This PSEB 6th Class Science Notes Chapter 9 The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 6th Class Science Notes Chapter 9 The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings
→ Different types of living organisms are present everywhere.
→ All living beings have some common characteristics.
→ They need food, respond to stimuli, respire, excrete, grow, reproduce and show movements.
→ The surroundings where organisms live are called a habitat.
→ Habitat may be terrestrial or aquatic or aerial/arboreal. Deserts, mountains, and grasslands are examples of terrestrial habitats. Oceans, ponds, and lakes are examples of aquatic habitats.
→ Organisms having terrestrial habitat are called terrestrial organisms whereas organisms having aquatic habitat are known as aquatic organisms.
→ Plants having terrestrial habitat are called terrestrial plants whereas plants having aquatic habitat are known as aquatic plants.
→ Animals having terrestrial habitats are called terrestrial animals whereas animals having aquatic habitat are known as aquatic animals.
→ All types of habitats have two main components: biotic and abiotic.
→ Biotic components are all living things like plants, animals, human micro-organisms.
→ Abiotic components include all non-living things like rocks, soil, air, water, sunlight.
→ Abiotic factors or components change over thousands of years.
→ The ability of the living things to adjust themselves to their surroundings is called Adaptation.
→ Organisms i.e. plants and animals adapt differently to live better in different habitats.
→ Rats and snakes stay in burrows deep in the sand to stay away from the intense heat.
→ Cactus is a desert plant that has spines to reduce the loss of water from leaves through transpiration.
→ Trees in the mountain regions are normally cone-shaped having sloping branches and needle-like leaves.
→ Animals have thick skin or fur to protect them from the cold of mountainous regions.
→ Lion, deer, or other animals are adapted to live in grasslands.
→ Squids and octopuses are sea animals. Their habitats are deep-sea (sea bed). They make their body streamlined while swimming.
→ Aquatic plants can be floating, totally submerged, or partially submerged type.
→ A frog is an animal that can live both on land and in water. Its body is adapted to both types of abiotic factors.
→ A cloud grows in size, moves from one place to another but it is a non-living thing.
→ Some animals go into a state of long sleep during winter for survival and this winter sleep is called Hibernation.
→ Cell: The basic unit of life is called a cell.
→ Unicellular Organisms: Organisms that are made of only one cell.
→ Multicellular Organisms: Organisms that are made of many cells.
→ Stimulus: Living things respond to immediate and long-term changes in their environment.
→ Adaptations: The presence of specific features and habits, which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat, is called adaptation.
→ Habitat: The surroundings where plants and animals live, are called their habitat.
→ Biotic Component: The living components of habitat are biotic components, e.g. plants, animals.
→ Xerophytes: The plants which grow and propagate in deserts, e.g. cactus.
→ Hydrophytes: The plants which grow and propagate in water.
→ Photosynthesis: The process of manufacturing food by green plants with the help of water, carbon dioxide, sunlight, and chlorophyll.
→ Breathing: Taking in and releasing out air from the body is called breathing.
→ Respiration: The process of exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen is called respiration.
The process of taking oxygen in, combining it with food, and throwing out carbon dioxide and water vapour is called Respiration.
→ Excretion: The process by which waste products are removed from the body of organisms.
→ Producers: Organisms that can manufacture their own food. Examples are all types of green plants.
→ Consumers: Organisms that cannot manufacture their own food but consume food prepared by green plants or other organisms.
→ Predators: Some strong animals that make weaker animals their prey are called predators.
→ Decomposers: Microorganisms that feed on dead plants and animals and break them into simpler substances.
→ Scavengers: Animals that feed on dead animals.