of wet clothes
- Formation of clouds.
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
Why do things around our surroundings look different?
This is due to different shapes, sizes and textures.
Everything in this universe is made up of material which occupies space, has mass and can be judged by any one or more of the known five physical senses is called matter.
Give five examples of matter.
Air, food, stove, water, plants.
What are Panch Tatva?
Early Indian philosophers classified matter in the form of five basic elements called Panch Tatva.
Name the Panch Tatva?
Air, earth, fire, sky and water.
How many basic elements were there according to ancient greek philosophers?
What are the basic elements according to greek philosophers?
Earth, fire, air and water.
How do modem day scientists classify matter?
Based upon their physical properties and chemical nature.
How is matter produced?
It is composed of particles.
Why does a large volume of waier get coloured due to a few crystals of potassium permanganate?
This is because a single crystal of pota .sium permanganate is made up of millions of tiny particles.
How small are particles of matter?
The particles of matter are very very small beyond our imagination.
What is in between particles of matter?
There are vacant spaces between particles of matter.
Why do common salt, sugar and dettol dissolve in water?
This is because there are large vacant spaces between the particles of matter.
Why does the smell of lighted incence stick spreads out to a large space?
This is because particles of a matter are in motion.
Why does common salt dissolve in water?
This is because particles of common salt get into the vacant spaces between particles of water.
How will you check purity of honey?
If honey falls into water in a stright line, it is a pure honey.
What is the effect of temperature on the particles?
Increase in kinetic energy of particles.
Why are particles of a matter always in motion?
This is due to kinetic energy.
It is the mixing up of particles of two or more substances.
What is the effect of temperature on diffusion?
Diffusion becomes faster.
What is the effect of pressure on particles of a matter?
Pressure keeps particles of matter together.
What are the different stages of matter based upon physical states?
Solid, liquid and gas.
Give three characteristics of solids.
The solids have definite masses, volumes and shapes.
What is the effect of applied force on solids?
The solids retain their shapes on applying force but they break when a large force is applied on them but they don’t change their shapes.
Rubber band can change its shape when stretched? Is it a solid?
It is solid because it changes its shape under force and returns to its original shape when applied force is removed. It breaks when a very large force is applied to it.
Sugar, common salt etc. take the shape of containers although these are solids?
This is because the shapes of their crystals do not change.
Why does a rubber can be compressed?
This is due to the presence of air in the holes present in it and on compression air is expelled out.
What is liquid?
A liquid has a definite mass and volume but has no definite shape.
Due to which property aquatic animals survive in water?
This is due to the presence of oxygen dissolved in water.
Name the gas which gets dissolved in water and is necessary for plants.
Which form of matter can diffuse in liquids?
Solids, liquids and gases.
Liquids show faster diffusion than solids. Why?
This is because in liquids there are more vacant spaces and molecules can move freely.
Out of solids, liquids and gases which show maximum compressibility?
Which compressed gas is used in automobiles?
Compressed natural gas (CNG).
Which gas is used as fuel in houses?
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG).
The smells of perfume and lighted incense stick spread rapidly, why?
This is because there are large vacant spaces between the molecules and the molecules are in motion with very high speeds.
What are the different states of water?
These are solid-ice, liquid-water and gas-water vapour.
Give characteristics of solids.
The solids are generally hard. They cannot be compressed. They have definite shapes and definite volumes.
Give characteristics of liquids.
They have definite volumes but have no definite shapes. They can be compressed slightly. They can flow.
Give characteristics of gases.
The gases have neither definite shapes nor volumes. They are highly compressible.
Give four examples each of solids, liquids and gases.
Solids: Wood, stove, sugar, common salt.
Liquids: Water, milk, oil, alcohol.
Gases: Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide.
What is the full form of CNG?
Compressed Natural Gas.
Why do solids have definite shapes?
This is because vacant spaces between molecules of a solid are very small and there are large attractive forces between them.
Why does a tyre can be inflated with large volume of air?
This is because gases can bear high pressure.
Why don’t gases have definite shapes and volumes?
This is because there are large vacant spaces between the molecules of a gas and these are in motion.
How many states of water are there?
The temperature at which a solid melts is called?
What is the SI unit of temperature?
0°C = ………. K.
0°C = 273.16 K.
How is kelvin temperature changed to centigrade temperature?
By substracting 273 from it.
How is centigrade temperature changed in kelvin temperature?
By adding 273 to it.
The process of conversion of solid into liquid is called fusion.
What is the boiling point of water?
373 K (100°C).
It is the process of direct conversion of solid into gaseous state and back without changing into liquid state.
What is dry ice?
Solid carbon dioxide.
What is the unit of pressure?
What is the SI unit of pressure?
What is normal atmospheric pressure?
The atmospheric pressure at sea level is called normal atmospheric pressure. It is taken as 1 atmosphere.
How does a liquid change into vapour without boiling?
Due to evaporation.
Give one example of evaporation.
Drying of wet clothes in sunlight.
Name the process of conversion of liquid into gaseous state without boiling.
Name the factors which increase rate of evaporation?
These are increase in surface area, increase in temperature, decrease in humidity.
Why rate of evaporation increases with the increase in temperature.
This is because kinetic energy of particles increases.
Why do clothes dry faster with the increase in speed of wind?
This is because water vapour evaporates along with air and amount of water vapour decrease near the surface of clothes.
What is humidity?
The amount of moisture present in the air is called humidity.
How is vaporisation related to humidity?
With the increase in humidity in air, rate of evaporation decreases.
Why are clothes spread out for drying?
This increases surface area and hence rate of evaporation increases.
How is cooling related to evaporation?
With the increase in evaporation, cooling increases.
Why should we wear cotton clothes in summer?
This is because in summer we perspire more and cotton being a good absorber of water, absorbs the sweat and exposes it to the atmosphere for evaporation which causes cooling.
How are particles present in plasma?
In plasma, the particles have high energy and are excited. These particles are present in the form of ionised gas.
Wha is present in florescent tube and neon bulb?
Why do sun and stars glow?
Due to plasma.
Why is plasma produced in stars?
Due to high temperature.
How is BEC produced?
It is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density to super low temperature.
Who were awarded Noble Prize for Bose-Einstein Condensate state?
Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketreley and Carl E. Wieman.
Which website is used to get information regarding fourth and fifth state of matter?
The phenomenon occuring during drying of wet clothes is
The intennolecular spaces are …………. in solids.
Large or maximum.
A vapour on cooling changes into …………. and on further cooling changes into ………… .
Matter changes from one state to another either by raising the or lowering the …………. .
A change in which a solid, on heating, directly changes into …………. state and the …………. on cooling again changes into ………… state is called …………… .
gaseous, gas, solid, sublimation.
The intermolecular spaces are in …………… solids and ……………. in gaseous.