This PSEB 6th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Hardware and Software will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 6th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Hardware and Software
A Computer is made up of two parts: hardware and software. Both the parts are necessary for working of computer system. Hardware are the physical components of the computer and the instructions given to the computer in the form of program is called software. This software is stored on some hardware. So software makes the hardware workable and hardware stores the software.
Hardware are the physical components of a computer system. It includes all the physical components which can be touched and which can be seen. Examples of some hardware are keyboard, mouse, printer, monitor and CPU. Different types of hardware devices are used for different purposes.
Features of Hardware
Following are the features of hardware:
- Hardware can be touched and felt.
- Hardware occupies space.
- Hardware has weight.
There are different types of hardware used for computer systems:
System Unit: The system unit is also known as the Central Processing Unit of computer system. This unit acts as the brain of the computer. It includes the essential components such as motherboard, processor, RAM, hard disk, CD-ROM etc. Normally these devices are packed in a metallic or plastic case known as a system case or cabinet.
Motherboard: Motherboard is a board which holds all the components together. This board is also known as a printed circuit board. All the components of the computer system are connected to this directly or using some wires.
The main components connected to the motherboard are:
- Hard Drive: Hard drive or hard disk is the main storage device of a computer. It is used to store data permanently. The main software like operating systems are also placed on this hard disk.
- Video Card: This card is used to display the output properly on a monitor.
- Processor: Processor processes all the instructions given to the computer. It performs all the Arithmetic and logical unit operations. It controls all the activities of the computer also.
- Fan: The computer gets heated when it is used. So a fan is placed in the CPU to keep it cool.
- RAM: RAM is the primary memory of computer. It is also known as Random Access Memory. All the data and instructions are loaded in this memory before processing. This memory is a volatile type of memory. It means the data gets lost when the computer is switched off. The computer cannot work without Random Access Memory.
- Power Supply: This unit is responsible for giving power to all the components of the computer.
- CD/DVD: This device is used to play, read and record data and instructions on CD or DVD.
Important Points for Taking Care of Hardware
If the hardware components of the computer are not taken care of, they get spoiled. It is very necessary to take care of these components.
The following things should be kept in mind when using the hardware:
- Keep all the parts of the computer clean.
- Cover it after use.
- Do not pull cables or computer Parts.
- Press keyboard keys gently.
- Do not eat in the Computer Room.
- Keep Hardware in the proper manner.
- Keep your shoes outside the computer lab.
- Handle different parts of the computer in a proper way.
- Use soft cloth or a brush to clean the computer.
- Do not clean the equipment while the computer is turned on.
Software is a set of instructions or programs which are used to make a computer functional. Physically software is a collection of programs. These programs are made for various purposes. This software is normally stored on a secondary storage device. The software can not be touched. Each type of software helps the computer to perform a particular operation.
Features of Software
The following are the main features of software:
- Software have no weight.
- We cannot touch the software.
- A software makes a hardware functional.
- Software is stored on hardware.
Computer software can be divided into the following categories:
- System Software
- Application Software
System software can be defined as a set of programs which are necessary for functioning of the computer itself. This program directly contacts the computer hardware and gets the work done from that hardware. Without a system software computer cannot work. System software helps to read the data from input devices and transfer the processed information to output devices. This software acts like a computer manager of computer.
The main types of this software are:
- Operating system
- Language translators
- Utility programs
The software is difficult to design and is also costly. These softwares are mainly designed by highly experienced people.
Application software can be defined as a software that provides a solution to a specific problem of the user. This software is not necessary for working on a computer. This software do not directly contact the hardware. This software works with the help of system software. One application software is developed for some specific purpose only. There are many types of application software available. The application software are Word processor, Spreadsheet solutions, presentation software, pick packages.
Difference Between System Software and Application
Both system and application software are types of software. They are related to each other. They also have many differences. Some of the differences are given below:
|System Software||Application Software|
|(i) It is necessary for functioning of computer.||(i) Application software is not necessary for functioning of computer.|
|(ii) This software is complex in nature.||(ii) Application software is not as complex as system software.|
|(iii) System software are costly.||(iii) Application software are not costly.|
|(iv) This software is developed by highly experienced person only.||(iv) This software can be developed by experienced person.|
|(v) Computer cannot work without system software.||(v) Computer can work without application software.|
|(vi) System software are bigger in size.||(vi) Application software are normally smaller in size.|
|(vii) Examples of system software are Operating Systems, Language translator etc.||(vii) Examples of application software are Word processor, Spreadsheet, Graphic Solution etc.|
Relationship/Differences between Hardware and Software
A Computer system is made up of hardware and software. Both are necessary for a computer system. Without software hardware cannot work. It is just like a mechanical device without software. A software cannot be developed or stored without the help of hardware. Hardware is also controlled by software so we can say that hardware and software are both related to each other. There are many differences between these two also. Some of the differences are given below:
|(i) Hardware is a physical quantity.||(i) Software is not a physical quantity.|
|(ii) Hardware can be touched.||(ii) Software cannot be touched.|
|(iii) Hardware cannot work without software.||(iii) Software cannot be stored without hardware.|
|(iv) Hardware is developed by engineers.||(iv) Software is developed by developers.|
|(v) There are four types of hardware.||(v) There are two types of software.|
|(vi) It could be costly as well as cheaper||(vi) Software is usually costly.|