# PSEB 12th Class History Solutions Chapter 22 First Anglo-Sikh War: Causes and Results

Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class History Book Solutions Chapter 22 First Anglo-Sikh War: Causes and Results Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## PSEB Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 22 First Anglo-Sikh War: Causes and Results

Long Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Give a brief description of the main causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
Give the causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
What were the five main causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War?
Or
Briefly describe the five main causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
1. British Policy of Encircling Punjab: The British had been greedily looking towards Punjab for quite some time with a view to bringing it under their control. By signing the treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh in 1809 A.D., the British had forever checked Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s advancement towards the Cis-Sutlej areas. In 1835-36 A.D., the Britishers forced Maharaja Ranjit Singh to withdraw his forces from Shikarpur and occupy it. In 1835 A.D. the Britishers took possession of Ferozepur. In 1838 A.D., the Britishers set up a military cantonment at Ferozepur. As a result, a war between the British and the Sikhs’had become inevitable.

2. Anarchy in Punjab: After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in June 1839 A.D., anarchy had spread in Punjab. A period of conspiracies and killings for the occupation of the throne had started. During 6 years from 1839 A.D. to 1845 A.D., as many as, 5 governments changed. The Dogras through their conspiracies finished many members of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s family. This situation was an invitation to the Britishers.

3. Defeat of the British in the First Anglo-Afghan War: The First Anglo-Afghan War which was fought from 1839 to 1842 A.D., left a deep impact on the Anglo-Sikh relationship. This area was geographically very significant. Although the Amirs of Sind were very loyal to the British yet by leveling false allegations Lord Ellenborough declared war against Sind. In 1843 A.D. the British brought Sind under their control. Since the Sikhs wanted to annex Sind to their empire, it further embittered Anglo-Sikh relations.

4. Occupation of Sind by the British: This area was geographically very significant. Although the Amirs of Sind were very loyal to the British yet by leveling false allegations Lord Ellenborough declared war against Sind. In 1843 A.D. the British brought Sind under their control. Since the Sikhs wanted to annex Sind to their empire, it further embittered Anglo-Sikh relations.

5. Appointment of Major Broadfoot: In November 1844 A.D., Major Broadfoot was appointed in place of Mr. Clark, as the political agent of Ludhiana. He was a bitter opponent of Sikhs. He came with this view in his mind to the frontiers of Punjab that the British had decided to fight a war with the Sikhs.

Question 2.
Write a brief note on the battle of Mudki.
The first important battle between the Sikhs and the British was fought at Mudki on December 18, 1845 A.D. In this battle, the number of Sikh soldiers was 5500 and Lai Singh commanded them. On the other hand, the British had 12,000 soldiers and they were commanded by Hugh Gough. The British thought that they would defeat the Sikhs very easily, but the Sikhs launched such a forceful attack on the British army that it created consternation among them. Lai Singh got scared to see it. He had come to get the Sikh army defeated, but the tables were turned on the British.

At this, he fled away from the battlefield along with some of his soldiers: Even then the Sikhs continued fighting the British bravely. But in the absence of their commander, and being fewer in number, the Sikhs were ultimately defeated. The British had won the war at an enormous cost because in this battle many of their famous warriors were killed. Moreover, the British realized that it was not a child’s play to gain victory over the Sikhs.

Question 3.
What do you know about the battle of Ferozshah or Pherushahr?
A fierce battle took place between the Sikhs and the British at Ferozshah on December 21, 1845 A.D. The number of British soldiers was 17 thousand in this battle and they had 69 cannons. Their command was in the hands of experienced generals like Hugh Gough, John Littler, and Lord Hardinge. On the other hand, the Sikh soldiers were about 25 to 30 thousand and they had 100 cannons. The Sikh army was led by traitors like Lai Singh and Teja Singh.

In this battle, the Sikhs attacked the British army so forcefully that they suffered heavy casualties. They even began to think of surrendering before the Sikh army without any condition. But luck favored the British. On December 22, due to the treachery of Lai Singh and Teja Singh, the Sikh forces were defeated. In this battle, the Sikhs suffered a heavy loss of life.

Question 4.
Write a brief note on the battle of Sobraon.
The battle of Sobraon was the last decisive battle of the First Anglo-Sikh War. It was fought on February 10, 1846 A.D. The Sikhs and the British had made full preparations for this battle. Famous generals like Hugh Gough, Lord Hardinge, and others were commanding the British forces. On the other hand, Lai Singh and Teja Singh were commanding the Sikh army. Both these traitors had given the British, all the necessary information well before the battle started.

They were the first to flee soon after the first assault. Moreover, they dismantled the boat bridge over the river Sutlej. Consequently, thousands of Sikh soldiers were drowned. At this critical juncture, Sham Singh Attariwala took over the command and pushed the British hard. Ultimately the Sikhs were defeated and suffered heavy casualties. In fact, the battle of Sobraon proved as “Waterloo” for the Sikhs.

Question 5.
Write a brief note on the Treaty of Lahore (March 9, 1846 A.D.).
As a result of the First Anglo-Sikh War, a treaty was signed between the British Government and Lahore Darbar on March 9, 1846 A.D. This treaty is famous in history aS the Treaty of Lahore. Following were the main terms of the treaty:

• Maharaja Dalip Singh and his successors would always maintain peace and friendship with the British government.
• The Maharaja of Lahore accepted that he and his successors would have no claim on the region to the south of the Sutlej river forever.
• The Maharaja handed over all the forts of plains and hills between the Sutlej and the Beas to the British.
• The British demanded a heavy amount of 1.50 crore rupees as a ransom for the war. Such a big amount could not be had from the treasury of Lahore Darbar. So the region of Kashmir and Hazara was given to the British for Rs. one crore with a promise to pay the remaining amount of 50 lakh rupees from the treasury.
• Lahore’s army was reduced to 20,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry.
• The British forces could pass through the Lahore empire whenever the need be.
• The Maharaja promised that he would not employ any European, American, or English without the permission of the British.
• The British accepted Maharaja Dalip Singh as the ruler of Lahore, Queen Jindan as the regent of Maharaja Dalip Singh, and Lai Singh as the Prime Minister.
• The British would not interfere in the internal affairs of Lahore Darbar but they would advise as and when required.

Question 6.
What do you know about the Treaty of Bhairowal?
The treaty of Bhairowal was signed between Lahore Darbar and the British Government on December 16, 1846 A.D. According to it, a British Resident was appointed to run the administration of Lahore Darbar. Maharani Jindan was removed from the post of regent and her annual pension of Rs. 1$$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ lakh was fixed. An eight-member council was formed for the help of residents, it was decided to keep a British army for the protection of the Maharaja and to maintain peace and order. Lahore Darbar accepted to pay Rs. 22 lakh annually to the British to meet the expenses of this army.

The conditions of this treaty were to remain in force till December 4, 1854 A.D. when Maharaja Dalip Singh became an adult. Although through the treaty of Bhairowal, the British did not annex Punjab to the British empire yet they reduced its sovereignty to a great extent. In fact, the British had become the rulers of Punjab and the Sikh rule was merely in name.

Question 7.
Study in brief the results of First Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
Give in brief the results of First Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
What were the results of the First Anglo-Sikh War?
As a result of First Anglo-Sikh War, a treaty was signed by the British Government and the Lahore Darbar on 9th March 1846 A.D. This treaty is known as the treaty of Lahore. The following were the main terms of the treaty :

• The Maharaja of Lahore renounced all claim to the areas lying to the south of river Sutlej,
• The Maharaja handed over to the British the area between the river Sutlej and Beas.
• The army of Lahore Darbar was reduced to 20,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry.
• The British Government demanded a heavy sum of 1.50 crore rupees as war indemnity. Lahore Darbar ceded the provinces of Kashmir and Hazara as equivalent to one crore of rupees. It paid the rest amount from its treasury.
• The Maharaja committed that he would not employ any foreigner without the consent of the British Government. (vi) The British Government recognized Dalip Singh the Maharaja of Lahore and Rani Jindan as his regent.

Question 8.
Write a brief note on Sham Singh Attariwala.
Sham Singh Attariwala Was a great warrior of the Sikh Class. He belonged to Attari village near Amritsar. His father Sardar Nihal Singh used to serve in the army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, At the very young age of 18, Attariwala Joined Maharaja’s army and carried various military expeditions. The political condition of Punjab after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh greatly depressed Attariwala. He opposed the attempts of the British Government to annex Punjab. The First Anglo-Sikh War broke out in 1845 A.D. Attariwala actively participated in the battle of Sabraon. It was fought on February 10, 1846 A.D. Unfortunately, the commanding officers of the Sikh army proved traitors. At this critical juncture, Sham Singh Attariwala took over the command and pushed the British hard. His bravery was also praised by the British. At last, Sham Singh Attariwala achieved martyrdom while fighting in the battle.

Question 9.
Describe any four reasons as to why the British did not annex Punjab to their empire after the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Although the British had defeated the Sikhs in the battle of Sobraon, many thousand soldiers of the Khalsa army were still roaming at many places with arms. If they had declared the annexation of Punjab to the British empire, it could have become a headache for the British. The second reason was that the British wanted the Punjab should act as a buffer state between the British empire and Afghanistan.

If the British had annexed Punjab to their empire, their frontiers would have touched Afghanistan. New problems on the Afghanistan frontiers would have been created for which the British were not prepared. Thirdly, the British had to keep a vast British army to keep Punjab under their control. It would have tremendously increased their expenses. Fourthly, the Governor-General thought that Punjab could not prove useful for the British from an economic point of view. He considered Punjab a source of trouble in place of a source of power.

Question 10.
Mention five causes of the Sikhs’ defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War.

• The first major cause of the defeat of the Sikhs in the First Anglo-Sikh War was the treachery of Lai Singh and Teja Singh. Lai Singh was appointed to the post of Prime Minister while Teja Singh was working as a Chief Commander. Both of them for their selfish interest had gone over to the British. As a consequence, though the Sikhs fought with great bravery the treachery of their leaders proved fatal for them,
• In the battle of Aliwal, the Sikhs were defeated due to the treachery of Ranjodh Singh.
• The European officers in the Sikh army aligned themselves secretly with the British. They constantly informed all the secrets of the Sikhs of the British.
• Besides these, the British belonged to the greatest imperialist power of the world. Naturally, they had good resources than the Sikhs.
• The British generals had a good experience of War. They fought with full vigor for the safety of the British Empire. Consequently, the Sikhs had to face defeat.

Essay Type Questions:

Question 1.
What were the main causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War?
Or
Describe the causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
Describe the causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War between the British and the Sikhs.
The British had been dreaming to usurp Punjab for quite some time. They had started encircling Punjab even during the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. They had intentionally adopted such policies that led to the First. Anglo-Sikh War. A brief account of the causes of the First Anglo-Sikh war is as follows :

1. British Policy of Encircling Punjab: The British had been greedily looking towards Punjab for quite some time with a view to bringing it under their control. By signing the treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh in 1809 A.D., the British had forever checked Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s advancement towards the Cis-Sutlej areas. In 1835-36 A.D., the Britishers forced Maharaja Ranjit Singh to withdraw his forces from Shikarpur and occupy it.

In 1835 A.D. the Britishers took possession of Ferozepur. Because of its being close to Lahore, they could collect good information about Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s activities. In 1838 A.D., the Britishers set up a military cantonment at Ferozepur. The same year they blocked Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s advancement towards Sind and forced the Amirs of Sind to keep a British Resident at Hyderabad. In fact, the Britishers were encircling the whole of Punjab and the swallowing of Punjab was only a matter of time. As a result, a war between the British and the Sikhs had become inevitable.

2. Anarchy in Punjab: After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in June 1839 A.D., anarchy had spread in Punjab. A period of conspiracies and killings for the occupation of the throne had started. During 6 years from 1839 A.D. to 1845 A.D., as many as, 5 governments changed. The Dogras through their conspiracies finished many members of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s family. These murders and conspiracies had a disastrous impact on the politics of Punjab. This situation was an invitation to the Britishers.

3. Defeat of the British in the First Anglo-Afghan War: The First Anglo-Afghan War which was fought from 1839 to 1842 A.D., left a deep impact on the Anglo-Sikh relationship. Before this war, wherever the Britishers turned their face, success smiled on them. They were considered invincible. But, in this war, the British tasted defeat for the first time. The heavy loss caused in this war dealt a severe blow to the prestige of the British. The Britishers wanted to wipe out the stigma of their defeat suffered in Afghanistan by another grand victory. They could score this victory in Punjab because Punjab was in a state of turmoil at that time.

4. Occupation of Sind by the British: In 1842 A.D., Lord Ellenborough was appointed the new Governor-General of India in place of Lord Auckland. Lord Ellenborough wanted to remove the disgrace of the defeat which the British had to taste in the First Anglo-Afghan War. Therefore, he decided to occupy Sind. This area was geographically very significant. Although the Amirs of Sind were very loyal to the British yet by leveling false allegations Lord Ellenborough declared war against Sind. In 1843 A.D. the British brought Sind under their control. Since the Sikhs wanted to annex Sind to their empire, it further embittered Anglo-Sikh relations.

5. Military Preparations by the British: Governor-General, Lord Hardinge began to make war preparations. The British army gradually began to advance towards the Sutlej. Col. Richmond, who was very popular with the people, was replaced by Major Broadfoot who was arrogant by nature as the political agent of the North-West frontier. Lord Hugh Gough, who was the British Commander-in¬Chief, set up his headquarters at Ambala. In March 1845 A.D., more forces from other parts of the country were sent to Ferozepur, Ludhiana, and Ambala. These military preparations further widened the gulf between the Sikhs and the Britishers.

6. Appointment of Major Broadfoot: In November 1844 A.D., Major Broadfoot was appointed in place of Mr. Clark, as the political agent of Ludhiana. He was a bitter opponent of Sikhs. He came with this view in his mind to the frontiers of Punjab that the British had decided to fight a war with the Sikhs. Dr. Fauja Singh aptly says, “The appointment of Broadfoot as Political Agent at Ludhiana was also a calculated move made with an eye on the fast-approaching war with Punjab.” Broadfoot undertook many such exercises which provoked the Sikhs against the British.

7. Incitement for war by Lai Singh and Teja Singh: After the death of Jawahar Singh, Lai Singh was appointed the new Wazir (Prime Minister) of the Lahore government. He appointed his brother Teja Singh, Chief Commander of the Khalsa army. Both of them were already in league with the British. Since the Sikh army had already become powerful at that time, Lai Singh and Teja Singh, were greatly afraid of it. They wanted to weaken it directing its energies against the British army. By doing so, they would be able to retain their positions and also heave a sigh of relief. So, they started inciting the Sikh army against the British. On 11th Dec. 1845 A.D., the Sikh soldiers crossed the river Sutlej. The British were looking out for this golden opportunity. So Lord Hardinge declared war against the Sikhs on 13th December 1845 A.D.

Question 2.
What were the main events of the First Anglo-Sikh War? Briefly explain the consequences of this war.
Or
Study the main events and results of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
The Sikh soldiers were compelled to cross over the river Sutlej on 11th December 1845 A.D. because of the imprudent policies followed by the British. The British were waiting for this golden opportunity. So the Governor-General Lord Hardinge declared war against the Sikhs on 13th December 1845 A.D. It had far-reaching consequences. A brief account of the events and results of the First Anglo-Sikh war is as follows:

1. Events of the war:

1. Battle of Mudki: The first important battle between the Sikhs and the Britishers was fought at Mudki on 18th December, 1845 A.D. In this battle the number of the Sikh soldiers was 5500, and they were commanded by Lai Singh. On the other hand, the strength of the British soldiers was 12,000 and they were led by Lord Hugh Gough. The British thought that they would easily overpower the Sikh army, but the Sikh army caused such a havoc that the British soldiers ran helter-skelter. On seeing this Lai Singh got nervous. He fled from the battlefield with some soldiers. As a consequence the Sikh army was defeated. According to the famous historian Sita Ram Kohli, “The battle of Mudki served to dispel a notion that had gained credence with the British that the Sikhs were no great force to be reckoned with.”

2. Battle of Ferozeshah : The second great battle between the Sikhs and the British was fought at Ferozeshah or Pheru Shahar on 21st December, 1845 AD. The British were fully prepared for this battle. The British army was commanded by famous and experienced generals like Lord Hugh Gough, John Littler and Lord Hardinge. On the other hand, the Sikh soldiers were led by Lai Singh and Teja Singh. The Britishers were fully confident of the treachery of the Sikh generals and that they would score an easy win in the battle. But the Sikhs gave such a baffling rebuff to the British that once it looked that their empire in India had shaken.

Exactly at that time, when the British army was being trounced on all fronts, Lai Singh and Teja Singh with their soldiers fled from the battlefield, without any rhyme or reason. When the retreating Britishers heard, that the Sikhs were fleeing, they came back and converted their defeat into’victory. In this way the Khalsa army was defeated owing to the treachery of their Generals. General Havelock said, “Another such action will shake the Empire.”

3. Battle of Baddowal : On the directions of the Lahore Darbar, Ranjodh Singh Majithia with 10,000 soldiers reached Baddowal, a place located 18 miles away from Ludhiana. On 21st January, 1846 A.D., the battle between the British and the Sikhs started at Baddowal. The Sikhs fought very gallantly. They plundered the weapons and rations of the Britishers. The Britishers being defeated, fled towards Ludhiana.

4. Battle of Aliwal: Ranjodh Singh Majithia with his soldiers left Baddowal and headed for Aliwal.’Harry Smith wanted to retrieve his honour by defeating the Sikhs. On 28th January, 1846 A.D., the British army under Harry Smith attacked the Sikhs. Thus, the Sikhs were caught unawares. It was a fierce battle. Ranjodh Singh after, giving orders to his army to flee away, himself fled the battlefield. Because of Ranjodh Singh’s treachery, the British carried the day.

5. Battle of Sobraon: The battle of Sobraon was the last and the most decisive battle of the First Anglo-Sikh War. This battle was fought on 10th February, 1846 A.D. Before this battle 30,000 Sikh soldiers had reached Sobraon. Lai Singh and Teja Singh were commanding the Sikh army. In order to face the Sikh army, the British had also made a good preparation. The strength of the British army in this battle was 15,000. Lord Hugh Gough and Lord Hardinge were commanding the British army. On 10th February, 1846 A.D., the Britishers attacked the Sikh army. As a result of the counter attack by the Sikh army, the British army had to retreat.

At this time, as pre-planned, at first Lai Singh and then Teja Singh fled from the battlefield. While going away, Teja Singh sank the boats loaded with powder and ammunition, and also destroyed the Pontoon bridge. Without the commanders, the Sikh army was unnerved. At this critical juncture, Sardar Sham Singh Attariwala took over the command. He rallied the Khalsa army saying, “Khalsa ji, do not bring discredit to Sikhism. It is better to die while fighting bravely than live a life of slavery. Unsheath your swords and pounce upon your enemy. Either win or fall martyrs.”

The Khalsa army unsheathed its swords and with the slogans of ‘Sat Siri Akal’ fell upon the enemy. They slaughtered several British soldiers. At last, Sham Singh Attariwala died a hero’s death. The British were amazed at his bravery and efficiency. The martyrdom of Sham Singh Attariwala demoralised the Sikh army. How long could the swords resist the guns? At last the Sikh army deserted the battlefield. In this way finally the Britishers emerged victorious in this decisive battle.

2. Results of the War:

As a result of First Anglo-Sikh War, a treaty was signed by the British Government and the Lahore Darbar on 9th March, 1846 A.D. This treaty is known as the treaty of Lahore in history.

Treaty of Lahore:

The following were the main terms of the treaty of Lahore :

1. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the British Government and Maharaja Dalip Singh and his successors.
2. The Maharaja of Lahore renounces for himself and his successors all claim to the areas lying to the south of river Sutlej.
3. The Maharaja handed over the British the plain and the hilly areas and forts situated between the rivers Sutlej and Beas.
4. The British Government demanded a heavy sum of 1.50 crore rupees as war indemnity. As the Lahore Darbar was unable to pay this heavy amount, it ceded the provinces of Kashmir and Hazara as equivalent to one crore of rupees.
5. The army of Lahore Darbar was reduced to 20,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry.
6. The Maharaja agreed to disband the mutinous troops of the Lahore army.
7. Whenever the need arose, the British army could pass through the Lahore Raj without any check.
8. The Maharaja committed that he would not employ any Britisher, European or American without the consent of the British Government.
9. The British Government recognized Dalip Singh the Maharaja of Lahore, Rani Jindan as the regent of the Maharaja, and Lai Singh, as the Prime Minister.
10. The British Government would not interfere in the internal matters of the Lahore Darbar, but when approached it would simply advise.
11. The Lahore Government would not change its boundaries without the concurrence of the British Government.

Supplementary Treaty:

Two days after the treaty of Lahore i.e. on 11th March 1846 A.D., some supplementary treaty was added to this treaty. The main terms of the supplementary treaty were as given ahead :

1. For the protection of the Maharaja and citizens of Lahore, an adequate British army would stay at Lahore till the end of 1846 A.D.
2. The fort and the city of Lahore would be completely under the control of the British army. The Lahore Government would arrange for and bear the expenses of the accommodation of the soldiers.
3. Both the Governments would soon appoint their Commissioners to fix the boundaries between the two States.
Treaty of Bhairowal

The British Government signed a new treaty with the Lahore Darbar on 16th December 1846 A.D. This treaty is known as the treaty of Bhairowal in history. The main terms of this treaty were as follows :

1. The British Government would appoint a British resident to look after all the departments of the Lahore Government.
2. As long as, Maharaja Dalip Singh was minor (i.e. upto 1854 A.D.), the administration of the state would be run by the ‘Council of Regency’ constituted of eight members.
3. The Council of Regency would have to do the administrative work according to the advice of the British Resident.
4. Maharani Jindan was removed from the post of regent and it was decided that she would get annual pension of 1$$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ lakh rupees.
5. For the defence  of the Maharaja and the maintenance of peace in the country, a British contingent would stay at Lahore.
6. If the Governor-General felt the need of the army for the defence of the capital or the maintenance of peace in the country, as per his orders, the British army could establish, its control over any fort or military cantonment of the Lahore Raj.
7. For the expenses of the British army, the Lahore Darbar would pay ₹ 22 lakh per year to the British Government.
8. The conditions of the treaty would continue to be in force till Maharaja Dalip Singh attained the age of 16 years i.e. upto 4th September, 1854 A.D.

It is true that although through the treaties of Lahore and Bhairowal the British did not seize Punjab, yet its autonomy was lost to a large extent. In fact, Sikh kingdom became a virtual British protectorate. Dr. G.S. Chhabra aptly says, “The treaty of Bhairowal thus rang the deathknell of the Sikh power and it made the British the real masters of the Punjab.”

Question 3.
Discuss the causes and results of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
Briefly describe the causes and results of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
What were the causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War? What were the out- comes of this war?

The British had been dreaming to usurp Punjab for quite some time. They had started encircling Punjab even during the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. They had intentionally adopted such policies that led to the First. Anglo-Sikh War. A brief account of the causes of the First Anglo-Sikh war is as follows :

1. British Policy of Encircling Punjab: The British had been greedily looking towards Punjab for quite some time with a view to bringing it under their control. By signing the treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh in 1809 A.D., the British had forever checked Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s advancement towards the Cis-Sutlej areas. In 1835-36 A.D., the Britishers forced Maharaja Ranjit Singh to withdraw his forces from Shikarpur and occupy it.

In 1835 A.D. the Britishers took possession of Ferozepur. Because of its being close to Lahore, they could collect good information about Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s activities. In 1838 A.D., the Britishers set up a military cantonment at Ferozepur. The same year they blocked Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s advancement towards Sind and forced the Amirs of Sind to keep a British Resident at Hyderabad. In fact, the Britishers were encircling the whole of Punjab and the swallowing of Punjab was only a matter of time. As a result, a war between the British and the Sikhs had become inevitable.

2. Anarchy in Punjab: After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in June 1839 A.D., anarchy had spread in Punjab. A period of conspiracies and killings for the occupation of the throne had started. During 6 years from 1839 A.D. to 1845 A.D., as many as, 5 governments changed. The Dogras through their conspiracies finished many members of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s family. These murders and conspiracies had a disastrous impact on the politics of Punjab. This situation was an invitation to the Britishers.

3. Defeat of the British in the First Anglo-Afghan War: The First Anglo-Afghan War which was fought from 1839 to 1842 A.D., left a deep impact on the Anglo-Sikh relationship. Before this war, wherever the Britishers turned their face, success smiled on them. They were considered invincible. But, in this war, the British tasted defeat for the first time. The heavy loss caused in this war dealt a severe blow to the prestige of the British. The Britishers wanted to wipe out the stigma of their defeat suffered in Afghanistan by another grand victory. They could score this victory in Punjab because Punjab was in a state of turmoil at that time.

4. Occupation of Sind by the British: In 1842 A.D., Lord Ellenborough was appointed the new Governor-General of India in place of Lord Auckland. Lord Ellenborough wanted to remove the disgrace of the defeat which the British had to taste in the First Anglo-Afghan War. Therefore, he decided to occupy Sind. This area was geographically very significant. Although the Amirs of Sind were very loyal to the British yet by leveling false allegations Lord Ellenborough declared war against Sind. In 1843 A.D. the British brought Sind under their control. Since the Sikhs wanted to annex Sind to their empire, it further embittered Anglo-Sikh relations.

5. Military Preparations by the British: Governor-General, Lord Hardinge began to make war preparations. The British army gradually began to advance towards the Sutlej. Col. Richmond, who was very popular with the people, was replaced by Major Broadfoot who was arrogant by nature as the political agent of the North-West frontier. Lord Hugh Gough, who was the British Commander-in¬Chief, set up his headquarters at Ambala. In March 1845 A.D., more forces from other parts of the country were sent to Ferozepur, Ludhiana, and Ambala. These military preparations further widened the gulf between the Sikhs and the Britishers.

6. Appointment of Major Broadfoot: In November 1844 A.D., Major Broadfoot was appointed in place of Mr. Clark, as the political agent of Ludhiana. He was a bitter opponent of Sikhs. He came with this view in his mind to the frontiers of Punjab that the British had decided to fight a war with the Sikhs. Dr. Fauja Singh aptly says, “The appointment of Broadfoot as Political Agent at Ludhiana was also a calculated move made with an eye on the fast-approaching war with Punjab.” Broadfoot undertook many such exercises which provoked the Sikhs against the British.

7. Incitement for war by Lai Singh and Teja Singh: After the death of Jawahar Singh, Lai Singh was appointed the new Wazir (Prime Minister) of the Lahore government. He appointed his brother Teja Singh, Chief Commander of the Khalsa army. Both of them were already in league with the British. Since the Sikh army had already become powerful at that time, Lai Singh and Teja Singh, were greatly afraid of it. They wanted to weaken it directing its energies against the British army. By doing so, they would be able to retain their positions and also heave a sigh of relief. So, they started inciting the Sikh army against the British. On 11th Dec. 1845 A.D., the Sikh soldiers crossed the river Sutlej. The British were looking out for this golden opportunity. So Lord Hardinge declared war against the Sikhs on 13th December 1845 A.D.

The Sikh soldiers were compelled to cross over the river Sutlej on 11th December 1845 A.D. because of the imprudent policies followed by the British. The British were waiting for this golden opportunity. So the Governor-General Lord Hardinge declared war against the Sikhs on 13th December 1845 A.D. It had far-reaching consequences. A brief account of the events and results of the First Anglo-Sikh war is as follows:

1. Events of the war:

1. Battle of Mudki: The first important battle between the Sikhs and the Britishers was fought at Mudki on 18th December, 1845 A.D. In this battle the number of the Sikh soldiers was 5500, and they were commanded by Lai Singh. On the other hand, the strength of the British soldiers was 12,000 and they were led by Lord Hugh Gough. The British thought that they would easily overpower the Sikh army, but the Sikh army caused such a havoc that the British soldiers ran helter-skelter. On seeing this Lai Singh got nervous. He fled from the battlefield with some soldiers. As a consequence the Sikh army was defeated. According to the famous historian Sita Ram Kohli, “The battle of Mudki served to dispel a notion that had gained credence with the British that the Sikhs were no great force to be reckoned with.”

2. Battle of Ferozeshah : The second great battle between the Sikhs and the British was fought at Ferozeshah or Pheru Shahar on 21st December, 1845 AD. The British were fully prepared for this battle. The British army was commanded by famous and experienced generals like Lord Hugh Gough, John Littler and Lord Hardinge. On the other hand, the Sikh soldiers were led by Lai Singh and Teja Singh. The Britishers were fully confident of the treachery of the Sikh generals and that they would score an easy win in the battle. But the Sikhs gave such a baffling rebuff to the British that once it looked that their empire in India had shaken.

Exactly at that time, when the British army was being trounced on all fronts, Lai Singh and Teja Singh with their soldiers fled from the battlefield, without any rhyme or reason. When the retreating Britishers heard, that the Sikhs were fleeing, they came back and converted their defeat into’victory. In this way the Khalsa army was defeated owing to the treachery of their Generals. General Havelock said, “Another such action will shake the Empire.”

3. Battle of Baddowal : On the directions of the Lahore Darbar, Ranjodh Singh Majithia with 10,000 soldiers reached Baddowal, a place located 18 miles away from Ludhiana. On 21st January, 1846 A.D., the battle between the British and the Sikhs started at Baddowal. The Sikhs fought very gallantly. They plundered the weapons and rations of the Britishers. The Britishers being defeated, fled towards Ludhiana.

4. Battle of Aliwal: Ranjodh Singh Majithia with his soldiers left Baddowal and headed for Aliwal.’Harry Smith wanted to retrieve his honour by defeating the Sikhs. On 28th January, 1846 A.D., the British army under Harry Smith attacked the Sikhs. Thus, the Sikhs were caught unawares. It was a fierce battle. Ranjodh Singh after, giving orders to his army to flee away, himself fled the battlefield. Because of Ranjodh Singh’s treachery, the British carried the day.

5. Battle of Sobraon: The battle of Sobraon was the last and the most decisive battle of the First Anglo-Sikh War. This battle was fought on 10th February, 1846 A.D. Before this battle 30,000 Sikh soldiers had reached Sobraon. Lai Singh and Teja Singh were commanding the Sikh army. In order to face the Sikh army, the British had also made a good preparation. The strength of the British army in this battle was 15,000. Lord Hugh Gough and Lord Hardinge were commanding the British army. On 10th February, 1846 A.D., the Britishers attacked the Sikh army. As a result of the counter attack by the Sikh army, the British army had to retreat.

At this time, as pre-planned, at first Lai Singh and then Teja Singh fled from the battlefield. While going away, Teja Singh sank the boats loaded with powder and ammunition, and also destroyed the Pontoon bridge. Without the commanders, the Sikh army was unnerved. At this critical juncture, Sardar Sham Singh Attariwala took over the command. He rallied the Khalsa army saying, “Khalsa ji, do not bring discredit to Sikhism. It is better to die while fighting bravely than live a life of slavery. Unsheath your swords and pounce upon your enemy. Either win or fall martyrs.”

The Khalsa army unsheathed its swords and with the slogans of ‘Sat Siri Akal’ fell upon the enemy. They slaughtered several British soldiers. At last, Sham Singh Attariwala died a hero’s death. The British were amazed at his bravery and efficiency. The martyrdom of Sham Singh Attariwala demoralised the Sikh army. How long could the swords resist the guns? At last the Sikh army deserted the battlefield. In this way finally the Britishers emerged victorious in this decisive battle.

2. Results of the War:

As a result of First Anglo-Sikh War, a treaty was signed by the British Government and the Lahore Darbar on 9th March, 1846 A.D. This treaty is known as the treaty of Lahore in history.

Treaty of Lahore

The following were the main terms of the treaty of Lahore :

1. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the British Government and Maharaja Dalip Singh and his successors.
2. The Maharaja of Lahore renounces for himself and his successors all claim to the areas lying to the south of river Sutlej.
3. The Maharaja handed over the British the plain and the hilly areas and forts situated between the rivers Sutlej and Beas.
4. The British Government demanded a heavy sum of 1.50 crore rupees as war indemnity. As the Lahore Darbar was unable to pay this heavy amount, it ceded the provinces of Kashmir and Hazara as equivalent to one crore of rupees.
5. The army of Lahore Darbar was reduced to 20,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry.
6. The Maharaja agreed to disband the mutinous troops of the Lahore army.
7. Whenever the need arose, the British army could pass through the Lahore Raj without any check.
8. The Maharaja committed that he would not employ any Britisher, European or American without the consent of the British Government.
9. The British Government recognized Dalip Singh the Maharaja of Lahore, Rani Jindan as the regent of the Maharaja, and Lai Singh, as the Prime Minister.
10. The British Government would not interfere in the internal matters of the Lahore Darbar, but when approached it would simply advise.
11. The Lahore Government would not change its boundaries without the concurrence of the British Government.

Supplementary Treaty:

Two days after the treaty of Lahore i.e. on 11th March 1846 A.D., some supplementary treaty was added to this treaty. The main terms of the supplementary treaty were as given ahead :

1. For the protection of the Maharaja and citizens of Lahore, an adequate British army would stay at Lahore till the end of 1846 A.D.
2. The fort and the city of Lahore would be completely under the control of the British army. The Lahore Government would arrange for and bear the expenses of the accommodation of the soldiers.
3. Both the Governments would soon appoint their Commissioners to fix the boundaries between the two States.
Treaty of Bhairowal

The British Government signed a new treaty with the Lahore Darbar on 16th December 1846 A.D. This treaty is known as the treaty of Bhairowal in history. The main terms of this treaty were as follows :

1. The British Government would appoint a British resident to look after all the departments of the Lahore Government.
2. As long as, Maharaja Dalip Singh was minor (i.e. upto 1854 A.D.), the administration of the state would be run by the ‘Council of Regency’ constituted of eight members.
3. The Council of Regency would have to do the administrative work according to the advice of the British Resident.
4. Maharani Jindan was removed from the post of regent and it was decided that she would get annual pension of 1$$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ lakh rupees.
5. For the defence  of the Maharaja and the maintenance of peace in the country, a British contingent would stay at Lahore.
6. If the Governor-General felt the need of the army for the defence of the capital or the maintenance of peace in the country, as per his orders, the British army could establish, its control over any fort or military cantonment of the Lahore Raj.
7. For the expenses of the British army, the Lahore Darbar would pay ₹ 22 lakh per year to the British Government.
8. The conditions of the treaty would continue to be in force till Maharaja Dalip Singh attained the age of 16 years i.e. upto 4th September, 1854 A.D.

It is true that although through the treaties of Lahore and Bhairowal the British did not seize Punjab, yet its autonomy was lost to a large extent. In fact, Sikh kingdom became a virtual British protectorate. Dr. G.S. Chhabra aptly says, “The treaty of Bhairowal thus rang the deathknell of the Sikh power and it made the British the real masters of the Punjab.”

Short Answer Type Questions:
Or
Give the causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
Mention any three main causes of First Anglo-Sikh War.

• The British had been following the policy of encirclement of Punjab.
• After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh anarchy prevailed in the Punjab,
• The British had suffered a humiliating defeat in their first war against Afghanistan. So they wanted to retrieve their honour by conquering Punjab,
• The Sikh leaders like Lai Singh and Teja Singh wanted to engage the Khalsa army in a conflict against the British so as to make their own position strong,
• The appointment of Major Broadfoot in 1844 A.D. inflammed the atmosphere to a great extent.

Question 2.
Write a brief note on the battle of Mudki.
The first important battle between the Sikhs and the British was fought at Mudki on December 18, 1845 A.D. In this battle, Sikh soldiers were commanded by Lai Singh. On the other hand? the British soldiers were commanded by Hugh Gough. The British thought that they would defeat the Sikhs very easily, but the Sikhs launched such a forceful attack on the British army that it created consternation among them. Lai Singh fled away from the battlefield. The Sikhs were ultimately defeated.

Question 3.
What do you know about the battle of Ferozshah or Pherushahr?
A fierce battle took place between the Sikhs and the British at Ferozshah on December 21, 1845 A.D. Their command was in the hands of experienced generals like Hugh Gough, John Littler and Lord Hardinge. The Sikh army was led by traitors like Lai Singh and Teja Singh. Due to the treachery of Lai Singh and Teja Singh the Sikh forces were defeated.

Question 4.
Write a brief note on the battle of Sobraon.
The battle of Sobraon was the last decisive battle of the First Anglo-Sikh War. It was fought on February 10, 1846 A.D. The famous generals like Hugh Gough, Lord Hardinge and other were commanding the British forces. On the other hand Lai Singh and Teja Singh were commanding the Sikh army. Sham Singh Attariwala fought bravely and pushed the British hard. Ultimately the Sikhs were defeated and suffered heavy casualties.

Question 5.
Write a brief note on the Treaty of Lahore
Or
What do you know about the Treaty of Lahore?

• Maharaja Dalip Singh and his successors would always maintain peace and friendship with the British government,
• The Maharaja of Lahore accepted that he and his successors would have no claim on the region to the south of Sutlej river forever.
• The Maharaja handed over all the forts of plains and hills between the Sutlej and the Beas to the British
• The British demanded a heavy amount of 1.50 crore rupees as ransom for the war.
• The British accepted Maharaja Dalip Singh as the ruler of Lahore, Maharani Jindan as the regent of Maharaja Dalip Singh and Lai Singh as the Prime Minister.

Question 6.
What do you know about the Treaty of Bhairowal?
Or
Write a short note on the Treaty of Bhairowal.
The Treaty of Bhairowal was signed between Lahore Darbar and the British Government on December 16, 1846 A.D. According to it, a British Resident was appointed to run the administration of Lahore Darbar. Maharani Jindan was removed from the post of regent and her annual pension of Rs.1$$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ lakh was fixed. An eight member council was formed for the help of British Resident. It was decided to keep a British army for the protection of the Maharaja and to maintain peace and order.

Question 7.
Study in brief the results of First Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
Give in brief the results of First Anglo-Sikh War.
Or
What were the results of the First Anglo-Sikh War?

• The Maharaja of Lahore renounced all claim to the areas lying to the south of river Sutlej,
• The Maharaja handed over to the British the area between the river Sutlej and Beas.
• The British Government demanded a heavy sum of 1.50 crore rupees as war indemnity,
• The Maharaja committed that he would not employ any foreigner without the consent of the British Government,
• The British Government recognised Dalip Singh as the Maharaja of Lahore and Maharani Jindan as his regent.

Question 8.
Write a brief note on Sham Singh Attariwala.
Sham Singh Attariwala was a great warrior of the Sikhs. At a very young age of 18, Attariwala joined Maharaja’s army. The First Anglo-Sikh war broke out in 1845 A.D. Sham Singh Attariwala actively participated in battle of Sobraon. Unfortunately, the commanding officers of the Sikh army proved traitors. At this critical juncture Sham Singh Attariwala took over the command and pushed the British hard. At last, Sham Singh Attariwala achieved martyrdom while fighting in the battle.

Question 9.
Describe any five reasons as to why the British did not annex Punjab to their empire after the First Anglo-Sikh War.

• If they had declared the annexation of the Punjab to the British Empire, it could have become a headache for the British,
• The British wanted that Punjab should act as a buffer state between the British Empire and Afghanistan,
• The British had to keep a vast British army to keep Punjab under their control. It would have tremendously increased their expenses.
• The Governor- General thought that Punjab could not prove useful for the British from the economic point of view.
• He considered the Punjab a source of trouble in place of a source of power.

Question 10.
Mention five causes of the Sikhs’ defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War.

• The first major cause of the defeat of the Sikhs in the First Anglo- Sikh War was the treachery of Lai Singh and Teja Singh,
• The European officers in the Sikh army aligned themselves secretly with the British.
• The British had good resources than the Sikhs,
• The British generals had good experience of War.
• The British belonged to the greatest imperialist power of the world.

Objective Type Questions:

Question 1.
Whose son was Maharaja Dalip Singh?
Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Question 2.
For how long did Maharaja Dalip Singh rule over the Punjab?
From Sept. 15, 1843 to Mar. 29, 1849 A.D.

Question 3.
Who was the Maharaja of Punjab during the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars?
Maharaja Dalip Singh.

Question 4.
Who was Lai Singh?
Prime Minister of Lahore.

Question 5.
Who was Teja Singh?
Teja Singh was Commander of the Sikh Army.

Question 6.
When was First Anglo-Sikh War fought?
Or
When did the First Anglo-Sikh War happened?
1845-46 A.D.

Question 7.
Who was the Governor-General of India during the First Anglo- Sikh War?
Lord Hardinge.

Question 8.
Name any one cause responsible for the First-Anglo Sikh War.
The English had started encircling the Punjab on all sides.

Question 9.
When was the battle of Mudki fought?
Dec. 18, 1845 A.D.

Question 10.
When was the battle of Ferozeshah or Ferushahr fought?
December 21, 1845 A.D.

Question 11.
When was the battle of Baddowal fought?
21 1st January, 1846 A.D.

Question 12.
When was the battle of Aliwal fought?
28th January, 1846 A.D.

Question 13.
When was the battle of Sobraon fought?
February 10, 1846 A.D.

Question 14.
Which Sikh General got martyred fighting bravely in the battle of Sobraon?
Sham Singh Atariwala.

Question 15.
With which battle did the First Anglo-Sikh War end?
Battle of Sobraon.

Question 16.
Who was defeated in First Anglo-Sikh War?
The Sikhs.

Question 17.
With which treaty did the First-Anglo Sikh War come to an end?
Treaty of Lahore.

Question 18.
When was the Treaty of Lahore signed between the English and the Sikhs?
On March 9, 1846 A.D.

Question 19.
When did the Treaty of Bhairowal take place?
On December 16, 1846 A.D.

Question 20.
Mention any one important clause of the Treaty of Bhairowal.
A British Resident was to look after all the departments of the Lahore Darbar.

Question 21.
To whom did the English hand over Kashmir after the First Anglo-Sikh War?
Gulab Singh.

Question 22.
Mention any one cause of the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo- Sikh War.
Or
Give the main reason for the defeat of the Sikhs in the First Anglo- Sikh War.
The leaders of the Sikhs were traitors.

Fill in the blanks:

1. In 1839 A.D. after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh ……………… became the ruler of Punjab.
Maharaja Kharak Singh

2. In …………… the British bought Sind under their control.
1843 A.D.

3. The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought in ……………..
1845-46 A.D.

4. …………… was the Maharaja of the Punjab during the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Maharaja Dalip Singh

5. During the First Anglo-Sikh War. the commander of the Sikh Army was ……………..
Teja Singh

6. …………….. was the Prime Minister of Lahore Darbar during the First Anglo-Sikh war.
Lai Singh

7. ……………. was the Supreme commander of the English forces during First Anglo-Sikh War.
Lord Hugh Gough

8. The battle of Mudki was fought on …………….
Dec. 18, 1845 A.D.

9. The battle of Ferozeshah was fought on ……………..
December 21, 1845 A.D.

10. The battle of Sobraon was fought on ……………
February 10, 1846 A.D.

11. The First Anglo-Sikh War ended with the battle of ……………..
Sobraon

12. The First Anglo-Sikh War ended with the Treaty of ……………
Lahore

13. The Treaty of Bhairowal took place on ………………
December 16, 1846 A.D.

True or False:

1. The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought in 1947 A.D.
False

2. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the Maharaja of Punjab during the First Anglo- Sikh War.
False

3. Lord Hardings became the Governor General after Ellenbrough.
True

4. Lord Hugh Gough was the Commander-in-Chief of the English forces during the First Anglo-Sikh war.
True

5. Teja Singh was Commander-in-Chief of the Sikh Army during the First Anglo-Sikh war.
True

6. Lai Singh was the Prime Minister of Lahore Darbar during the First Anglo- Sikh war.
True

7. The battle of Mudki was fought on Dec. 21, 1845 A.D.
False

8. The battle of Ferozeshah was fought on Dec. 21, 1845 A.D.
True

9. The battle of Aliwal was fought on January 28, 1846 A.D.
False

10. Harry Smith was the Commander of the British army in the battle of Aliwal.
True

11. The battle of Sobraon was fought on February 10, 1846 A.D.
True

12. The Sikhs won the battle of Sobraon.
False

13. The First Anglo-Sikh War ended with the Treaty of Bhairowal.
False

14. The Treaty of Lahore took place between the British Government and the Lahore Darbar on March 9, 1846 A.D.
True

15. The Treaty of Bhairowal between the Sikhs and the English took place on December 16, 1846 A.D.
True

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Who was the king of Punjab at the time of First Anglo-Sikh War?
(a) Maharaja Sher Singh.
(b) Maharaja Dalip Singh
(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh
(d) Maharaja Kharak Singh.
(b) Maharaja Dalip Singh

2. When was the. First Anglo-Sikh War fought?
(a) 1839-40 A.D.
(b) 1841-42 A.D.
(c) 1843-44 A.D.
(d) 1845-46 A.D.
(d) 1845-46 A.D.

3. Who was the Governor General of India during the First Anglo-Sikh War?
(a) Lord Dalhousie
(b) Lord Hardinge
(c) Lord Ripon
(d) Lord Dufferin.
(b) Lord Hardinge

4. The designation of Lai Singh in Lahore Darbar was :
(a) Foreign Minister
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Chief Commander
(d) Diwan.
(b) Prime Minister

5. When did the English occupy Sind?
(a) 1842 A.D.
(b) 1843 A.D.
(c) 1844 A.D.
(d) 1845 A.D.
(b) 1843 A.D.

6. When did Governor General Lord Harding declared the war against the Sikhs?
(a) 1848 A.D.
(b) 1849 A.D.
(c) 1865 A.D.
(d) 1845 A.D.
(d) 1845 A.D.

7. Who was the supreme Commander-in-Chief of the English forces during the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars?
(a) Lord Hugh Gough
(b) Lord Dufferin
(d) Robert Cust.
(a) Lord Hugh Gough

8. When was the battle of Mudki fought?
(a) December 12, 1844 A.D.
(b) December 12, 1845 A.D.
(c) December 18, 1845 A.D.
(d) December 18, 1846 A.D.
(c) December 18, 1845 A.D.

9. When was the battle of Ferozeshah fought?
(a) December 18, 1845 A.D.
(b) December 19, 1845 A.D.
(c) December 20, 1845 A.D.
(d) December 21, 1845 A.D.
(d) December 21, 1845 A.D.

10. When was the battle of Sobraon fought?
(a) December 21, 1845 A.D.
(b) February 10, 1846 A.D.
(c) February 15, 1846 A.D.
(d) February 10, 1847 A.D.
(b) February 10, 1846 A.D.

11. With which treaty did the First Anglo-Sikh War come to an end?
(a) Treaty of Lahore
(b) Treaty of Amritsar
(c) Treaty of Bhairowal
(d) Tripartite Treaty.
(a) Treaty of Lahore

12. When did Treaty of Lahore take place?,
(a) February 10, 1845 A.D.
(b) February 10, 1846 A.D.
(c) March 7, 1846 A.D.
(d) March 9, 1846 A.D.
(d) March 9, 1846 A.D.

13. After the First Anglo-Sikh War, to whom was Kashmir given by the English?
(a) Gulab Singh
(b) Dhian Singh
(c) Hira Singh
(d) Hari Singh.